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Notes and Queries, Jan. 29, 1910. 




When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Notes and Queries, Jan. 29, 1910. 





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"When found, make a note of. 1 ' CAPTAIN CUTTLK 

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10 s. xii. JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 288. 

NOTES : Miller Bibliography, 1 Hussey of Slinfold, 3 
Francesco Casanova the Painter, 4 " Bombay Duck," 5 
Chaucer's Allusions to Persius-Dolma Bagcha, Constan- 
tinople "Yamuyle," a Victual John Angel or Anger 
Lord Althorp in the House of Commons, 6 "Bring," 
Archaic Use Dark Boom in Photography Robinson 
Crusoe's Literary Descendants, 7. . 

^QUERIES : Sir Francis Bacon on Tasting Robert 
Agassiz Herrick on the Yew, 7 Coleridge's Lectures on 
Shakespeare Authors of Quotations Wanted The 
Derby and the Weather Duels between Women The 
Duke of York and Miss Flood Munro of Novar 
Henry V.'s Corpse Rev. Jonathan Clapham, 8 Robert 
Newman, Engraver Derivation of Butterworth Benja- 
min Hanbury's Library " Volksbiicher " Astronomy in 
the Middle Ages " Branne and Water" Capt. George 
Farmer, 9' The Sailor's Consolation ' " What the Devil 
said to Noah," 10. 

REPLIES : Words and Phrases in Old American News- 
papers, 10 Seething Lane James Ingram, President of 
Trinity College, Oxford, 11 'Abridgement of Calvin's 
Institution ' Gulix Holland Dr. Johnson's Watch Dr. 
Johnson's Uncle Hanged John Paul or Paul Jones, 12- 
Carlyle and Freemasonry " Governor of the English 
Nation" "All the world and his wife," 13 Green Dragon 
'The Diaboliad ' John Slade, Dorset, 14 Sainte-Beuve 
on Castor and Pollux Margaret of Richmond J. Willme 
Comets " Stick to your tut," 15 The White Hen- 
Hugh Bullock Hangmen who have been Hanged 
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, 16 Derivation oi 
Edinburgh Dew-Ponds, 17 Doctors in London during 
the Plague' If I Only Knew ' T. Truman, Bookseller- 
Prime Minister James Isaacson, M.P. Gainsborough, 
Architect Holbeck Postscript of a Woman's Letter, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Mr. J. C. Francis's ' Notes by the 
Way ' ' Authors' and Printers' Dictionary 'Wilson's 
'Art of Rhetorique.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


UNDERNEATH will be found a bibliography 
and notes of two Scottish publishers : ( 1 ) 
George Miller of Dunbar, 1771-1835, and 
<2) his son James Miller of Haddington, 
1791-1865. Neither of these is mentioned 
in the ' Dictionary of National Biography.' 
They were pioneers of popular literature in 
publishing very early in the nineteenth 
century The Cheap Magazine, which was 
issued at the price of fourpence some 
twenty years before Chambers' 's Journal 
was started, and had a circulation not 
confined to Scotland, and averaging 
from 12,000 to 20,000 copies a month. 
Their line is represented in the publishing 
world of to-day by Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 
whose grandmother was a Miller of the 
same family. Many of the details here 
given are derived from Mr. Unwin' s own 

James Miller (born 20 March. 1725 ; died 
27 June, 1789), the father of George, was 
** a general merchant," or " grocer," in Dun- 

bar. Besides this, he managed a book- 
selling business with the help of his son 
George, who was apprenticed to him in 
1788 ; but the father died before the appren- 
ticeship was out. The bookselling business 
began with James Miller, who was a brother 
of Mr. Unwin' s great-grandfather. 

George Miller (born 14 Jan., 1771 ; died 
26 July, 1835) was a general merchant and 
bookseller in Dunbar, having inherited both 
businesses from his father ; he was one of 
the pioneers in Scotland of cheap and in- 
structive literature. He established a cir- 
culating library at Dunbar in 1789, and 
started there in 1795 the first East Lothian 
press, which was removed to Haddington 
about 1804. " He appears to have con- 
tinuously resided at Dunbar, which was 
still frequently used as his imprint." The 
name of the firm was J. & G. Miller. 

(Authorities. MS. ' Notes on the Miller 
Family,' by F. M. Gladstone, and 'Biblio- 
graphy of Works relating to Dunfermline 
and W. of Fife,' by Erskine Beveridge, 1901, 
p. xvii.) 

James Miller (born 21 Dec., 1791 ; died 
23 May, 1865), printer and author, was the 
eldest son of George, as already stated. 
His first training was in a writer's office 
in Dunbar, from which he was taken by his 
father to superintend the printing business, 
now transferred to Haddington. He began 
to write while still at school, afterwards 
contributed poems to The Cheap Magazine, 
and published much miscellaneous verse 
in later life, besides his prose histories of 
Dunbar and Haddington. The Haddington 
branch of the business succeeded at first, 
and he held, at one time, a seat in the Council 
of the town. But reverses came, and he 
gave way to intemperance. The drink 
habit grew, and overcame him finally, and 
his last years were passed in great destitu- 
tion. He died in Queensberry House, Edin- 
burgh, having been placed in that institu- 
tion through the kindness of some friends, 
and supported by a small annuity from the 
Literary Fund. James Miller, in his latter 
years, was known in Haddington under the 
sobriquet of " The Lamp." 

(Authorities. MS. ' Notes on the Miller 
Family,' mentioned above, and Thos. 
Cowan's ' Sketch,' prefixed to ' Lamp of 
Lothian,' 1900.) 

I now proceed to give a list of books 
published by the Millers, with dates. 

[1799.] An account of a dreadful hurricane, 
which happened in the Island of Jamaica, in 

the month of October, 1780 And of an awful 

phenomenon called a Tornado, which took 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 3, im 

place, in the parish of Ednam in Berwickshire, 
this present year, 1799. To the great terror of 
the Spectators who beheld its alarming aspect, 
Dunbar : printed for [by] and sold by G. Miller. 

No date. 12mo, 24 pp. No copy in the 

British Museum. 

Pp. 11-14 are damaged by fire. 

[1799 ?] An account of several remarkable 
earthquakes which have happened in various 
quarters of the world ; with the direful conse- 
quences, that have accrued, from those dreadful 
convulsions of nature, occasional shocks of which 
have been felt in Scotland, within these 13 years. 
Two so recently, as the months of January and 
February, 1799. Collected from good Authorities. 

Dunbar : printed for and sold by G. Miller 

No date. 12mo, 24 pp. Not in B.M. 

1800. The world turn'd upside down. To 
which, are added, Tarry Woo, The valiant sailor, 
The colliers bonny Lassie, Bold Sylvia, My love 
is but a Lassie yet. Printed by G. Miller, High 
Street, Dunbar. 1800. 12mo, 8 pp. 

'The World Turn'd Upside Down' was a 
ballad common in London from 1790 on- 
wards. One such version (B.M. 11621. 
k. 5. 427) begins " I am a poor unhappy 
Man," and runs to 8 stanzas. Of the last 
piece by Burns only the first 8 lines are 
printed ! 

1801. [Defoe (Daniel).] The life and most 
surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of 
York, mariner. Who lived eight and twenty 
years in an uninhabited island, on the coast of 
America, near the mouth of the great river 
Oroonoque. including an account of his deliverance 
thence, and his after surprising adventures. With 
his vision of the angelic world. An improved 
edition, illustrated with eight engravings, from 
original designs. To which is annexed, the re- 
markable history of Alexander Selkirk ; who 
lived four years and four months in a state of 
solitude on the Island of Juan Fernandez in the 
Pacific Ocean. Dunbar : printed by, and for, 
G. Miller. 1801. 12mo, 238 pp. B.M. 12614, 
ccc. 22. 

The 8 curious full-page woodcuts are drawn 
and engraved by A. Carse, Edinburgh. 

1803. Cheap Tracts. Calculated to promote 
the interests of religion, virtue, & humanity. 
Vol. I. Dunbar : [printed] published & sold by 
G. Miller. 1803. 12mo. Not in the B.M. 

Tracte 1-10, of 24 pp. each, numbered con- 
secutively, and with separate title-pages. 
The complete series consists of 20 Tracts. 
A list of the 20 titles is given in ' Latter 
Struggles,' 1833, p. 49. 

1806. Goldsmith (Oliver). The Traveller : or, 
s prospect of society. With a beautiful frontis- 
piece cut on wood by Bewick. Haddington : 

printed by and for G. Miller. 1806. 12mo, 
viii + 30 pp. Not in B.M. 

Many editions with illustrations by Bewick 
were being published in London at this time. 
This is in original paper covers : " Price 
Six pence." * 

[1809 ?] [Southey (Robert).] The battle of 
Blenheim. To which is added, The happy work- 
man. Haddington : printed by G. Miller & Son, 
booksellers. No date. 12mo, 8 pp. Not in B.M. 
Written in ink after "Blenheim," "by 
Rob fc Southey Esq r ." 

F1809 ?] The miller of Gloucestershire. To- 
which is added, The happy workman. Hadding- 
ton : printed for the booksellers. No date. 
12mo, 8 pp. Not in B.M. 

G. Miller's name does not appear on this 

[1809 ?] The Lothian lassie. To which are 
added, My Name O. Tink a tink. The banks 

of Doon. * Haddington : printed by G. Miller 

No date. 12mo, 8 pp. Not in B.M. 
The second and fourth pieces aie by Burns, 
' The Banks of Doon ' being largely altered 
from the received versions. ' My Name O ' 
has the original word " Stinchar " in place 
of the more common " Lugar." 

[1810 ?] The battle of Talavera ; or, the 
solider's threnody. Haddington: printed by 

G. Miller No date. 12mo, 8 pp. Not in 


" The Battle of Talavera, a poem [by J. W, 
Croker]. Sixth edition corrected with some- 
additions," 8vo, was published in London 
in 1810 (B.M. 1465. h. 13. (9).) Talavera 
was fought 27-8 July, 1809. This is pro- 
bably a contemporary piece. 

1813-14. The Cheap Magazine, a work o f 
humble import ; yet claiming the attention of 
all ranks, as having for its object the Prevention) 
of Crimes, and being calculated to ensure the 

Seace, comfort and security of society r by allur- 
ig the young and thoughtless to a taste for read- 
ing subjects of real utility .... consisting of original 
communications and select extracts .... Hadding- 
ton : printed and published by George Miller and 
Son, 1813-14. 2 vols. 8vo. Vol. I. (Nos. l-13)j 
viii+616 pp. Vol. II. (Nos. 1-13) iv+620 pp. 

See ' The Lamp of Lothian,' 1844, p. 525 : 
" This publication, which was followed by The- 
Monthly Monitor, was rather of an instructive 
than literary nature ; both were written chiefly 
by the publisher himself and Mrs. Grant of 

Facsimiles of title-page, and p. 81, vol. i. 
are given by Mr. Chas. E. Green in his '.East 
Lothian,' Edinb. and Lond., 1907, pp. 41 
and 43. The Cheap Magazine appears to- 
have been popularly known as The Cheapy, 
and is so referred to by Mr. J. M. Barrie im 
1 A Window in Thrums.' 

1813. The Cheap Magazine Haddington. . . . 

1813. Vol. I. (Second Copy.) 

1815. The Monthly Monitor and philanthropic 
museum : being a cheap repository for hints, 
suggestions, facts, and discoveries, interesting 
to humanity ; and for papers of every description, 
having a tendency to prevent the commission 
of crimes, counteract the baneful effects of per- 
nicious sentiments and bad example ; encourage- 

10 s. XIL JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

a spirit of industry, economy and frugality among 
the middling and laborious classes ; and promote 
the religious, moral, intellectual, and physical 
condition of man.... Vol. I. Haddington: 
printed and published by George Miller and son. 
1815. 12mo, viii+352 pp. 

Nos. 1-6 Jan. to June, 1815. This publica- 
tion is a continuation of The Cheap Magazine. 

1815. The Monthly Monitor and philanthropic 
museum .... Vol. I. Nos. 3-6. March June, 
1815. pp. viii, 121-352. Vol. II. No. 1. July, 
1815. pp. 1-60. 

Title-page to vol. i. only. 

[1815.] The traveller's guide to Madeira and 
the West Indies ; being a hieroglyphic representa- 
tion of appearances and incidents during a voyage 
out and homewards, in a series of engravings from 
original drawings taken on the spot, &c. wherein 
is exhibited an exact delineation of the principal 
objects on the passage : with a treatise explana- 
tory of the various figures .... To which are added 
occasional notes, &c. by a young traveller. Had- 
dington : printed by G. Miller and Son, for G. 

Miller, Dunbar, No date. 8vo. With 10 

plates. 120 pp. B.M. 795 e. 43. 

The author's Introduction is dated Jan., 
1815. List of Errata, p. 120, is spelt 
" Eratta." Probably written by George 
Miller, second son of George Miller of Dunbar. 
He was born 10 June, 1794, and was a sailor 
in his earlier years. According to ' Latter 
Struggles,' he wrote the book about Madeira 
on his way to India. See MS. ' Notes on the 
Miller Family,' by F. M. Gladstone. 

[1815.] The traveller's guide to Madeira and 
the West Indies 

Second copy. Title-page torn at top. 

1816. Britain triumphant ! With other poems. 
By an Bast Lothian ploughman. Haddington : 
printed for the author by G. Miller and Son. 1816. 
8vo, iv+44 pp. B.M. 11,633, bbb. 5. 

This book is not in Mr. Unwin's collection : 
the title and description are taken from 
the copy in the Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh. The B.M. copy has unimportant 
MS. notes. T. F. U. 

(To be concluded.) 


THE pedigree of this family in Dallaway's 
* Sussex ' (ii. 355-6) leaves much to be 
desired. Not only is no indication given 
of its origin, or of its connexion if any 
with ^any other of the widespread county 
families of the name, but the earlier gene- 
rations seem to be far from accurately stated. 

Sir Henry Hussey, with whom the pedigree 
commences, and whose parentage is not 
stated, was undoubtedly the first of the 
line at Slinfold, an estate he seemingly 
acquired in marriage with Eleanor, daughter 

and heir of John Bradridge of Slinfold. 
He was M.P. for Horsham 1529-53, and 
received knighthood on 1 Oct., 1547. 
According to Dallaway, he left at his death 
in 1557 two sons, viz. (1) John, who in- 
herited Slinfold and is said to have died 
in 1563, leaving at the least three sons and 
one daughter ; (2) Anthony, M.P. for 
Horsham in 1558. 

The will of Sir John Hussey appears to be 
somewhat at variance with this. It is 
dated 18 Feb., 1554/5, and was proved 
in P.C.C. 27 Sept., 1557. Names his wife 
Dame Bridget ; his brothers John and George 
Hussey ; his wife's two daughters (then un- 
married) Katherine and Alice ; his brother 
(brother-in-law) Michael Appesley (Apsley) ; 
his cousin William Hussey, " son to my 
cousin Anthony Hussey " ; cousin John 
Mychell of Standland. No sons are men- 
tioned by name, but to Dame Bridget his 
wife is left " the wardship of my two sons." 
Said wife executrix. Sir Thomas Palmer,. 
Kt., John Carryl, Mr. Anthony Husee, 
brother John Husee, cousin John Mychell, 

The will of his widow, " Dame Brigitt 
Hussee," dated 23 Sept., 1557, and proved 
in London 2 May, 1558, requests her exe- 
cutors to execute the will of her former 
husband William Ernley. Bequests to her 
son Richard Ernley when 21, son John 
Ernley, and daughters Katherine and Alice ; 
to cousin Anthony Hussee of London, cousin 
Laurence Hussee, sister (-in-law) Katherine 
Apesley, cousin George's eldest son, cousin 
Thomas Mychell of Hillwith, sister Jane 
Moore, and brother (-in-law) John Hussey. 
Cousin George Goring, Lawrence Hussey, 
George Fennor, and Avery Mychell exe- 
cutors. Richard Fulmerston and Anthony 
Hussey, Esq., overseers. 

Dame Bridget, who is not named by 
Dallaway, was the second wife of Sir Henry. 
She was daughter to Thomas Spring of 
Lavenham, Suffolk. Her first husband,. 
William Ernley of Ernley and Cackham, 
Sussex, died in 1545, and the Ernley Visita- 
tion pedigree shows that he left by his wife 
two sons, Richard and John, and two 
daughters, Katherine and Alice, all of whom 
are mentioned in their mother's will, the 
eldest son being under age. 

With some reserve, I venture to suggest 
that " my two sons " whose wardship Sir 
Henry Hussey left to his wife were not his 
sons by his first wife^ but the two sons of 
that wife by William Ernley. It is highly 
improbable that a son in wardship in 1555 
would in less than eight years afterwards die 

the father of a numerous family ; and still 
more improbable that a son younger still 
would three years later be old enough for 
Parliamentary honours. In that case Sir 
Henry Hussey would die s.p., his heir pro- 
bably being not a son John, but his next 
brother of that name, who would thus be the 
actual father of the Slinfold line. 

Katherine Apsley, the sister-in-law named 
in the will of Dame Bridget, was wife of 
Michael Apsley, second son of William 
Apsley of Thackham, Sussex. In the Visita- 
tion Apsley pedigree she is called " daughter 
of - - Hussey of Poynes, Sussex" the 
only indication, and that very obscure, o: 
the parentage of Sir Henry and his brothers 

The will of John Hussey, brother of Sir 
Henry, in which he is described as of Cuck 
field, Sussex, is dated 25 June, 1571, and was 
proved in London in September, 1572 
Names his wife Margaret ; brother George 
sons John, Henry, and Edmund ; daughter 
Ann (under age) ; nephew Michael Appesley 
and brother-in-law Wyman Warde. Desires 
to be buried in Cuckfield Church. 

His wife Margaret was daughter of Ed- 
ward Apsley, and sister of Michael Apsley, 
who married Katherine, sister to Sir Henry 
Hussey. There was thus a twofold marriage 
connexion between the families. I have 
not been able to follow the descendants of 
John Hussey of Cuckfield : so far as appears, 
they do not seem to agree with the descend- 
ants of John, the alleged son of Sir Henry 
Hussey, as given by Dallaway. 

The will of Anthony Hussey of London 
is dated 12 Jan., 1557, and was proved 
31 Oct., 1560. In it he bears the curious 
description of " Governor of the English 
nation " (by which, there is little doubt, 
is intended Governor of the company of 
English merchants at Antwerp) and agent 
in Flanders. He appoints his " well- 
approved friends" Master Thomas Lodge, 
Alderman of London, and Benjamin Gunson, 
Esq., executors "for a quyet to be had 
between my wife and my children." " To 
his well-beloved wife Katherine Hussey his 
Mansion House in the West End of Pater- 
-noster Row." Bequest to his son Laurence 
Hussey : reversion of house in Paternoster 
Row to the children of his daughter Ursula, 
jyife of Benjamin Gunson. " Plate, &c., 
which the Marques of Barrow [?] gave me," 
to 'my son Gunson and my daughter his 
" To John Insente [?] 20Z. in money 
and the jointe patente of myne office in 
Powles, willing hym to binde upp in due 
form the register of the late Archbushop 
Cranmer, together with all books, &c , for 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 3, im 

the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury." "My 
adventure in Russia" to be divided into 
three parts for wife and son. To his brother 
( ? wife's brother) Godman's children ' one 
soveraigne of thre angels apeece." His 
advowson in Salisbury to Anthome Hobbie, 
" whom Sir Andrew Judd, Knight, knoweth. 
Bequests of a ring "to my good friend Sir 
John Tregonwell, Knight ": to the Dean 
of Canterbury and York " that gilt pot with 
the Rose which Master Alderman Chester 
gave me " ; and a diamond "to my special 
good ladie Dame Blanche fforman, widow.' 

There is little doubt that this Anthony 
Hussey is the cousin Anthony of London 
named in the wills of Sir Henry Hussey 
and his widow Dame Bridget. He was 
M.P. forHorsham in 1553, and for Shoreham 
in 1558, and is frequently mentioned in the 
State Papers of the period. Dallaway wrongly 
calls him the second son of Sir Henry. 

The two brief Hussey pedigrees in the 
Harleian Society's ' Visitation of London ' 
(i. 407) are of no assistance in un- 
ravelling the earlier generations, inasmuch 
as both lines derive from younger sons who 
are not named by Dallaway. 

W. D. PINK. 
Lowton, Newton-le-Willows. 

[See 10 S. xi. 428, and post, p. 13.] 


IN the ' Memoires de Jacques Casanova ' 
his brother Fran9ois, " celebre peintre de 
batailles," is mentioned frequently (I take 
the Paris edition, Garnier Freres, for my 

Vol. i. p. 22, it is recorded that he was 
born in 1727, and was established at Vienna 
in or about 1783. He passed four years at 
Dresden. He left there in 1752, and went 
to Paris, after copying at Dresden all the 
beautiful battle pictures of the " galerie 
electorale." Jacques, having met his 
brother Francois in Paris, offered to use his 
influence with his great acquaintances in 
order that Fra^ois might be received into 
the Academie. This offer Frangois refused, 
confessing that a former rejection by the 
Acad&nie had been quite right, but adding 
that " to-day," counting on the appreciation 
of talent by the French, he looked for a 
better reception (iii. 373). 

He was received by the Academie de 
Peinture by acclamation, after exhibiting at 
the Louvre a battle-piece which the Aca- 
demie bought for 500 louis (or, p. 373, 12,000 
rancs). M. de Sanci, treasurer of the 
administration of the revenues of the clergy, 
regarding himself as under an obligation to 

10 s. XIL JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the painter, got him many commissions, 
thus paving the way to his great fortune and 
reputation (iii. 373, 486). 

In The Gentleman's Magazine for May, 
1767 (xxxvii. 199, numbered by mistake 239, 
nt seq. ), are "some Remarks from two different 
Quarters " on some of the pictures " ex- 
hibited in Pall-Mall." Both connoisseurs 
"pretend to select the best." On p. 199 
is the following : 

"Mr. Cassanova [sic], Bond Street, No. 60. This 
picture shows great strength of genius ; the light 
and shadow finely managed ; and was the drawing 
a little more correct, it might be deemed a painting 
of the first class. The other is more tame and 
cold, though his sky and some of the rocks are 
very grand, and worthy the attention of landscape- 

This is the criticism of "A Lover of the 


Then follows that of " M. H." : 

"Mr. Cassanova. His battle-piece is a noble 

design, and painted with wonderful spirit and fire. 

The march over the Alps is also a prodigious fine 

picture ; I believe him to be the first painter in 

this way in Europe." 

No. 60 is apparently the number of one or 
both of the pictures. 

It appears probable that this Mr. Cassanova 
was Franyois Casanova, though Bryan's 
' Dictionary of Painters and Engravers,' 
edited by R. E. Graves, does not say that 
he ever visited England. .Neither is there 
any mention of such a visit in the ' Bio- 
graphie Universelle.' 

Frangois Casanova was a painter of 
battle-pieces, and, according to the ' Bio- 
graphie Universelle,' his drawing was faulty, 
at all events when he was young. This is the 
complaint made by " A Lover of the Arts," 
as noted above, concerning Mr. Cassanova ; 
and a similar one appears at greater length 
in the criticism made by Jacques Casanova 
as to his brother's paintings. 

According to the ' Fragments des Memoires 
du Prince de Ligne' ('Memoires de J. 
Casanova,' Paris edition, viii. 459), Jacques, 
conversing with Catherine II. of Russia, 
on meeting her for the first time in the 
Empress's summer garden at St. Petersburg, 
being asked by her whether he was not 
the brother of the painter, asked her how 
she knew that dauber (barbouilleur). The 
Empress replied that she valued him as a 
man of genius. Upon that Casanova said : 
" Oui, madame, du feu plutot, du coloris, 
de 1'effet et quelque belle ordonnance ; 
mais le dessin et le fini ne sont pas son 
fort." The Prince de Ligne considered this 
a just criticism. The above is omitted in 
the Brussels edition. 

" Du feu " resembles closely M. H.'s 
phrase " with wonderful spirit and fire." 

As I am quoting mainly from the ' Me- 
moires de J. Casanova,' I use the French 
versions of the names Giacomo and Fran- 



"BOMBAY DUCK." In a letter to The 
Times of 4 June Sir George Birdwood 
suggests a new explanation of this phrase, 
viz., that it is a corruption of " Bombay 
dog," the reason he gives being that " the 
literary Indian (Telegu) names for the fish 
are kukka-mutti i.e., ' dog [literally " the 
barker "] pilchard,' and kukka-savara i.e., 
' dog-snake,' " ; and he adds that "it is 
so called from its stealthy and deadly mode 
of attacking the other fishes which this 
depraved and degraded looking little mon- 
ster makes its daily prey." In a letter to 
The Times of 5 June Mr. A. L. Mayhew 
showed the untenability of some of Sir 
George Birdwood' s arguments in support 
of this very far-fetched derivation, and 
said : 

"I believe that the phrase 'Bombay Duck' may 
be explained in the same manner as the phrase 
'Oxford Hare' and 'Welsh Rabbit.' My con- 
tention is that ' Bombay Duck ' is simply a playful 
phrase, requiring no arduous philological research." 

Not only do I agree entirely with Mr. 
Mayhew, but I can, I think, set at rest, 
once for all, any doubt in the matter. In 
'A Voyage to India' (published 1820) the 
Rev. James Cordiner describes his first 
impressions of Bombay, where he arrived 
from England on 19 May, 1798, and on 
p. 67 says : 

" This place is likewise remarkable for an excel- 
lent small fish called bumbdo. It is something of 
the nature of a sand eel, but softer, and of a 
superior flavour, about a foot in length, and of the 
thickness of a man's finger. When fried, in its 
fresh state, it is of the consistence of a strong jelly, 
and more delicate than a w r hiting : it is, however, 
most commonly eaten after being dried, in which 
state a great quantity of these fishes is exported ; 
they afford an excellent seasoning to boiled rice, 
which always forms a dish at breakfast, and receives 
from them a most agreeable relish. The sailors, by 
way of joke, call them Bombay Ducks" 

This gives us an example of the literary 
use of the phrase sixty years earlier than 
the earliest in ' Hobson-Jobson ' and the 
' N.E.D.' and proves that the descriptive 
appellation for the dried fish was in common 
use before the end of the eighteenth century. 
I have not the least doubt that Cordiner [is 
right in attributing the name " Bombay 
duck " to sailors, to whom we are indebted 
for not a few facetiae in nomenclature. 


I feel doubtful, however, regarding tin 
origin of the name " ducks " as descriptivi 
of Bombay soldiers or civilians (the ' N.E.D. 
and Yule differ as to which is meant). Wer< 
the Bombay men so called from the popula 
name of the fish, or from the fact (if it be 
a fact) that they wore clothes ( ? trousers 
of duck ? The * N.E.D.' I notice, favour 
neither of these derivations, but implie 
that the soldiers of the Bombay Presidenc 
got their name from the bird. Perhap 
some reader of * N". & Q.' can solve this 

Returning to the dried fish, I may men 
tion that in Ceylon it is called by the Sin 
halese bombili, but I suspect that this name 
was introduced into the island with the 
condiment, which has a large sale there. 

In ' The Canterbury Tales,' F 721, occur; 
the line 

I sleep never on the mount of Pernaso, 
which (as we learn from a side-note in the 
Ellesmere MS.) was suggested by 1. 2 of the 
prologue to the Satires of Persius, viz., 
Neque in bicipiti somniasse Parnasso Memini, &c. 

I now find that Chaucer was indebted t 
another passage in the same very short 
prologue for the remarkable form " Pegasee " 
(for Pegaseus), which occurs in ' The Squire's 
Tale,' F 207. Here another marginal note 
in the same MS. has equus Pegaseus. I 
have noted (Chaucer's * Works,' v. 376) that 
Chaucer was thinking of the adjectival form 
Pegasew rather than of Pegasus as a sub- 
stantive. This is not quite right, but very 
nearly so. For a side-note in the Cam- 
bridge MS. Dd. tells us a little more. It 
runs thus: "id est, equus Pegaseus: 
Percius 4to." Here either " 4to " is an 
error for " Hto," or it is short for "quatuor- 
decimo," sc. " versu," as the allusion is 
obviously to 1. 14 of the same prologue, viz., 

Cantare credas Pegaseium nectar ; 
the only allusion (I believe) to Pegasus that 
occurs in Persius, and only twelve lines 
distant from the line quoted above. This 
shows that Chaucer evolved the form 
Pegaseus as a sb. from the adjectival form 
Pegaseius. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

B of this alace has been before the 

morning I counted four entirely different 
orMiographies of this name. The spelling 
at the head of this note I take from an 
excellent authority, Redhouse's ' Turkish 
Lexicon,' 1890. It has the merit, at any 
rate* of being easy to pronounce. Dolma 
Bagcha means " the filled-up little park," 
this part of Constantinople being on the 
site of a former harbour : dolma, filled up ; 
bagcha, a little garden or park. 


" YAMUYLE," A VICTUAL. ' The Brut ; 
or, the Chronicles of England' (E.E.T.S.) has 
at p. 435, dating c. 1480, and referring to 
the siege of Orleans : " vij M : of Frensshe 
men fill vpon oure men as they went toward 
the Toune with vitaill that is called yam- 
uyle" This can hardly be other than the 
French gamelle (Lat. cametta), a military 
term for a mess bowl, or platter ; hence the 
mess itself. H. P. L. 

4 Obituary ' there are two entries, John 
Anger and John Angel, under date 25 Jan., 
1751, The London Magazine has both of 
them in its list of deaths. The Gentleman's 
Magazine has only that referring to John 
Anger. John Anger is described in both 
as a proprietor of lighthouses in the North 
for the conveniency of shipping ; John 
Angel as in the commission of peace for 
Surrey. John Anger is a myth. John 
Angel was the proprietor of the lighthouses 
in the North, as will be seen by a reference 
to his will, proved (P.C.C. Busby 68) 
1 March, 1751, as follows : 

"I do hereby give devise and bequeath unto my 
good friends and executors Mr. Robert Alsop one 

?-# ie ld ? ri V, en * ?? the Cit Y of London Mr. 
William Cockell of Blackwell Hall London Factor 
and Mr. Nicholas Spencer of the Parish of St. 
Margaret Westminster in the County of Middlesex 
Sadler and their heirs all that my Lighthouse or 
Lights erected and built upon a piece of ground 
situate lying and being on the Spurne Point or 
Head at the Mouth of the River Humber in the 
County of York." 

Owing to a printer's or possibly clerical 
error, Gent. Mag. makes Angel read Anger, 
and this, being copied by the London, has 
been perpetuated in Musgrave. M. B. 

MONS IN 1806. In Le Marchant's ' Memoir 
of Viscount Althorp, Earl Spencer ' (p 88) 
t is stated that Althorp, " having been 
obliged to retire from Okehampton when he 
tood for the University " (of Cambridge on 
Pitt's death), "had to seek another seat 
tound one very expeditiously at St. 


Albans." This statement is reproduced in 
the ' D.N.B.' ; but despite these authorities 
it is incorrect. Althorp vacated his seat 
for Okehampton on accepting office as 
s> Lord of the Treasury early in February : 
the poll for Cambridge took place on 7 Feb. ; 
the new writ for Okehampton was ordered 
on that day, and Althorp was re-elected for 
his old constituency on 15 Feb. He 
never sat for, nor did he ever contest, St. 
Albans. How easily errors are made and 
perpetuated in works of standard authority ! 

" BRING," ARCHAIC USE. I was under 
the impression that the use of this verb in 
the sense of "to take " in certain quarters 
in America, not always of necessity plebeian 
ones, was a mere vulgarism, as in the 
phrase " Bring that letter to the post 
office " ; but I find that Dr. Marcus Hartog, 
an old fellow-student of mine at University 
College, London, in an article (by himself 
and Miss Hayden) on the Irish dialect of 
English in The Fortnightly Review of April 
instances it as a current Irish use having an 
older English origin. I do not find this 
arly use of " to bring " noticed in the 
* N.E.D.,' however, which merely mentions 
the totally dissimilar " bring to," as in 
""to bring her to," i.e., persuade ('Tom 
Jones'); "to bring her to," i.e., revive 
( ' Uncle Tom's Cabin ' ) ; and the nautical 
locution " to bring to a ship," i.e., to cause 
it to stop. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

informed by Mr. Herbert Awdry that 
Henry Fox Talbot, the inventor of the 
method of producing by photography any 
number of prints on paper from a negative 
on glass, resided at Lacock Abbey, and 
that the first dark room used in this process 
c. 1838, was an early English crypt there. 
This fact seems to be of sufficient interest 
for a note. J. T. F. 


ANTS. (See * Crusoe Richard Davis,' 10 S. 
xi. 425.) To this list can be added "The 
Adventures of Philip Quarll, the English 
Hermit, who was discovered by Mr. Dor- 
rington on an Uninhabited Island, where he 
had lived upwards of Fifty Years. London : 
Printed by and for Hodgson & Co., 10, 
Newgate Street. Sixpence." with folding 
hand-coloured frontispiece in compartments 
dated July 22, 1823. This, unlike ' Crusoe 
Richard Davis,' is on the same lines as 

Selkirk's adventures, except that the com- 
panion of his solitude is an ape whose 
" back was a lively green, his face and 
belly a very bright yellow, his coat all over 
shining like burnished gold." The artist 
in the copy before me has painted this 
animal a dark green. With such an oppor- 
tunity for display it is a pity. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

any of your readers give me the exact 
reference for the following statement, which 
is said to have been made by Sir Francis 
Bacon in his ' Natural Philosophy ' : 

"Sir Francis Bacon observes, in his 'Natural 
Philosophy,' that our taste is never pleased better 
than with those things which at first created a 
disgust in it. He gives particular instances, of 
claret, coffee, and other liquors, which the palate 
seldom approves upon the first taste, but, wlien it 
has once got a relish of them, generally retains it 
for life." 

This quotation is first given in an essay by 
Addison in The Spectator, No. 447, for 
Saturday, 2 Aug., 1712, and is to be found 
on pp. 293-4 of vol. vii. of The Spectator 
reprinted in 1817. The title of the essay 
is ' The Influence of Custom.' 


The Lawn, Rock Ferry. 

ROBERT AGASSIZ. Comte Marquiset is 
engaged on a life of the famous French 
actress of the First Republic, Mile. Langes. 
Information is sought as to Mr. Robert 
Agassiz. who is connected with her story, 
and is said to have been a London banker. 
The name is best known in connexion with 
American science, but was originally Swiss. 


Herrick mean by the epithet " crisped 
yew " ? Southey writes of a " wrinkled 
holly," evidently alluding to the edge of 
the leaf. Yew leaves are straight. But 
the general effect of a yew tree, especially 
of some varieties, is often crinkly when 
battered by wind and rain. I am inclined 
to think it is this general effect that struck 
Herrick Milton, too, when he wrote in 
' Comus ' : 

Along the crisped shades arid bowers. 

J. M. L. 


Dykes Campbell, in a foot-note to p. 18 
of his ' Life of Coleridge,' states, in referenc 
to the 1811-12 course of lectures on Shak 
speare, that " more extended reports of t] 
first eight lectures, by a Mr. Tomalin, hav 
recently been discovered, and may yet b 
published." Can any reader of ' N. & Q 
inform me as to the whereabouts of thes 
reports ? J. SHAWCROSS. 


1. The iron dop;s, the fuel, and the toncts, 
The fire-brands, ashes, and the smoke, 
Do all to righteousness provoke. 

2. Monsters of imagination, begotten upon a clone 

of Statistics. (This is before 1860.) 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

I want to obtain some verses which ar 
reported to have appeared in a newspape 
in Australia in 1863-4. The first lines 
were : 

T was the Sabbath day, and the church bells had 

And the time was summer-time. 

Two other lines ran as follows : 
She did not hear what the parson had said, 
But (iod had been speaking to her instead. 

>\ iggie, Redhill. 



friend told me the other day that he had 
generally found that a wet summer followed 
a wet Derby week. Hence he predicted 
that the ensuing summer would be a wet 

I should like to know how far this ex- 
perience accords with that of other meteoro- 

logical observers. 

A. I. 


Country Magazine, xvii. 626, there is a 

storv of a duel between Miss Roach or Le 

Roche afterwards Lady Echlin (see 10 S. 

xi .501) and another lady, who is styled 

the Fair Hibernian." Again, in The 
Carlton House Magazine for August 1792 

fdX^r^x;^i m i 

ago an affair of honour in Hyde Park 
dJ^P^ 018 ' and afterwards with 

^ C O^ L ^ SStt 2 
r n fd Th ^ s^cioT S I 
reference to such an incident in any other 
contemporary publications ? 


FLOOD. In contemporary newspapers it is 
hinted that there was a liaison between a 
sister of Henry Flood, the Irish statesman, 
and Edward, Duke of York, brother of 
George III., who died in September, 1767. 
A secret marriage is also suggested. As the 
matter does not appear to have become 
notorious, it may be a mere journalistic 
canard, but I should be glad to know of any 
reference to the rumour in memoirs of the 

MUNRO OF NOVAR. According to ' Leaves 
from the Note-Books of Lady Dorothy 
Nevill,' the very fine collection of pictures of 
Munro of Novar was sold in order to help 
the Turks, in 1878, by his successor and heir 
the late Mr. Butler Johnston, M.P. I am 
trying to trace the present whereabouts of 
some of the pictures which I know were 
n the collection, and should be glad to 
earn where an annotated sale-catalogue 
can be seen. L. L. K. 

HENRY V.'s CORPSE. For the last week 
or ten days the funeral ceremonies of " such 
a King Harry " have been daily enacted in 
our midst. It is interesting to remember, 
as one thinks of it, that when the original 
event took place the body of the monarch 
was all dismembered in the coffin. In 

L'Annonce et la Reclame' (p. 45) M. 

<Yanklin quotes Juvenal des Ursins (ldit. 
Michaud, t. ii. p. 567), who records : 

"Son corps fut mis 

ieces et bouilly en une 

)aesle, tenement que fa chair se spara des os. 

/eau qui restoit fut jettee en un cimetiere, et les 

s avec la chair furent mis en un coffre de plomb 

vec plusieurs especes d'espices, de drogues 

doriferantes et choses sentant bon." 

I should like to know what the MS. Coll. 
4rms 1st M. 14, /. 29, from which there is 

n excerpt in the ' English Church Pageant. 

:andbook ' (p. 91), says of the embalming. 
Henry V. died at Vincennes in 1422. 


^lapham was instituted Rector of Wramp- 
ingham by the King in 1660. Previously 
he had published three works : a sermon ; 
a vindication of psalm-singing, " with rules 
to direct weak Christians how to sing to 

edification " ; and a ' Discovery of the 

Damnable Doctrines of the Quakers.' 
Little else is known of him. I should be 
glad of any information bearing on his 
parentage and history. 

Was he the same Jonathan Clapham who 
in 1684 published a sermon ' Christian Obedi- 
ence Recommended ' ? ' Obedience to Magis- 

10 s. xii. JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


trates,' a sermon on the same text, Titus 
iii. 1 (1683), is by the British Museum 
Catalogue ascribed in one place to Jonathan 
Clapham, and in another page to John 
Chapman. Replies direct will oblige. 

83, Grange Road, Bradford. 

be very much obliged for any information 
relating to the above. He was born at 
Wincanton, Somerset, in 1768, and I believe 
was of some repute ; but I can find nothing 
further about him, and his name does not 
appear in the ordinary books of reference. 

W. P. D. S. 


any of your contributors kindly inform me 
what is the origin or meaning of this place- 
name ? Butterworth is a part of the borough 
of Rochdale, and from it all people of 
that name more or less claim to spring. 

Col. Fishwick in his ' History of Rochdale,' 
p. 114, gives an ancient spelling or reading 
of the name as " Botterwort." 

Dr. Colby March in his * Rochdale Place- 
Names ' writes that Butterworth, formerly 
Botwerth and Botesworth, 1270, is from 
Norse buthor, the bittern. " Worth " is a 
fenced field or farm (allied to N. garth, A.-S. 

Canon I. Taylor says that in Buttermere, 
Butterhill, and Buttergill we have the N. 
Christian name Buthar. 

Mr. H. Brierley (who was connected 
with Rochdale), in a lecture he gave last 
March at Rochdale, ' On Places and Sur- 
names,' stated as follows : 

" Butterworth was absolutely allied to Roch- 
dale. He never knew any one of that name 
anywhere else who did not claim relationship 
with Rochdale. In the Peninsular War the 
soldiers of that name from Lancashire used to 
say, 'We're all Johnny Butterworth's lads.' 
Butterworth had nothing to do with ' butter.' 
It was often spelt Bot or Bedworth, and in 
Cheshire it was Bud ; originally it was * Bodder,' 
meaning a messenger." 

In support of Mr. Brierley's statement I 
find that Ferguson in his ' Surnames as 
a Science,' at p. 46, gives " Bod, Bud," as 
" envoy," and includes in this section O.G. 
Botthar ; Botterus, Domesday ; Eng. Butter, 

Butterton, a village in Staffordshire on 
the borders of Derbyshire, may be allied 
with Butterworth. W. H. VAUGHAN. 

be glad of any information which might 
help me to find what became of the library 
of Benjamin Hanbury, the Nonconformist 

historian, for thirty years Treasurer of the 
Congregational Union of England and Wales. 
Mr. Hanbury died at 16, Gloucester Villas, 
Brixton, in 1864, leaving all his property 
to his only daughter, Mary Ann. The 
latter was living at Brixton in 1868, but 
not in 1870. I cannot trace when she died, 
nor what became of her father's books. 
Are any relatives now living ? W. J. C. 


G. O. MARBUCH.' ' I have a copy of this very 
interesting publication (Nos. 1-34, 1838-42), 
bound in four volumes. I should like to 
learn whether or not this is a complete set. 
Perhaps some German scholar among your 
readers can give me the desired information. 
Included in the collection are many old-time 
histories and stories, such as ' The Life and 
Death of Dr. Faust,' a metrical version of 
' Reynard the Fox,' some Arthurian tales, 
&c. W. NIXON. 

Byker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Where can an account of the astronomical 
knowledge possessed by the building guilds 
and monks of the Middle Ages be obtained, 
or where may references to such knowledge 
be found ? AGRI. 

WATER. In the villages near when I was 
a child it was a rare event for any one to be 
taken to the " Bastile," as the workhouse 
was then called by every one. It was a 
general opinion, too, that often they were 
put on a " bread-and-water " diet ; why, 
however, none seemed to know. Is there 
any early mention of bread and water as a 
diet for poor persons, other than prisoners ? 
In ' The Old Spelling Shakespeare,' ' Love s 
Labour 's Lost ' (Chatto & Windus, 1907), we 
read : " Ferdinand : ' Sir, I will prononc your 
sentence : you shall fast a weeke, with 
Branne and Water.' ' : On bran and water, 
life would be more intolerable than on bread 
and water. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


CAPT. GEORGE FARMER. (See 6 S. ii. 467, 
522 ; iii. 237 ; 7 S. iv. 409, 473, 537 ; vii. 
158 : 8 S. vi. 365 ; ix. 398.) The subject of 
the portraits of Capt. Farmer and the 
engravings of the well-known naval engage- 
ment which he fought have been dealt with 
at the above references, but I have recently 
acquired two further pictures of the engage- 
ment about which I should be glad of some 
further information. 

1. This is a coloured lithograph of the 
action, and is entitled ' Combat entre la 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 3, im 

Snrveillante et le Quebec, 1783,' and is the 
more interesting in that it is the only one 
from & French source that I have come 
across. It was " Dessine" et lith. par Ferd. 
Perrot," " Publi6 par V or Delarue & Cie, 
Place du Louvre 10," Paris ; and " Imprim6 
par Lemercier a Paris." I shall be glad of 
some information about Ferd. Perrot, and 
to learn where the original of the lithograph 
is to be seen, or was exhibited. The date 
of the engagement was 6 Oct., 1779. 

2. This is a small engraving entitled * The 
Heroism of Capt. Farmer,' and gives one 
the impression that it was once an illustra- 
tion to some book. It is drawn by R. 
Smirke, engraved by T. Tagg, and was 
published 21 April, 1810, by J. Stratford, 
112, Holborn Hill. Can any one tell me 
anything about the original ? If I am 
correct in thinking that it formed an illus- 
tration to a book, in what book did it 
appear ? UBLLAD. 

song written by Charles Dibdin or William 
Pitt ? The first verse is : 

One night came on a hurricane, 
The sea was mountains rollin 
When Barney Buntline slew 
And said to Billy Bowline : 

is quid, 

" A strong nor' wester 's blowing, Bill, 

Hark ! don't ye hear it roar now ! 

Lord help 'em, how I pities them 

Unhappy folks on shore now ! " 
I do not know anything about William Pitt, 
except that he was a dockyard superintend- 
ent in the West Indies and afterwards at 
Malta, and that he died in 1840. 

In ' A Book of Verse for Boys and Girls ' 
published at the Clarendon Press the lines 
are attributed to Charles Dibdin. 



At a meeting of the Church Reform League 

at the Church House, Westminster, on 

8 June the Rev. J. G. McCormick, Vicar of 

St. Paul's, Prince's Park, Liverpool, warned 

Church against laissez-faire by telling 

this story : "I said to the village umpire 

at a cricket match, in referenced the weather, 

t looks as if it 's going to clear up.' ' Ah ! 
replied the umpire, that 's what the Devil 
said to Noah.' I think," commented Mr 
McCormick, the same gentleman is alwavs 
saying that to the Church." 

la "What the Devil said to Noah" a 
current proverbial saying, or was it a 
momentary invention of the umpire ? I 
is not in the ' Dialect Dictionary.' 



(10 S. xi. 469.) 

Brills. This can have nothing to do with 
Brill in Holland. It is the same word as 
>eryl, which in late Latin was written 
jerillus, and came to mean spectacles. 

Buffing. This may be the original form 
of the somewhat difficult word " bluffing." 
At any rate, it has about the same sense. 
To " stand buff," or " buff it," meant to 
make a bold stand on poor backing ; hence 
ubsequently " buffer " came to be a tech- 
lical term for a false witness or " straw 

Diving hooks. " Diving " in eighteenth- 
century slang meant picking pockets. Com- 
pare the twentieth - century equivalent 
' dipping." 

Drawboys. This was a commercial term 
r or what are now called " leading articles." 
These are goods sold at cost to attract 
custom. One furniture dealer, for instance, 
will offer a saddlebag suite as leading line, 
another a bedroom suite. A friend of mine 
set up housekeeping at the lowest figure by 
ng the round of the furniture men and 
ouying nothing but " drawboys." If all 
took this trouble, the custom would soon 
die a natural death. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

MB. R. H. THORNTON asks for proof of the 
early use of " campus " in England in the 
sense of " playing-field." In Act II. sc. i. of 
the play ' How a Man may choose a Good 
Wife from a Bad,' first published in 1602, 
and reprinted in Dodsley's ' Old Plays ' 
(ed. Hazlitt, vol. ix. p. 26), a schoolboy is 
made to say : 

Forsooth my lesson's torn out of my book. 

Truly forsooth 1 laid it in my seat 

While Robin Glade and I went into campis. 

The use is no doubt due to the custom 
of making schoolboys talk Latin. 


" Brills " is defined in Jamieson's ' Scottish 
Dictionary ' as spectacles in general, but 
more strictly double-pointed ones. 

Campus. Mackenzie, ' History of New- 
castle ' (published in 1827), describing a 
disused Dissenters' burying-ground in Percy 
Street in that town, adds : "It now forms 
the Campus Martins of the young gentlemen 
belonging to Mr. Bruce's Academy. The 
gravestones are preserved in the surrounding 
walls." RICH. WELFORD. 

10 s. xii. JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Bible-backed. Hump - backed, round- 
shouldered. In the Tichborne trial the 
following evidence was given : " Was he 
a big lad?" "Yes.... He was humpy 
or bible-backed " (4 S. xii. 227). The allusion 
appears to be to the adaptability of such a 
sloping back, like a lectern, for resting a 
Bible upon it while reading. 

Caly. Would " smooth caly ground " 
perhaps be ground so level as to be suitable 
for playing jthe game of cales (skittles or nine- 
pins) on ? " Kails " are sometimes so spelt. 

Cradley. " To mow corn with a cradle 
scythe." See the art of cradling corn, 
Ellis, ' Mod. Husb.,' 1750, V. ii. (quoted in 
* E.D.D.'). A cradle (in mowing), " Machina 
lignea falci afnxa [ut seges demessa melius 
componatur]," (Elisha Coles's ' Eng. Latin 
Diet.,' 1755. 

Dandles. Coles has to dandle, " indulgeo, 
manibus gestare super genibus agere." 
Hence the hands readily become the 
" dandles." 

Devil's tail. Possibly there is some 
connexion between the part of a printing- 
press so named and the saying " to pull the 
devil by the tail," meaning to go to ruin 
headlong, and to be reduced to one's last 
shift : 

"The immense disproportion between the solid 
assets and the liabilities of the enterprise made 
experienced Parisian financiers say from the first 
that the company was pulling the devil by the tail, 
and a perusal of M. Monchicourt's report must con- 
firm this view." European Mail, 2 Aug., 1890, 
p. 30, col. 2. 

" So fond of spending his money on antiquities 
that he was always pulling the devil by the tail." 
Bentham, ' Works,' x. 25. 

Diving hooks. " Diver " is a slang name 
(or was) for a pickpocket (see ' Dictionary of 
the Canting Crew,' by B. E., Gent.). "Hooks" 
are fingers, and to hook is to steal. In the 
Northamptonshire dialect " hook-fingered " 
is dishonest. 

Drawboy. A boy employed by weavers to 
pull the cords of the harness in figure weaving, 
hence probably a fabric thus woven ; or 
more likely the superior fabrics marked 
at a low price which some shopkeepers 
placed in their windows to attract customers. 
These were called drawboys because they 
were not intended to be sold, but only meant 
as decoys. 

Duke. A Cornish term for a tea-kettle 

Elbow-Room was the nickname of General 
Burgoyne. . When Boston was besieged he 
arrived with reinforcements from England 
and is said to have expressed great astonish 

ment at the garrison allowing themselves to 
be shut up in the town, adding, " But we '11 
soon get elbow room." If a clergyman was 
also called Elbow-Room, then two public 
men living at the same time must have had 
the one nickname. 

Fanny Wright was an Englishwoman. She 
married a Frenchman named D'Arusmont ; 
passed most of her life in America, where 
she was the first advocate of Woman's 
Rights ; and died at Cincinnati in 1852. 
The * D.N.B.' gives a full account of her. 

M. N. G. 

Buffer. See " buffard " in Halliwell's 
and Stratmann's dictionaries. An A. N. 
word of imitative origin. 

Caly. Apparently a form of " callow," 

Dandles. An error for " daddies " ? See 
Halliwell and the ' Slang Dictionary,' and 
cp. " Dalles " in the ' Towneley Mystery 

Drawbacks. Perhaps akin to drawgloves 
(Nares), and the jerk-finger game so popular 
with the gamins of Italy, Malta, &c. 

H. P. L. 

Floreat. The coin inquired about is that 
known as Dublin money, or more commonly 
St. Patrick's halfpenny and farthing. These 
bear on the obverse King David kneeling 
and playing a harp ; a crown above ; legend 
FLOREAT BEX. The reverse has St. Patrick. 
My specimen has a piece of brass inserted 
(the metal of the coin being copper), and 
this is, I believe, a usual characteristic of 
the coin. Dr. Aquilla Smith considers they 
were issued in Dublin between the Restora- 
tion and 1680, when the Regal copper 
coinage was established. A quantity of 
the Irish money was shipped to America. 

8, Prospect Road, Walthamstow. 

SEETHING LANE (10 S. xi. 485). It may 
interest PROF. SKEAT to learn that the 
ancient name of this lane occurs, at least 
once, as " Syfethenlane " in the Husting 
Rolls of the City. I made a note of it some 
years ago, and have just now consulted the 
original Roll to see if the name could be 
read " Syfechenlane " ; but I am bound to 
adhere to the former spelling. 


The Guildhall, B.C. 

COLLEGE, OXFORD (10 S. xi. 429). The 
obituary notice of Dr. Ingram in The Gentle- 
man's Magazine for November, 1850, states 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 3, 1909. 

that he " was placed at Warminster School and best of any others, being never calendered nor 
in 1785, entered a commoner at Winchester whitened with pap, like the others, but imported 
College in 1790, and removed in "^ "~ ' lust as lt comes fro 
to Trinity College, Oxford." I 1 


believe that 

this statement, which the 'D.N.B.' (Joe. 
cit.) reproduces with verbal alterations, is 

Just as it comes from the whitster, and is a yard, 
tj , uarter) and a ha if w ide." 4 A New General English 
Dictionary,' begun by Thomas Dyche, finished by 
William Pardon, 10th ed., Dublin, 1758. 

Juliers (in German Jiilich) is in what 

substantially correct, and that the substitu- now a par t o f Prussia, about 22 miles west 
tion in the ' Index and Epitome' of " West- o f Cologne. In Mcolas Visscher's ' Belgii 
" " " Regii ' ' 

Tabula ' and in Frederic de Wit's 
' Germanise Tabula ' it is called " Gulick," 
in the Juliacensis Ducatus. 

May I point out that " holland " in the 
singular means a certain kind of linen, and 
that " Hollands " (with the s) means clutch 
also refers "Gulix" to 

minster " for " Warminster s an error. 
In 1785 the Rev. Thomas Huntingford, who 
had been a Winchester scholar, was master 
of Warminster School. He died on 18 March, 
1787, and was succeeded, both at the school 
and at the rectory of Corsley, by his elder 
brother George Isaac Huntingford (' D.N.B.' em ? 
cxviii. 306), who had been an assistant [pROFi MooRE SMITH 
master at Winchester since 1776, or perhaps Gulike or Juliers.l 
earlier. G. I. Huntingford returned to 
Winchester upon his appointment as Warden DR. JOHNSON'S WATCH (10 S. xi. 281, 494). 
of the College in December, 1789, and There is no various reading yap, and there 
Ingram was one of his pupils who followed is no "for" in any of the English versions. 
him from Warminster. It is not clear that The insertion therefore must have been a 
Ingram was at Winchester in 1790, as he is slip of memory on the part either of Johnson 
not on the school roll of that year ; but he or (much more probably) of Boswell, 
was certainly there in 1791 and 1792. who states that he saw the dial himself. 

On the deatli of Thomas Huntingford, his Perhaps it still exists. W. T. LYNN. 

widow (Mary) and their children became 
members of G. I. Huntingford's household. DB - JOHNSON'S UNCLE HANGED (10 S. xi. 
The widow was buried in Winchester ^29, 495). I met with another version of 
Cathedral in September, 1814. I should be ^ia, curiously, in a grammar of the Servian 
glad to ascertain her parentage. Her language, by M. E, Muza. Among the 
daughter Charlotte Oliver married in July, reading exercises is a story to the effect that 
1796, Timothy Stonhouse Vigor, Arch- " Dr. Dzonstn," when asking a lady to 
deacon of Gloucester (1804-14), and was m arry him, candidly confessed to her that 
grandmother to George Ridding, the late ne had no money, and that an uncle of his 

Bishop of Southwell 

HO * ? 25T 

,* ~ v i ~ 
elrlv series " 


H. C. 


xomenses ' 

^ orRlchard 

, i. 351, 
rence appears instead of " Lawne." 

W. C. B. 

GULEX HOLLAND (10 S. xi. 470). " Gulix " 
appears in ' The New TCnwliaVi -n;*:~ 

been hanged. Some women would have 
made Johnson feel that he had " perdu un 
bon taisir," as an old French author pic- 
turesquely puts it ; but this one justified 
his confidence by replying that she had no 
more money than he had, and that though 
no member of her family had been hanged, 
there were several who deserved hanging. 
The Servian writer does not state where he 
obtained this anecdote. 


Juhers. The three quotations 
from 1696 to 1880. That of tl 
century has " Guilix." Add : 

" TTrllnr>rl 

Hiana a curious sort of linen 

the manufacture of the provinces ui xionana 

lesland, &c., whence it is named; the principal 

mart or staple of this cloth is Haerlem wSethP??/ 

SaBiSriri?** parts as sSiSSftrfi 

itened, &c. It is wove of various widths r^ 

finenesses according to the purposes intended for* 

ig commonly called Gulix Holland, a 

the *&M&?S^mZ*Zi 

wishes to know whether any 

&ul ' S ^ atureS SUrvive '" and ' 
where they are. In the preface to the 

Memoirs of Rear- Admiral Paul Jones,' 
P ublished at Edinburgh in 1830, we read :- 
the above Papers and documents, the 
een fu ^ished with the letters written 
b - y Pa ^ J ? nes to his relations in Scotland, from the 
,!?-, ^ he was a ship-boy at Whitehaven [i.e. in 
17 ^ 9] ? U he died an Admiral in the Russian Service 
and the wearer of sev eral Orders." 
At i. 13-17 the editor quotes from letters 
dated 22 Sept., 1772, and 5 Aug., 1770. 

io s. XIL JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

The signature to the former is omitted, but 
that to the latter is " John Paul." 

In the same year (1830) there was pub- 
lished at New York the ' Life and Corres- 
pondence of John Paul Jones, including his 
Narrative of the Campaign of the Liman. 
From original Letters and Manuscripts in 
the Possession of Miss Janette Taylor.' In 
his preface the editor (Robert Sands) says : 

"Miss Janette Taylor, a niece of Admiral Jones, 
arrived in this country some months ago, having in 
her possession original copies of all the documents 
which were before the Editor of the biography 
above commented upon \i.e. the Edinburgh 
* Memoirs''], with others which were not." 

At pp. 20-22 of the New York work are 
printed the two letters mentioned above. 
Are they the two letters of which MB. 
ATTON says that he has himself seen the 
signatures ? At p. 31 we read : 

At the time when Paul settled (or more 
T, supposed he meant to settle) in Virginia, 

it would seem that he assumed the additional name 
of Jones. Previous to this date, his letters are 
signed John Paul." 

This statement, coming from Jones's niece, 
and the remarks of the Edinburgh and New 
York editors, indicate that there were once 
in existence many letters signed " John 
Paul." Where such letters are now to be 
found, I regret that I cannot say. 

Boston, U.S. 

CABLILE (10 S. xi. 370, 437), If the price of 
Carlile's ' Freemasonry ' has gone down to 
one shilling, as stated by MB. HEBON- ALLEN, 
it has had another fall, as for some forty 
years the price on the bookstalls has been 

According to ' The English Catalogue,' 
it was issued in 1836, with the notorious 
name of Dugdale as publisher, at five 
shillings. The copy in The National Library 
is of the year 1860 ; they have not the 
original edition, which is probably very 
rare. It was first published in The Repub- 
lican in 1825. 

The ' D.N.B.' has a biography of Carlile, 
signed with the well-known initials G. J. H., 
and nobody else was so well qualified to write 
it. Nevertheless the full name of the 
father, who published a collection of mathe- 
matical questions, should have been given. 
I find from De Morgan's ' Arithmetical 
Books,' 1847, p. 79, that it was Richard. 

Holyoake's article is instructive, though 
it suffers from compression. He was wise 
enough to put the bibliography into other 
hands, so we shall be glad to hear from the 

learned source from which it emanates (a 
contributor to ' N. & Q.') how it is that th& 
' Freemasonry ' is not included. It is 
curious Holyoake should omit all mention of 
this book, which is the only one of Carlile's 
that has survived. RALPH THOMAS. 


(10 S. xi. 428). According to 'Members of 
Parliament : Part I. Parliaments of England, 
1213-1702' (Blue book), the members for 
Shoreham in the Parliament summoned for 
20 Jan., 1557/8, were Anthonius Hussey,. 
armiger, and Ricardus Baker, armiger.. 
These names are taken " from the Crown 
Office List in the absence of Original Re- 
[See ante, p. 4.] 


xi. 490). Anstey, in the ' New Bath Guide,* 
1766, says (p. 130, 4th ed., 1767) : 
You may go to Carlisle's and to Almanac's too ; 
And I '11 give you my Head if you find such a Host,. 
For Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, Butter, or Toast ; 
How he welcomes at once all the World and his 

And how civil to Folk he ne'er saw in his Life ! 

Swift uses the phrase, with a host of other 
colloquialisms, in his * Polite Conversation,' 
the third dialogue, and doubtless it was 
in popular use long before his satirical pen 
noted it. G. L. APPEBSON. 

The phrase was already common by the- 
time Swift wrote his * Polite Conversation.' 
He was engaged on this work in 1731, though 
it was not printed till some years later (Sir 
Henry Craik's ' Life,' chap. xvii. p. 474, ed.. 


A variant of this saying is " All the world 
and Little Billing." Little Billing is a 
parish in Northamptonshire with (in 1841) 
a population of only a hundred and one, 
ojiqM. Great Billing had four hundred. " All 
the world and Little Billing " therefore 
means, like " All the world and his wife," 
every one, and do not forget Little Billing, 
small part of the world though it be. 

There is a similar phrase, but with a 
somewhat dissimilar meaning, " All the 
world and Bingham," which is accounted for 
by a notice-board once posted on an ancient 
hostelry at Newark, bearing the words, 
" Passengers and parcels conveyed to all 
parts of the world, and Bingham." (See 
The Antiquary, Jan., 1892, p. 45 ; and 
3 S. iii. 233.) J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. 
[MR. TOM JONES also thanked for reply.] 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL JULY 3, 1909. 

GREEN DRAGON (10 S. xi. 129). As in 
variably is the case with heraldic signs, the 
colour (in this instance vert), is no mere 
fancy of the sign artist, and furnishes an 
important clue as to the origin of the 
" Green Dragon," which, as well by its 
colour vert as by its ubiquity in town 
and country, may be recognized as the 
badge of that celebrated nobleman and 
sagacious statesman William Marshall, Ear 
of Pembroke, Regent during the minority 
of Henry III. It is, in fact/ so described in 
a list of signs which had their origin in the 
heraldic badges of the nobility, or of royalty, 
compiled by Bagford in his MS. notes about 
the art of printing (Harl. MSS., 5910, vol. ii. 
p. 167). By his peaceful, but vigorous 
administration in reducing the turbulent 
barons to allegiance, the Earl of Pembroke 
became extremely popular, the sagacity of 
his statecraft filling England with wealth 
and luxury, by her commerce with the south 
of France (Strickland's ' Queens of England'). 
Probably the " dragon " is strictly a wyvern, 
-a kind of flying serpent, the upper part 
resembling a dragon, and the lower an adder 
or snake, for the crest of the present Earl of 
Pembroke is a wyvern, wings elevated, vert, 
holding in the mouth a sinister hand, couped 
at the wrist, gules. The Earl, however, 
traces his descent from William Herbert 
ap Thomas, who was advanced to the earl- 
dom of Pembroke in the eighth year of 
Edward IV., about 250 years after the three 
years of the Regency of William Marshall, 
Earl of Pembroke. 



S. ix. 227; xi. 458). In case some 

budding bibliographer should be led astray 

J ? y n5i e Wel1 to record th t copies exist 

Lb77, a printer's error for 1777. One 

of these is in the writer's possession, with 

the blank names identified. The name 

' itzpatrick is added to the initial " F. 
on p. 3, line 14, in this exemplar. There 

| no name blank (or annotation) on p 20 
Possibly the Dublin edition was revised or 

< T T her * ^ a . very interesting reference to 
The Dmbohad L ' in a letter from George 

Selwyn to Lord Carlisle, February, 1777- 

see Hist. MSS. Com., Fifteenth Report,' 

Appendix, Part VI. 320 : 
" The author 



much into question what he asserts with any 
reasonable man. I do not know if you have 
received this performance. If I thought you had 
not, paltry as it is, I should send it to you. The 
work I mean is called ' The Diaboliad.' His hero is 
Lord Ernham [sic]. Lord Hertford and Lord 
Beauchamp are the chief persons whom he loads 
with his invectives. Lord Lyttleton [and] his 
cousin Mr. Ascough are also treated with not much 
levity ; Lord Pembroke with great familiarity, as 
well as C. Fox ; and Fitzpatrick, although painted 
in colours bad enough at present, is represented as 
one whom in time the devil will lose for his disciple. 
I am only attacked upon that trite and very foolish 
opinion concerning le pene e le delitte led i delitti], 
acknowledging [itj to proceed from an odd and 
insatiable curiosity, and not from mauvais cceur. In 
some places I think there is versification, and a few 
good lines, and the piece seems to be wrote by one 
not void of parts, but who with attention might 
write much better. 

"I forgive him his mention of me, because I 
believe that he does it without malice, but if I had 
leisure to think of such things, I must own the 
frequent repetition of the foolish stories would 
make me peevish. Alas, I have no time to be 

Besides corroborating a large portion of 
the key that I have already inserted in 
' N. & Q.' this letter is interesting because 
it gives Selwyn' s views with regard to the 
popular opinion that he was fond of attend- 
ing executions. Simon Luttrell, Baron Irn- 
ham, afterwards first Earl of Carhampton, 
the hero of ' The Diaboliad,' was, in con- 
sequence, known as the " King of Hell." 


JOHN SLADE, DORSET (10 S. xi. 488). 
He was usher of Magdalen College School, 
Oxford, 1546-8 ; master 1548-9 ; ordained 
deacon in London April, 1554, being then 
M.A. ; the master of Bruton School before 
1559 ; Rector of Clifton Maybank, Dorset, 
1554 ; Vicar of Stogumber 1556-9 ; Rector 
of Thornford 1559 ; and of South Perrot 
1561. He supplicated for the B.D. degree 
2 Nov., 1570. (See Macray's ' Magd. Coll. 
Register,' ii. 88, 89 ; Frere's ' Marian Re- 
action,' p. 270.) 

The Catholic martyr John Slade, who 
suffered at Winchester 30 Oct., 1583 (as to 
whom see Father Pollen's ' Acts of English 
Martyrs,' pp. 49-62 ; Cath. Rec. Soc. v. 8, 39, 
48-50, 395), was taken in Dorsetshire, which 
was reported to be his native county. Was 
le a son of the Rector of South Perrot ? 


For Matthew Slade see ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' 
ii. 365. His elder brother Samuel (1568- 
1612 ?) was M.A.Oxon. 1594, then Vicar 
>f Embleton, Northumberland, but re- 
igned the living to travel in search of MSS., 
ind died in Zante. Their mother was Joan 

10 s. xii. JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES: 


Owsley of Misterton, Somerset. Matthew 
married Alethea Kirford of Honiton, Devon ; 
their son Cornelius, born at Amsterdam in 

1599, was Professor of Hebrew and other 
languages there ; and, like his father, 
Rector of the Academy in 1628. Cornelius 
married Gertrude, daughter of Luke Am- 
brose, and English preacher in Amsterdam, 
-and was father of Matthew Slade (1628-89), 
born in England, who became a Doctor of 
Physic. He died while travelling in a stage 
coach on Shotover Hill, and was buried in 
St. Peter's-in-the-East, Oxford. 


In the Catholic registers of Lulworth, 
printed in the Catholic Record Society's 
volume vi., which is just being issued to 
subscribers, MB. G. SLADE will find many 
of his name, though whether what he wants 
I cannot say. JOSEPH S. HANSOM. 

27, Alfred Place West, South Kensington, S.W. 

(10 S. xi. 309, 392). The idiom " se Jeter sur 
Castor et Pollux " in the quotation from 
Sainte-Beuve means to talk diffusely or at 
random, not confining oneself strictly to 
any single subject, in order to prevent the 
conversation from flagging. In all proba- 
bility it originated with a sentence of 
D'Alembert's (see Littre, s.v.) : " Je ferai 
eomme Simonide, qui, n'ayant rien a dire 
de je ne sais quel athlete, se jeta sur les 
louanges de Castor et de Pollux." Here the 
allusion is doubtless to the military achieve- 
ments of the renowned Dioscuri. 

N. W. HILL. 
New York. 

IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY (10 S. xi. 463). 
The suggestion that " reinpa " stands for 
" requiescere in pace " is borne out by the 
manner in which the letters are spaced in 
Camden's ' Reges, Reginae, Nobiles,' &c., 

1600, sig. D3, verso, the reading there given 
All the inscriptions are given by Camden. 


J. WILLME (10 S. xi. 469). There was 
a note on him by J. F. M[arsh] at 4 S. iv. 
493 ; but the fullest information obtainable 
is to be found in an article by another of 
your valued correspondents, the late John 
Eglington Bailey, in his Palatine Note-Book. 
July 1, 1881 (vol. i. p. 117), from which we 
learn among other things that Willme was 
the son of a yeoman at Martinscroft, War- 
rington, born 11 May, 1692, and baptized 
at Warrington Church on 2 June. Willme, 

in the book named by MR. SOLOMONS, calls 
himself a mathematician and ploughman, 
and says " his whole life may be looked 
upon as an umbrage of troubles and per- 
plexities among vexatious neighbours and 
people of bad principle arid conduct." He 
died on 27 Sept., 1769, aged 76 years. 


MR. SOLOMONS will find two considerable 
articles on Willme and his writings in the 
Palatine Note-Book, vol. i. pp. 117, 193. 


Elmhurst, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

COMETS (10 S. xi. 489). The French game 
at cards was called not comette, but comete; 
and in English was called comet. It was an 
old game played without aces, and received 
its name from the fact that the nine of clubs 
was sometimes replaced by a picture of a 
black comet, and the nine of diamonds by 
that of a red one. I believe it somewhat 
resembled Pope Joan. I have played at it, 
or a variety of it, long ago, but forget the 
rules. The earliest allusion to it in Littre 
is from Voltaire, dated 1763 ; and the 
earliest allusion to it in English is dated 
1689 ; see the ' N.E.D.' The statement 
that it was played in Scotland in the six- 
teenth century must be due to a mistake ; 
probably the seventeenth century is meant. 
In 1864 it was called the comet-game, or 
manille. See also ' Manille ' in ' N.E.D.' 

The quotation from Byron is duly given 
in ' N.E.D.' s.v. ' Comet.' The poem en- 
titled ' Churchill's Grave ' begins : 

I stood beside the grave'of him who blazed 

The comet of a season. 

Here " comet " simply means " blazing 
star," and is used metaphorically ; so that 
no particular comet is alluded to. 


See Byron's poem ' Churchill's Grave.' 
The reference is to the Rev. Charles Churchill 
(1731-64). He was conspicuous for a short 
period, but was quickly forgotten ; hence 
Byron's comparison of him with a " comet 
of a season." T. M. W. 

[Other contributors thanked for replies.] 

" STICK TO YOUR TUT" {10 S. xi. 307, 417). 
This expression can, I think, hardly 
refer to the game of tut-ball, which is 
said to be played in East and West York- 
shire, in Shropshire, and particularly at 
Exeter about the Easter holidays. A " tut " 
is the stopping place in the game, which 
resembles, and probably is the game of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 3, 1900. 

rounders, or stool-ball. But there could be 
no merit or reason in the case of the game, 
of sticking to one's tut. The phrase must 
refer to work being done with perseverance 
and tenacity, in the case of the refractory 
paupers, the ringleader having laid himself 
out to stick to the role he had assumed. 
The word seems to be the same with " tot " 
or " tote," i.e., the total, the whole of the 
job or work undertaken for the day or any 
specified time. I have myself heard the 
phrase " He has done his little tot." Grose 
(1790) says that " To do work by the tote " 
is " to undertake it by the great." As it is 
pointed out in the ' English Dialect Diction- 
ary,' in Derbyshire, Isle of Wight, Wiltshire, 
Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, and 
Cornwall " tut "= piece- work, and a " tut- 
man " is one who works by the piece. 
" Tut " and " tit " is in Devonshire the 
whole of anything, complete in every detail 
('Horse Subsecivae,' cited in the ' E.D.D.,' 

8.V. ' Tut '). J. HOLDEN MACMlCHAEL. 

THE WHITE HEN (10 S. xi. 448). The 
saying " You 're like the hen that never lays 
astray " I remember as a lad living in East 
Anglia, but I do not think that any special 
plumage was mentioned. But perhaps J. B. 
is correct, as a white hen would not have 
much chance of laying eggs and hatching 
them in a hedgerow without being detected. 
I do not find it in the books of proverbial 
sayings I possess, but it is worthy of being 
enshrined therein. W. B. GERISH. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

For Juvenal's " filius albse gallinse " see 
Lewis and Short's 'Latin Dictionary,' 1900 
under albus, p. 80, col. 2. It has travelled 
a little into our literature. In Ben Jonson's 
New Inn' 1629, I. i., where the discourse 

Lv? " n Jl brm e ln g U P <> f youth, the host 
says all are not sons of the white hen" 
(ed. Cornwall, 1838, p. 409). Peter Heylyn 
m his Answer to Henry Burton' 1637 


oneo h u * 

one of the sonnes, no question of the 

young white henne " (pref.). w. C. B 

S a 


business of the patentee, nor does it furnish 
any details of the construction of the 
machine, but it contains a special clause- 
extending the privilege to the " plantations- 
of Virginia." 

In* 1650 Ed. Williams published in 
London a tract entitled " Virginia's Dis- 
covery of Silk Worms .... Together with 
the making of the saw-mill, very useful in. 
Virginia, for cutting of Timber and clapboards 
to build withall." Williams gives a descrip- 
tion of the saw-mill, together with a woodcut ; 
and although he does not mention the name 
of the inventor, it is hardly likely that there- 
could have been two machines of this kind 
in Virginia at that early date. I feel, 
therefore, justified in assuming that the 
saw-mill described by Williams in 1650 wa& 
really that for which Hugh Bullock obtained 
a patent in 1629. Williams's tract fur- 
nisher the basis of an article on the intro- 
duction of the saw-mill into America in the 
' Report of the U.S. Commissioner of 
Patents for 1850,' Part I. p. 387. 

R. B. P. 

xi. 468). I can add an instance in 1538 : 

"This yere, the first day of September, beinge- 
Sundaye, at Clerkenwell, where the MTestlinge i& 
iept, after the wrestlinge was done, there was 
hanged on a payre of gallowes, newe made, in the 
same place, the hangman of London, and two more, 
: or robbing a youth in Bartlemewe fayre. Which 
sayd hangman had done execution in London since- 
the Holy Mayde of Kent was hanged, and was a. 
conninge butcher in quartering of men." 'Wriothes- 
.ey's Chronicle,' Camden Soc., i. 85. 

We learn from Walford's ' History of Fairs,' 
p. 184, that the hangman's name was Cart- 
well, but Hall's ' Chronicle ' shows the- 
name as Cratwell. The Holy Maid of Kent 
was hanged on Monday, 20 April, 1534. 


(10 S. xi. 429, 477). She was beatified by 
Pope Leo XIII. by decree dated 29 Dec 
1886. In 1887 the Catholic Truth Society 
published a biography of her by Mr. G. Am- 
brose Lee. The latest and completest bio- 
graphy is that by the late Father Keogh and 
by Dom Bede Camm, O.S.B., in ' Lives of 
the English Martyrs,' vol. i. (Burns & Gates 
1904), pp. 502-40. 


' The Last of the Plantagenets ' is the sub- 
ject of the commencing section of a book 
published in 1878 entitled 'The Victi 

the Penal Laws. 

Victims of 

10 s. XIL JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


EDINBURGH : DERIVATION OF ITS NAME I Upwards of a century ago, a writer informs 
(10 S. x. 410, 473). It will hardly be ac- us that ' Annales Ullonienses,' MS. in the 
cepted as proof that, because David I. men- British Museum, No. 4795 of Mr. Ayscough's 
H^^A T^^r^oi.* ir, +Vm f/Min/ia+^n I catalogue, has " Bellum Gline Muresan et 

tioned Edwinsburg* in the foundation 
charter of Holyrood, it is the earliest form 

obsessio Edin."* With respect to " The 

of the place-name ; nor do I suppose the Maidens' Castle," i.e. Castellum Puellarum, 
fact of Simeon of Durham writing the | Ayloffe, in his ' Calendars of Ancient 


same settles the matter. Many, no doubt, 
will consider that to trace the original form 
we must go much further back. Here may 
I repeat the generally accepted dictum, 
place-names did not (often) take 
origin from personal ones ? 

Dr. Daniel Wilson, in his ' Archaeology and 
Primitive Annals,' states that there is suffi- 
cient evidence that a Roman colonia existed 
on the site of Edinburgh. 

There seems an inclination to treat this 


Charters ' (p. 288), has " Manipulus par- 
vorum rotulorum tangentium homagium 
regum Scotiao " and " victualium pro Cas- 
tello Purcell " (anno 6 Edward I.). The 
their | last word is supposed to be a typographical 
error so far as the c is concerned. To revert 
to Camden, he states : " As in an old book of 
the division of Scotland, in the Library of 
the Honourable my Lord Burleigh, late 
High Treasurer of England, in the reign of 
Indulph, Eden Town was quitted (vacuatum) 

place-name apart from the castle, which and abandoned to the Scots to this present 

in the circumstances appears to be a 
mistake. That the eastle had an existence 
before the town will, I imagine, be conceded. 
The district in which the eastle was placed 
was for many years exposed to the ravages 
of the English and Danes : naturally, the 
neighbouring inhabitants, for protection at 
least, erected their homes under its wing 
The probability is the name of the castle 
became applied to the town, in some form 
or another. 

Camden wrote, " The castle was, by the 
Irish Scots, called Dun Eden," and Wynton 
wrote : " Maydn, Dunedin." For centuries 
Edinburgh was known by the latter name, 
and as late as 1776 was so called throughout 
the Highlands. " Henry the Third ordered 
the King of Scotland to summon the prelates 

day." In ' Parvvm Theatrvm Vrbivm sive 
Vrbivm Praecipvarvm Totivs Orbis Brevis et 
Methodica Descriptio,' now before me (1595), 
I find " Edenburgum, alias Alata Castra," and 
again " Arx vocatur Castellum puellarum," 
and once more " Vrbis appellationem nobile 
munimentum nonnulli interpretantur, ut sit 
Edenburgum quasi Edleburgum." 

Major states that the Romans and Britons 
levelled, among other cities, Agned, which, 
when it was " rebuilt by Heth, the King 
of the Picts, came to be Hethburg, and 
to-day is known as Edinburgh." The 
earliest known description of Edinburgh is 
by Alesius Edinburgi, or Alesse, who was a 
native, born 1500. He wrote : " The name of 
the Town is always given as Edinburges, and 
never as Lisleburgh or Lithleburg, as it 

and magnates of his kingdom at Maiden's was J Ued b F the French, in the writer's 

Castle " ; further, " Robert de Poppelai 
renders his account, Saiher de Quenci owes 
20Z. of Aron's debts, for Robert his father, 
but as yet he ought not to be summoned, 
for the canons of the Holy Rood of Eden- 
burgh (Castellum Puellarum)." Buchanan 
wrote that it was Dun Eden, the face of a 
hill, and he thought the name should be 
Edenum (see 5 S. xii. 128, 214). 

The State Register, recording the death of 


Edwin only fortified the castle. J Can 
any sound reasoning be produced, proving 
that the castle was unnamed at that time ? 

What explanation is there for " Edwins- 
burgh " lapsing into "Edin," that, too, in 
the face of " Eden " water in Fife, &c.? 

DEW-PONDS (10IS. xi. 428, 474). The 
Transactions of the* South-Eastern Union of 

King Edgar, has the following : " Mortuus Scientific Societies, 1908, contain (pp. 66-85) 

C-^ T^i-i-^k Tn^i-ri f\c*4- c*kwi-ilr-f tic* TT- T^nYi-frvir'i'Vili-ri rr ** I *+ -. ^!^1..,1 ^ <J , . , , / ^-. ,- -C ,-1 ,-,- -T ^ - 

in Dun-Edin, est sepulctus in Dunfermling." 
This was about eighteen years before 
David I. was crowned. 

a paper entitled * Some Considerations 
concerning Dew- Ponds,' by Mr. Edward A. 
Martin. The paper has been reprinted in 

Prof. Kuno Meyer asserted that ** Edwines- separate form. FREDK. A. EDWARDS. 

burn would, however, have given E'dins- 
burgh ; for the genitive s is never lost in 
such derivations." 

* My authority has the form Edenesburg, which, 
it niay be added, is found in a charter of David I. 
printed in the ' Registrum de Dunfermelyn.' 

* See 'Geographical Illustrations of Scottish His- 
tory' (London, 1796), by David Macpherson. 

t See also Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, vol. xi. (1901). 

See 6 S. ix. 394, and ' Traditions of Edinburgh,' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rio s. xn. JULY 3, im 


DURING THE PLAGUE OF 1665 (10 S. xi. 266). 

Add Dr. Nicholas Davis and Dr. Edward 
Deantrv (see Intelligence, 7 Aug., 1665). 


' IF I ONLY KNEW ' (10 S. xi. 410). The 
correct title of this "monologue" with 
musical accompaniment is 'If We Only 
Knew.' It is by Mel. B. Spurr, who used 
to recite it at the Maskelyne and Cooke 
entertainments at the former Egyptian 
Hall, Piccadilly : he died some eighteen 
months ago. It is to be obtained of the 
publishers, Messrs. Reynolds, 13, Berners 

T. TRUMAN, BOOKSELLER, 1746 (10 S. xi. 
347, 418). There was a Gabriell T. Truman 
in Drury Lane at the sign of "The Goat," 
as his token indicates. It bears the initials 
in the " field," G. T. T. Even though book- 
sellers did not issue tokens, yet he may have 
been related to the T. Truman of the query 
(Akerman's 'London Tokens,' 1849, No. 


PRIME MINISTER (10 S. ix. 425). During 
the present year a further step has been 
taken in the long process of giving a gradually 
increasing official recognition to the office 
of Prime Minister. Down to the end of 
last session all resolutions moved by the 
Prime Minister in the House of Commons 
were entered in the Orders and Votes under 
his name ; from the beginning of the present 
session the name has been dropped, and 
" The Prime Minister " substituted. 

F. W. READ. 

JAMES ISAACSON, M.P. (10 S. xi. 387). 
He was M.P. for Banbury from 1698 until 
expelled the House on 10 Feb., 1699, 
because he held the office of a Commissioner 
of Stamps, contrary to the statute ; and 
there is some account of him in ' Oxfordshire 
Members, 1213-1899.' L. M. 

xi. 449). The Architectural Publication 
Society's * Dictionary of Architecture ' con- 
tains a short note on the monument of Ric- 
ardus de Gaynisburgh in the cloisters of 
Lincoln Cathedral, but gives no information 
as to the man himself. Gough, in ' Sepul- 
chral Monuments,' ii. 95, gives the inscrip- 
tion, copying it apparently from Walpole's 
* Anecdotes of Painting,' and says he does 
not recollect seeing it in any of his visits to 
Lincoln. Possibly it is not now in existence 

Gravelly Hill, Erdington. 

HOLBECK (10 S. xi. 448). It simply 
means " hollow beck," or stream ma hollow. 
See the admirable articles in ' N.E.D.' upon 
holl, adj., "hollow," and hcU, sb., "a 
hollow." The sb. is from the adj., viz. 
A.-S. hoi. Holbrook is mentioned in an 
A.-S. charter with the spelling holan-broc ,- 
where holan represents the weak form of 
the dative case. 

Beck is, strictly, a Norse form ; IceL 
ekkr. Beach is not precisely the same word, 
but is of native origin ; and the words are 
doubtless closely allied. I would connect 
beach with the A.-S. bcec, brook, and (appa- 
rently) a valley, for which see Earle's ' Land 
"barters.* WALTER W. SKEAT. 


xi. 489). Steele in The Spectator, No. 79, 
711 : "A Woman seldom writes her Mind 

but in her Postscript." But in 1625 Bacon 
aid he had a male friend who usually " put 
hat which was most material in the post- 
script " ('Essays,' ed. Arber, 93). I quote 
,hese from the 'N.E.D.' (vol. vii. p. 1177, 

col. 2), a work which should not be over- 
ooked in inquiries of this kind. W. C. B. 
[MR. A. RHODES also thanked for reply.] 


Notes fiy the Way. By John Collins Francis. 

(T. Fisher Unwin.) 

A WORK which, so far as our knowledge goes,, 
has not yet seen the light, but for which, we are 
convinced, an expectant posterity is looking, is a 
General History of Editors. Individual bio- 
graphies we have, but a comprehensive work on 
this entrancing subject still awaits a Prometheus. 
Editors may roughly be divided into two classes : 
those who, Eke Etelane, are known to the world 
as editors, and nothing more ; and those who,, 
like Steele, are editors, and a great deal more. 
In political journalism an editor who travels 
beyond the strict limits of the leading article is 
regarded with suspicion, and Chenery, the suc- 
cessor of Delane, was heavily handicapped by 
the fact that Arabic literature was popularly 
supposed to hold a higher place in his affections 
than the battles of parliamentary frogs and mice. 
In this matter editors are at a disadvantage as 
compared with their staff. The principle of 
anonymity, in which we have the profoundest 
faith, protected Edward Henry Palmer, who, not 
being an editor, was enabled, in spite of his 
Arabism, to write leading articles that took the 
public fancy. Joseph Knight belonged to the 
school of Steele, to whom in temperament, if not 
in genius, he bore a marked resemblance. In 
largeness of nature, in geniality of spirit, in tender 
chivalry towards women, the friend of Addison 
was closely paralleled by the generous Yorkshire- 
man who for a longer period than any of his 
predecessors conducted the fortunes of ' N. & Q.*" 

10 s. xir. JULY 3, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Knight came up to London from Leeds in 1860, 
when he had just completed his thirtieth year. 
He then felt capable of editing The Times, but 
destiny reserved him for a happier fate. He 
became in due course an editor, but how much 
more than an editor his friends will not soon 
forget. Mr. Francis has done well to write the 
niemoir of his old associate and chief that opens 
this fascinating volume. Those who knew Knight 
will be grateful to him for placing on permanent 
record an account of the .early years of one with 
whom most of them were only brought into 
contact in later life ; while those who had not 
the good fortune to possess his friendship will 
be glad to learn something of the career of one 
whose influence was not to be measured by the 
space that he occupied in the public eye. The 
present writer had the privilege of knowing Knight 
for the last twenty years of his life, the date of 
first acquaintanceship being marked by the gift 
of his recently published ' Life of Rossetti,' which 
was taken down from the bookshelves in the 
closely packed little study, and placed in the 
visitor's hands with a few kindly and cordial 
words. Then the host turned to his two favourite 
writers and teachers, Shakespeare and Froissart, 
both of whom harmonized so well with his broad 
and humorous outlook on life and the chivalrous 
spirit with which he regarded the deficiencies of 
human nature, and expatiated with pride on the 
" points " of the ancient folios in his possession. 
During those twenty years of which we speak, 
whether in his own small sanctum, or at those 
more spacious dinners at the Garrick Club in 
which his hospitable soul delighted, not an ill- 
natured jest or an unjust criticism ever passed 
his lips in our hearing. Like all strong characters, 
he had, of course, his likes and dislikes. We shall 
not soon forget his jovial remonstrance when we 
rallied him on his personal likeness to Mortimer 
Collins, a writer with whom rather unjustly, as 
we thought he found himself in very scant 
sympathy. On the subject of the modern stage 
lie was generally reticent, and in his capacity of a 
dramatic critic had some aversion from talking 
" shop " ; but he was never tired of speaking 
with almost paternal fondness of the merits of that 
incomparable actress whose Juliet and Rosalind 
are among the imperishable memories of middle- 
aged playgoers Lilian Adelaide Neilson. 

Another feature of this volume is an admirable 
memoir of Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, whose 
occasional contributions on ballad-lore will be 
fresh in the recollection of readers of ' N. & Q.' 
Ebsworth also held a post in the editorial phalanx, 
as for many years he superintended the publica- 
tions of the Ballad Society. Of this Society he 
might justly have said, " Pars magna fui," for 
without his enthusiasm and untiring industry 
its life would probably have been short. Ebs- 
worth was one of those typical Englishmen with 
whom the wind is usually in the east ; but though 
of an explosive nature, he rendered permanent 
service to literature, and was not the less 
loved by his friends because his heart was on his 

The remaining portions of the volume, which 
comprise a history of ' N. & Q.,' papers on Cowper, 
Longfellow, and other writers, together with 
valuable notes on The City Press and other 
journals, will be familiar to readers of these 
columns. In compiling these " Literary Anecr 
dotes " Mr. Francis has shown himself a worthy 

successor of John Nichols and the other giants of 
:he eighteenth century. It is an advantage to 
Dossess in moderate compass information which 
n a few years it would be difficult to obtain 
without much toilsome research, and which is 
now presented to the reader in a modest and 
attractive form. 

The illustrations comprise portraits of Knight 
as a boy, in middle life, and in mature age. 
jrood as they are, we think the photographs 
which were published in ' N. & Q.' at the tune 
of his lamented death were more characteristic 
of the man. Ebsworth is represented by a portrait 
and by two of his sketches. One of these, a view 
of John Knox's house in Edinburgh, belongs to the 
school of Cattermole, but in chiaroscuro is far 
superior to anything that artist did ; whilst the 
other might have been produced by the needle 
of George Cruikshank. 

The Index, which has been compiled by Mr. 
John Randall, is excellent. One name we miss 
that of John Morley (p. vii). The friends of 
Knight will remember the zest with which on 
occasion he recounted anecdotes of his early 
associations with the present Secretary of State 
for India, for whom, notwithstanding some 
divergent views on politics, he ever retained a 
loyal friendship and admiration. 

Authors' and Printers' Dictionary. By F. Howard 

Collins. (Frowde.) 

THE new edition of this excellent guide is very 
welcome. The little book is already in its tenth 
thousand, and we hope it will reach many more 
readers, for it is remarkably cheap at a shilling. 
All who are concerned with the correction of the 
press should get it, for it will save many of the slips 
into which the most wary of experts fall from time 
to time. Indeed, it is the result of a mass of ex- 
perience in proof-reading, Mr. Collins having been 
assisted by many competent hands. The new title, 
introducing the word " Dictionary," is misleading, 
for the book, though it has received corrections and 1 
additions, offers only a selection of difficult points, 
whereas a ' Dictionary ' is generally understood to 
be something of an exhaustive character. 

We particularly commend the explanations of 
abbreviations, and the notes as to popular phrases 
which are frequently misunderstood and wrongly 

WILSON'S Art of Rheiorique, 1560, edited by 
G. H. Mair, is a recent addition to the admirable 
" Tudor and Stuart Library " of the Clarendon 
Press, which is distinguished by its grace of form. 
Rhetoric is a subject generally despised in this 
country, and much better treated in the United 
States ; but Wilson's book deserved revival, for, 
as Mr. Mair says, it is " a landmark in the history 
of the English Renaissance, and many passages 
in it are important, and indeed indispensable to 
the historian of English literature." We add, 
further, that it contains much sound sense, which 
time has not staled, concerning the English lan- 
guage, and which a great many journalists, 
especially in the daily press, might read with 
advantage. The whole is varied, as was the 
custom of the day, with anecdotes, some classical, 
of the world's common stock, but others interest- 
ing for their personal turn or the insight they 
afford into contemporary manners. The anec- 
dote of the Spaniard on p. 138 seems to demand 
a reading of " potuit " instead of " potui." 



MR. RICHARD CAMERON of Edinburgh has in 
his Catalogue 226, as usual, many Scottish items. 
These include a nearly complete set of Archceologia 
IScotica with Smellie s historical account, 1792- 
1876, 5 vols., 21. 15s. Under Arctic is the weekly 
periodical issued during Capt. Parry's expedition, 
Nov. 1, 1819, to March 20, 1820, presentation 
copy from Capt. Parry, 5s. Qd. Under Burns is 
Pickering's Aldine edition, 3 vols., 1839, 1Z. 5s. 
Other works are Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, 
12 vols. hi 6, 1832-44, 16s. ; Chalmers's ' Cale- 
donia,' 7 vols., 4to, 31. 15s. ; Jamieson's Diction- 
ary, 5 vols., 4to, 1879-87, 4Z. 5s. ; and Hugh 
Miller's Poems, 1839, 8s. Qd. A copy of the first 
edition of ' Bob Boy,' 3 vols., 1818, is 31. 10s. ; and 
Smith's ' Catalogue BaisonneY 9 vols., 8vo, 
51. as. There is a copy of The Owl, weekly journal, 
February to July, 1865, for 2s. Qd. ; and a collec- 
tion of Scottish trials. 

Mr. George Gregory's Bath Catalogue 189-190 
contains a good general assortment of books at 
low prices, also a number of the Parker Society's 
publications. Among other entries we find works 
-on voyages and travels, to which Mr. Gregory 
devotes in his establishment a special room. 
Among general literature we may mention the 
Edition de Luxe of Matthew Arnold's Works, 
Ql. ; Balzac's ' Comedie Humaine,' edited by 
Saintsbury, 40 vols., 51. 5s. ; Journal of the 
Ex-Libris Society, 11 vols., 4to, Ql. 6s. ; Brown's 
' Britannia's Pastorals,' 2 vols in 1, small folio, 
crushed dark-green levant by Biviere, first edition, 
1613-16, 211. ; and Campbell's ' Vitruvius 
Britannicus,' 5 vols., royal folio, 1715-71, 101. 
There is a choice copy of Boberts's ' Holy Land,' 
-each drawing hand-coloured, the six volumes in 
purple levant, in a specially made Chippendale 
case, 42Z. Under Cruikshank is a complete 
set of his " Fairy Library," 201. Under Walpole 
is a rare collection of separate pieces by him and 
others printed at Strawberry Hill, 1764-79, 201. 
'There is a handsome copy of Lavater, 5 vols., 
Imp. 4to, whole russia, 1810, 51. 5s. Under 
Lever is the Copyright Edition, with the original 
plates, 37 vols., 1897-9, scarce, 14Z. Those 
interested in the old city of Bristol will find a 
collection of water-colour drawings. 

Mr. G. A. Poynder's Reading Catalogue 50 con- 
"tains works under Africa, Alpine, America, 
Architecture and Art. Under Botany will be 
found a selection of Alpine plants from the 
original issue of Sowerby's ' Botany,' totally uncut, 
4/. 17*. Qd. Works on Cornwall include a fine 

burn, no date, 11. 11s. 0(1. There is a curious old 
<book, Reynolds's 'Triumphs of God's Revenge,' 
1635, 21. 2*. Under Froissart is a fine copy, 1844, 
4/. Under Goldsmith is the third edition of 'The 
Vicar of Wakefield,' 2 vols., Newbery, 1766, 
-31. 17*. Qd. Other works include a sound clean 
copy of Lysons's 'Magna Britannia,' 6 vols., 4to, 
half-russia, uncut, 1806-22, 51. ; the original Kneb- 
worth edition of Lytton, 36 vols., 31. 5s. ; Hill's 
' Organs of the Middle Ages,' 11. 15s. ; 'The Works 
of the Earls of Rochester, Roscommon, and Dorset,' 
-with the cancelled poems, 1739, 51. 5s. (by error of 
^the binder the portrait of Buckhurst has been 

duplicated in place of Rochester and Buckhurst) ; 
and 'The Faerie Queene,' edited by Wise, illus- 
trations by Crane, 6 vols., 4to, 4/. 4s. 

Messrs. James Rimell & Son's Catalogue 216 is 
devoted to Books on Art. There are altogether 
thirteen hundred items. Catalogues of Collections 
and Exhibitions include a complete set of the 
Royal Academy Catalogues from the excessively 
rare first number in 1769 to 1900, bound in 13 vols. , 
half-morocco, 101. Among works on Costume are 
Hull's ' British Army ' and Gauci's ' British Navy,' 
1 vol., folio, half-bound, 1829, 10W. ; and Plariche's 
'Encyclopaedia,' very scarce, 2 vols., 4to, half- 
morocco, Ql. Other works are Lacombe's ' Florence 
Gallery,' 4 vols. in 2, and supplemental volume, 
Paris, 1789-1807, 131. 13s. ; ' Goupil Gallery,' 12 folio 
volumes, half blue morocco, 8^. Ss. ; ' Musee Fran- 
cais,' 7 vols., atlas folio, 14. 1 4s. ; and ' The Wallace 
Collection,' by A. G. Temple, 10 parts, folio, 181. 18*. 
Under Turner we find the largest-paper copy of 
' Picturesque Views in England and Wales,' proofs 
before letters, and a duplicate set of the original 
etchings, except that of ' The Straits of Dover,' of 
which only three are said, to have been printed, 
imperial folio, full morocco, very scarce, 1832, 281. 
Under Boydell is the collection of 100 plates to 
illustrate Shakespeare, 2 vols. in 1, imperial folio, 
full crimson morocco, Boydell, 1803,212. ; and under 
Rowlandsqn are a copy of * Cries of London, 3 from 
the collection of Joseph Grego, 51. 15s. Qd. ; ' Micro- 
cosm of London,' 3 vols., 4to, morocco, 1808, 20/. ; 
and ' Tours of Dr. Syntax,' 3 vols., new morocco, 
1812-21, 151. 

Messrs. Simmons & Waters of Leamington Spa 
send two catalogues. No. 234 contains Topo- 
graphical and Antiquarian Books relating to the 
British Isles. The arrangement of the items under 
counties makes reference easy. Catalogue 235 is 
devoted to Numismatic Books. Among these are 
Atkins's 'Middlesex Tokens of the Eighteenth 
Century,' interleaved with additions in MS. and 
notes and cuttings from contemporary newspapers, 
together 3 vols., half-morocco by Riviere, 1892, 
167. 16s. ; ' Virtuoso's Companion and Coin Collec- 
tor's Guide,' 1795-7, 8 vols. in 1, 21. 17*. Qd. ; and 
'British Numismatic Journal and Proceedings of 
the Numismatic Society,' 4 vols., 4to, 31. 3s. 

[Notices of several other Catalogues are held over. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
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lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
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Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

B. U. HARE ( " Two Kings of Brentford." ) See 
Cobham Brewer's 'Reader's Handbook' under 

EMERITUS and W. G. RICHARDS. Forwarded. 
CORRIGENDUM -10 S. xi. 518, col. 1, 1. 4, for 
' Holy hard ' read Hold hard. 

10 s. xii. JULY s, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 






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io . xii. JULY 10, 




CONTENTS. No. 289. 

NOTES : Oxford Parliamentary Leaders in the Civil War. 
21 Thomas Love Peacock's Plays, 22 'D.N.B. Epitome,' 
24 Eton : Barnard, Head Master Executioner's Block 
"Disgate": " Dischauce" " Burg ator" The Eel-Pie 
Shop, 26 " Chops of the Channel " Stocks in use Fifty 
Years Ago, 27. 

QUERIES : " Purpose," Alleged Name of a Dance 
Thackeray Queries Bibliography of Theses " Com- 
poste'la," 27 "I had three sisters " John Hus before the 
Council of Constance" Mineria marra," Motto" Cala 
rag whethow," Motto Spelling Leaden Figures "Hen 
and Chickens " Sign Welsh Judges The Acorn and the 
Gabriel Abbots of Evesham, 28 L. H., Artist, 1793 
Squire Draper and his Daughter Capt. R. J. Gordon and 
African Association Col. Pestall T. Ripley and Richard 
Holt God of Architecture Sotby and Bleasby Manors, 
Lines, 29 Sponges Vintners' Company Harvest Supper 
Songs, 30. 

REPLIES : " Murkattos " : " Capaps," 30 Mechanical 
Road Carriages : Timothy Barstall "Pot-gallery " 
William the Conqueror and Barking, 31 Oliver Crom- 
well's Head The Storm Ship, 32 The Crucified Thieves 
4 Star,' 1789 : ' Logan Braes ' Thackeray : Roundabout 
Papers, 33 Dean Meredith William Guild St. Peter's 
At Rome, 34 Railway Travelling Reminiscences Emen- 
dations in English Books -Woman Burnt for Poisoning, 
35 Sir Lewis Pollard Peninsulas " Hackbut bent" 
Sir T. Browne : Anne Townshend, 36 Black Davies Dr. 
Johnson's Watch H. Emblin and Theodosius Keen, 37 
' An Excursion to Jersey ' Malherbe's ' Stances a Du 
Perrier' Miss La Roche Major Roderick Mackenzie 
Capt. T. Boys Mountain Bower " Seven and nine," 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-' Folk-lore concerning Lincolnshire' 
' Roman Life and Manners ' Reviews and Magazines 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE elder University has been frequently 
eulogized for her loyalty to the unfortunate 
house of Stewart. Within her grey walls 
for some four years Charles I. established 
his head-quarters when at war with his people ; 
hither he summoned his phantom Parlia- 
ment in opposition to the powerful and 
uncompromising Long Parliament at West- 
minster ; and here, in later days, John Wesley 
declared that should a man walk abroad in 
the town, he would be treading upon the 
skulls of dead Jacobites. 

But, as is well known, many leading men 
of the popular party had received their 
early education at the knees of our venerable 
Alma Mater. Sir John Eliot " lion Eliot, 
that grand Englishman " spent three years 
-at Exeter College ; and, although he did 
not take a degree, there is evidence that 
he by no means neglected his studies. 
William Strode, one of the famous five 
members of the House of Commons impeached 

j by Charles I. in 1642, passed two years at the 
same College arid achieved a degree. Sir 
John Maynard, the judge, was also a graduate 
of Exeter, and founded two lectureships 
therein. Henry Rolle, the judge, was of 
Exeter ; and Thomas Chaloner the regicide, 
who gave a silver " eard pot " to the College. 
Sir John Robartes, Bt., second Baron 
Robartes and first Earl of Radnor, entered 
Exeter as a fellow-commoner, where, accord- 
ing to Wood, he "sucked in " evil principles 
both as to Church and State. He held the 
rank of Field-Marshal in Essex's army, 
contributed to the ' Epithalamia,' a volume 
of poems of 1625 (the year he entered 
Exeter) ; and left " the hangings and 
traverse to it " in his study to the Rector 
of his College on going down from Oxford. 
Philip, fourth Baron Wharton,' and his 
brother Sir Thomas Wharton were at 
Exeter together. Lord Wharton, whoae 
beautiful portrait by Van Dyck belongs 
to the Emperor of Russia, gave a silver-gilt 
bowl and cover to his College Sir Thomas 
presenting a silver " eard pot." Sir Anthony 
Ashley Cooper, Bt.. first Baron Ashley and 
first Earl of Shaftesbury, the celebrated 
statesman, intriguer, and Lord High Chan- 
cellor, was a gentleman-commoner of Exeter, 
He has told us how he took a leading part 
in the schools, " coursing " with other 
Exonians against Christ Church. This 
coursing " was in older times, I believe, 
intended for a fair trial of learning and skill 
in logic, metaphysics, and school divinity " ; 
but by Cooper's time it had degenerated into 
little better than a free fight. He also was 
instrumental in causing that " ill custom of 
tucking freshmen " to be discontinued ; 
and in preventing the senior Fellows from 
altering " the beer of the College, which 
was stronger than other Colleges." He 
gave a silver tankard to Exeter. Shaft es- 
bury's uncle by marriage Edward Tooker 
and" his cousins John and Giles Tooker 
were of the same College. His younger 
brother, George Cooper, was a contem- 
porary there of the last of these in 1642. 

Magdalen College, " the very nursery of 
Puritans," claims John Hampden as a son. 
Thirty-three years after his matriculation, 
among the plate lent to the King one piece 
was probably that described as " cantharus 
ex dono loannis Hamden Buckinghamiensis, 
1610." This is one of life's little ironies ; 
for, like the greater part of the Oxford 
plate of the period, Hampden's gift was 
doubtless converted by way of the melting- 
pot into current coin on behalf of the royal 
cause. George Wither, the Puritan poet, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 10, 1909. 

was of the same house ; so were William 
Russell, fifth Earl and first Duke of Bedford ; 
Sir Anthony Morgan, the soldier, who, 
migrating from the neighbouring Hall, was 
son of a Magdalen Fellow and Principal of 
Alban Hall ; and Arthur Goodwin, friend 
and colleague of Hampden, with whom as 
an undergraduate he contributed Latin 
verses to the College collection on the 
death of Henry, Prince of Wales, entitled 
' Luctus Posthumus.' Magdalen Hall had 
grown up under the shadow of the College 
through the gradual settlement of those 
who, while free to profit by the instruction 
of the Grammar Master, were not them- 
selves members of the founder's Grammar 
School. In process of time the Grammar 
Hall had largely usurped the premises of 
the School, and had become a recognized 
University institution. The cuckoo's nest 
Wood calls it a " nest of Precisians "- 
had thriven marvellously under the pro- 
tection of the lilies of Magdalen. Dr. John 
Wilkinson, who as Fellow of Magdalen had 
been tutor to Prince Henry, during his long 
tenure of the Principalship (which lasted 
until the beginning of the war) had made 
the Hall the chief seminary and stronghold 
of the Puritans in Oxford. He was after- 
wards President of the College, and was 
succeeded at the Hall by his nephew Henry 
Wilkinson, " Dean Harry," who was also 
Whyte's Professor of Moral Philosophy. 
Another Henry Wilkinson, " Long Harry," 
also of the Hall and Canon of Christ Church, 
was, like his namesake, one of the Parlia- 
mentary Visitors to the University and 
Margaret Professor of Divinity. 

Among other alumni of this Hall were 
Sir Harry Vane the younger (his father was 
of Brasenose), who, characteristically, dis- 
covered after a brief sojourn that he could 
not take the oaths required of him, and 
left without matriculation ; Sir Matthew 
Hale, Chief Justice, and in 1659 M.P. for 
his University ; Sir William Waller, the 
famous general, nicknamed by his admirers 
" William the Conqueror " ; Robert Ham- 
mond, the soldier, who as Governor of the 
Isle of Wight became the unwilling gaoler 
of Charles I. at Carisbrooke Castle ; John 
Lisle, regicide, and one of Cromwell's House 
of Peers, who was assassinated at Lausanne 
after the Restoration, leaving his widow 
Alice to be the victim of a famous judicial 
murder by Lord Jeffreys ; Edward Leigh, 
miscellaneous writer, lay theologian, soldier, 
and member of Parliament ; and Sir Ralph 
Verney, Bt. son of Sir Edmund Verney, 
the royal standard-bearer at Edgehill who, 

as a moderate Parliamentarian, suffered 
from the tender mercies of both parties. 

The prominent Puritan divines bred at 
Magdalen Hall include Philip Nye, the 
Independent ; Henry Hurst, a sometime 
Magdalen chorister, ejected from St. Mat- 
thew's, Friday Street, under the Act of 
Uniformity ; Nathaniel Hardy, who con- 
formed and became Dean of Rochester ; and 
Thomas Home, the Presbyterian Head Master 
of Eton. One of the sons of the last named, 
William Home an under master at his old 
school and Fellow of King's became the 
first Etonian and married Head Master of 
Harrow. Some years ago Mr. R. Townsend 
Warner discovered among the Verney 
Papers a letter of July, 1682, referring to 
Harrow School under Home, in which the 
writer stated that the number of boys " was- 
generaly abought six score ; but in ye town 
their are maney bording houses." 

(To be continued.) 


THE different editions of T. L. Peacock's 
works which have appeared since his death 
in 1866 contain no allusion to his three- 
unpublished plays, and a diligent search 
for references to them has produced only 
one mention of their existence. This is 
a cursory notice of a few lines contained in 
Sir Henry Cole's ' Biographical Notes of 
T. L. Peacock,' of which ten copies were 
printed about 1875, and privately circulated. 
This neglect is very strange, since examina- 
tion shows that they are most interesting 
and highly characteristic of their author. 
They are to be found in the Manuscript 
Department of the British Museum, in. 
vol. 36.816 this being the second volume- 
of ' The Literary Remains of Thomas Love 
Peacock,' which were purchased by the 
Trustees of the Museum of Mrs. Edith 
Clarke in 1903. In all three instances they 
are holographic. The handwriting is easily 
legible, presenting an agreeable contrast 
in this respect to most documents from 
Peacock's pen. 

Included in ' The Literary Remains r 
are also a list of the dramatis personae of a 
tragedy called ' Otho ' and the opening 
scene of a play entitled ' Virginia.' Al- 
though these have, like the others, remained 
unnoticed and unmentioned, the idea of 
Peacock being a playwright in addition 
to a novelist and poet should not come 
altogether as a surprise, for Mrs. Clarke 
states in the ' Biographical Notice ' of her 

10 s. xii. JULY io, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

grandfather that while he was on board the 
Venerable in 1808 plays were acted for 
which he wrote prologues. We know further 
that he wrote a prologue and epilogue for 
Tobin's comedy of ' The Guardians,' which 
was performed eight years later. These 
were both included in Cole's 1875 edition. 
In later years, moreover, he wrote the critiques 
of the opera for The Globe, an.d subsequently 
for The Examiner during the time that 
Fonblanque a former friend of both Shelley 
and himself was editor and proprietor. 
Mrs. Clarke states, too, that he seldom 
failed to take his seat at the opera, and gives 
a list of the singers, actors, and dancers 
in whom he took the greatest delight. 
Finally, he shows a liking for the stage in 
his novels, and has given an able and clear 
description of Greek drama and comedy 
in the ' Horse Dramaticse ' which he con- 
tributed to Fraser^s Magazine in 1852 and 

The first play a prose farce consisting of 
two acts and ten scenes is named 'The 
Dilettanti.' It occupies folios 46-101, these 
being written on one side only. The paper 
was made in 1803, but the play was probably 
put together considerably later. The style 
points to this conclusion, while certain refer- 
ences to contemporary events and personages 
support such a conjecture. Angelica Cata- 
laiii, for instance, is mentioned in the same 
breath with Raphael, Michael Angelo, &c., 
and it was not until 1806 that she came 
to London, to make a great reputation in this 
country, where she remained until 1814. 
The play has many points of similarity to 
the first tale by its author, ' Headlong Hall,' 
which was originally published in 1816. 
An example may be given. Both the play 
and the novel have a violinist and a painter, 
who in each case quarrel as to the relative 
merits and demerits of their accomplish- 
ments. In particular, Chromatic with his 
Cremona in ' The Dilettanti ' continually 
recalls the character with the same name 
in the novel, whose one delight is also his 
fiddle. Indeed, the characteristics not only 
of the first, but of all the Peacockian novels 
are present in this farce. The dramatis 
personse all have suggestive names Tactic, 
Metaphor, Shadow, and the like in the 
same manner as the sporting parsons in the 
tales are designated Drs. Gaster and Port- 
pipe, a shaky stockjobbing firm Messrs. 
Catchflat & Co., or a churchwarden and 
parish clerk Messrs. Bluenose and Apple- 
twig respectively. Further, the scene is 
laid at a country house, which suggested 
itself so often to^'Peacock's mind as the best 

place to bring together his motley group 
of individuals bent on ventilating their 
weird opinions on nearly every conceivable 
subject, and gratifying their whims, 
crotchets, and fads in nearly every possible 
direction. The same shafts of ridicule, 
too, as in the tales, aimed at anything and 
everything, are to be found here, pointed 
with the same dry humour and caustic wit. 
In one particular there is a distinct improve- 
ment. The personages are sketched with 
skill, and are not portrayed merely for the 
object of giving utterance to certain views. 
We have more action and far less criticism. 
The incidents in this play, as in the others 
unlike those in the novels, where, they are- 
few and simple are many and complicated, 
so that no attempt will be made here to 
narrate them in full. Mention can only be 
made of the love episode running through it,, 
including the elopement of the hero with 
the wrong girl at the end of the first act, 
and his marriage to the right one at the 
conclusion of the second ; and of the wild 
Irishman O'Prompt, who contributes so 
much to the merriment by locking up some 
of the guests in a closet, breaking the fiddler's 
instrument to pieces, demolishing the painter's 
canvas, and bothering the Dilettante re- 
hearsing ' Hamlet ' till he is completely 
out of his senses. 

The second play a poetical drama in 
blank verse, of two acts and nine scenes 
is called ' The Circle of Loda.' It covers 
folios 102-27, these being written on both 
sides. The paper used was made in 1801, 
but, although an examination of the play 
has produced little evidence to show when* 
it was written, the composition can be safely 
ascribed to any period from five to twenty 
years later. In 1801 Peacock was only 
sixteen years of age, and the maturity of the 
style precludes the possibility of the drama 
dating from that early period. The subject- 
matter is either derived from some tradi- 
tional source, which the writer has been 
unable to trace, or owes its inception to the 
imagination of the author. It recalls to 
some extent Peacock's legendary romances, 
' Maid Marian ' and ' The Misfortunes of 
Elphin,' and, on the whole, has little in 
common with hi other work. Absence 
of plot and deficiency in character-sketching 
are not noticeable. Throughout Peacock 
has infused interest into the development 
of events. Of these the principal around 
which everything revolves is the struggle 
of Hidalvar between two women Mengala 
and Rindane : he leaves the former, his 
wedded wife, and seeks with the latter other 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 10, im 

shores. Have we, possibly, in this drama 
yet another veiled allusion to a theme 
dealt with more than once by Peacock 
the desertion of Harriet Westbrook by 
Shelley, and the transference of his affections 
to Mary Godwin ? 

The third play a musical farce in prose 
and verse, consisting of two acts and four 
scenes is entitled ' The Three Doctors.' 
It fills folios 128-49, written on both sides, 
and is followed by a rough draft which has 
notes and comments interspersed on other 
subjects. Written on paper marked W. 
Turner & Son, it is attributed by Cole to a 
period not long before 1815. This statement 
is borne out, more or less, by the contents, 
which show in several instances great 
analogy with those of ' Headlong Hall ' and 
' Melincourt.' The scene is laid in Merion- 
ethshire, that of ' Headlong Hall ' being 
placed in the adjoining county of Carnarvon. 
We know that Peacock first visited North 
Wales where he met his future wife in 
1810, so that it is most likely the play was 
written some time after this date. The 
following points of similarity between the 

lay and the two novels also deserve notice, 
henkin's way of speaking English with a 
Welsh accent recalls the Sexton's efforts 
Cranium is in the tale. Although Sir 

These unpublished works are thus not only 
noteworthy in themselves, but also interest- 
ing on account of showing us Peacock in a 
new light. Whatever else may be said, the 
reproach so often brought against his novels 
as well as against the early productions of 
his son-in-law, George Meredith, which show 
their influence cannot be levelled at these 
plays ; for they are by no means devoid of 
plot, and the characters are clearly delineated. 
In one point especially, as has been shown, 
they recall the loosely connected dialogues 
which are known as the novels, in that they 
satirize the crazes and fads of the time. 
Replete with humour and clever sayings, 
written in a flexible style, and bearing every- 
where the imprint of a scholarly discrimina- 
tion and judgment, they clearly betray their 
authorship. In conclusion, it may be men- 
tioned that the songs they contain have 
already appeared in ' N. & Q.' (10 S. x. 
441 ; xi. 43). A. B. YOUNG, M.A. Ph.D. 



(See 10 S. ix. 21, 47, 83, 152, 211, 294, 397, 

431 ; x. 183, 282.) 

APPENDED is a third list of corrections, 
omissions, and suggestions. Of the persons 
named, over twenty have passed away since 
1903, and they are included here for con- 

of ' Melincourt,' Humphry Hippy of Venison 
Hall is a faithful reproduction of Humphry 
Hippy of Hypocon House in the same tale, 
or vice versa. Marmaduke Milestone, the 
landscape gardener, exactly coincides with 
the character of the same name and vocation 
in Peacock's first novel. His plan for arrang- 
ing Lord Littlebrain's park, which is torn 
to pieces in his portfolio, is similar to the 
two plans of the same gentleman's park 
which are shown by Mr. Milestone in ' Head- 
long Hall ' to the Misses Chromatic, and 
which Peacock borrowed, although he has 
not admitted it, from Payne Knight's 
didactic poem ' The Landscape.' The main 
idea of the plot, however, has no counter- 
part elsewhere. It is skilfully worked 
out, while the rivalry between the three 
doctors shows Peacock's poignant satire 

to all acquainted with his works. lie 
looked upon them as a means of accelerating 
death rather than prolonging life. A cha- 
racter in ' Melincourt ' is called Killquick, 
who, needless to say, belongs to the medical 

Addison (Lancelot), 1632-1703. Add Arch- 
deacon of Coventry 16834. Author of ' Genuine 
Use of the Two Sacraments,' c. 1670; 'West 
Barbary,' 1671. Father of Joseph Addison. 

Akerman (John Yonge), 1806-73. Add : 
Author of ' Descriptive Catalogue of Roman 
Coins,' 1834 ; ' Remains of Pagan Saxondom,' 
of Humour from the Italian,' 1824 ; 

if the ' Odoriff erous 
Garden of Charitie,' 1603. 

Ames (Joseph), 1689-1759. Add : Founder cf 
English bibliography. 

Arden (Mary). See Shakespeare (Mary), post. 
Ascham (Antony), d. 1550. Add : Author of 
and Revolutions of Governments,' 

Austin (Louis Frederic), b. Brooklyn, 9 Oct., 
1852. Educated Liverpool. Settled in London. 
D. Sept., 1905. Journalist. Author of ' In 
Haste and at Leisure.' 

Bagford (John), 1650-1716. ' D.N.B.' 

rare volumes." See Mr. Gordon Duff's 'West- 
minster Printers,' 1906, p. 8, on the " much- 
maligned John Bagford." It is there stated that 
onstrous collection of title-pages in the 
Museum generally associated with Bag- 
name was made by the venerated founder 
of English bibliography, Joseph Ames." 

10 s. xii. JULY 10, 



Bailey (J. E.), 1840-88. Add : Wrote article 
in Bibliographer, 1882, ' On the Authorship of 
"The Whole Duty of Man." ' 

Barnard (Elizabeth, Lady), nee Hall, d. 1670. 
Shakespeare's granddaughter, and last direct 
descendant. Left directions in her will to sell 
New Place, Stratford, the final home of the poet. 
Her grave at Abington marked with a mulberry 
tree planted by Garrick." 

Barnard (Sir John) of Abington, Northampton" 
shire, d. 1674 (?). Married Shakespeare's grand- 
daughter Elizabeth Nash, nee Hall. Knighted 
by Charles II. in 1661. 

Barnes (Joshua), 1654-1712. Add that his 
works include an edition of Anacreon, 1705. 

Baxter (Nathaniel), fl. 1606. Add: Translator 
of Calvin's lectures upon "Jonas," 1578, and 
St. John, 1580. 

Beale (Dorothea), LL.D. of Edin., d. 9 Nov., 
1906. Principal of Cheltenham Ladies' College 
from 1858. One of the pioneers of modern 

Becket (Andrew), Son of Becket the pub- 
lisher and bookseller. Author of ' A Concordance 
to Shakespeare,' 1787 ; ' Proposal for printing 
" Shakespeare Set Free," ' 1812 ; "Shakespeare 's 
Himself Again,' 1815 

Becket (William). Translator of Calvin's Com- 
mentary upon Philippians, 1584. 

Belamy (Daniel), d. 1788. Add: Co-author of 
' The Modern Receipt ; or, A Cure for Love,' 1739. 

Bellenden (Mary). Famous member of the 
Court of George II. 

Bellew (J. C. M.), 1823-74. Add: Author of 
' Shakespere's Home at New Place,' 1863. 

Beveridge (William), 1637-1708. Add : Styled 
the " great reviver and restorer of primitive 
piety." Left a fortune to societies for spreading 
Christian knowledge. 

Bickley (F. B.), d. 1905. Of the MS. Dept. at 
the British Museum. Edited the ' Little Red 
Book of Bristol,' and co-operated in several 
antiquarian works. 

Bill (John), d. 1630, aged 56. Bookseller and 
King's Printer. Left 300L to be spent on his 
funeral. Buried at St. Ann's, Blackfriars. 

Bingham (John). Translator of ' JElianus, 
The Tactiks, or Art of Embattailling an Army 
after ye Grecian Manner,' 1616-31. 

Birmingham (Matilda, Lady). Her portrait 
published c. 1800. 

Bisset (James) 1762 P-1832. Add : Wrote 
' Dramatic Excellencies of the Young Roscius,' 
1804 ; ' Jubilean Dramatic Pageant,' 1827. His 
' Autobiography and Remains ' published by 
T. B. Dudley, 1904. 

Black (Charles Bertram), d. 30 Sept., 1906, in 
his eighty-fourth year. Eldest son of Adam 
Black. Wrote many of the guide-books issued 
by his firm. 

Bonde (W.), " Bachelor of divinitie." Sup- 
posed writer of the ' Pylgrimage of Perfeccyon,' 
1526, reprinted 1531. 

Brevint (Daniel), 1616-95. For " Fellow of 
Jesus College " read " First Fellow of Jesus 
College on Laud's foundation." Add : Author 
of ' Mystery of the Roman Mass Laid Open, 

'Saul and Samuel or, New Ways which 

tempt Men to Rome ' ; and some works in Latin 
against the Roman Catholic Church. 

Brooke (Richard), 1791-1861. Add : Wrote 
'Liverpool as it was during. .. .the Eighteenth 
Century,' 1853. 

Broughton (Hugh), 1549-1612. Add : Born 
at Oldbury, Shropshire ; educated at Cambridge 
through the liberality of Bernard Gilpin (q.v. ) ; 
distinguished for his skill in Hebrew and knowledge 
of Rabbinical matters. In addition to the list 
in Lowndes he published : ' Advertisement of 
the Corruption in our Handling of Religion,' 
1604; ' Apologie. .. .defending that our Lord 
died in the Time properly foretold to Daniel," 

Buchanan (Robert), essayist, novelist and poet. 
Born Caverswall, Lanes, 1841 ; d. London, 1901, 

Bute, fourth Earl and first Marquis, 1744-1814, 
See Stuart, post. 

Bute, second Marquis, 1793-1848. See Stuart, 

Carey (Wm.). "The friend of modern art. ? 

Author of ' Critical Description of Chaucer's 

Pilgrims,' painted by Stothard, 1818. 

Carrington (James) of Trin. Coll., Camb. Co- 
author of ' The Modern Receipt ; or, A Cure for 
Love,' 1739, written when he was 19 years old. 

Caslon (Thomas), d. 1783, bookseller and pub- 
lisher. Master of the Stationers' Company in 1782, 

Cavendish (Spencer Compton), eighth Duke of 
Devonshire, b. 23 July, 1833 ; d. 24 March, 1908, 
Described by Lord Rosebery > as " one of the 
reserve forces of the country." 

Codrington (Robert), d. 1665. Add: Joint- 
editor of ' ^Esop's Fables in English, French, 

and Latin,' 1666. 

Colet (John). For 1467 P-1519 read 1466-1519. 
Add : At one time in danger of being burnt by 
Henry VIII., according to Bp. Latimer. 

Conham (Abraham). W T rote preface to Bp. 
Babington's ' Questions and Answers upon the 
Commandments,' c. 1596. 

Cotton (Clement). Translator of Calvin s com- 
mentary on Hebrews, 1605, and Isaiah, 1609. 

Craig (Rev. John), d. 1877 (?), Vicar of Leaming- 
ton. Said to have spent his own fortune and 
those of his respective wives upon the fabric of 
the parish church there. Committed for a short 
period to Warwick Gaol for a technical offence. 

Craig (W. J.), b. Aghanloo, co. Derry, 1843 ; 
d. 12 Dec., 1906. Editor of ' Oxford Shakespeare, 

Craik (George Lillie), d. Oct. 1905. For forty 
years a member of the firm of Macmillan. Mar- 
ried Dinah Maria Mulock the novelist. 

Crosse (Andrew), 1784-1855. Add: His 
' Memoirs ' published by his widow Cornelia in 

Currie (Mary Montgomerie, Lady), better 
known under her pen-name of " Violet Fane. ^ 
D. 1905. Author of ' From Dawn to Noon, 
1872 ; ' Denzil Place,' 1875 ; and several other 

Dawbarn (William) of Liverpool. Author of 
Government, Conduct, and Example, c. 1870; 
Essays Tales,' &c., 1872. 

Dawson (Charles), Master of the Free School, 
Hutton Bushell, Yorkshire. Author of ' Poetry 
for Youth,' York, 1824. 

Dering (Edward), 1540-76. Add : Author of 
' A Sparing Restraint of Many Lavish Untruths, 


(To be continued.) 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL JULY 10, igoo. 

the Scarborough Museum is a document of 
which the following is a copy : 
Eton Feb. 1 1754 

I promise to relinquish all pretensions to the 
upper mastership of Eton school, & even in case 
it shou'd be offered to me to refuse ; upon 
condition that Mr. Hetherington & Mr. Lyne 
will assist me with their votes & interest to 
procure the under mastership. 

Witness my hand E. Barnard 

This document is one of a miscellaneous 
collection put away in drawers in the room 
containing books as well as curiosities, 
perhaps called " the library." It is in the 
tier second from the door, in the fourth 
drawer from the top. 

Mr. Lionel Cust in his ' History of Eton 
College,' 1899, p. 115, says: 

" When Dr. Sumner resigned in 1754 the post 
of Head-master, there seemed every probability 
that the Usher, Thomas Dampier, would follow 
in his footsteps and succeed to the post. . . . 
After a severe contest the post of Head-master 

was conferred on Edward Barnard Barnard 

was supported by the Townshend family, to 
one of whom he was resident tutor at Eton two 
years before his election." 

According to ' Annals of the King's 
College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor,' 
by Wasey Sterry, 1898, p. 169, Barnard 
"was in 1752 private tutor at Eton to 
Charles and Henry Townshend." " Usher " 
(ostiarius) was the old term for " Lower 

William Hetherington was elected a 
Fellow of Eton 16 Feb., 1749, and Richard 
Lyne was elected 15 Jan., 1752, the latter 
being next in order to the former. See 

* Registrum Regale : sive, Catalogus, I. 
Praepositorum,' &c., Etonae, Apud Jos. Pote, 
1774, p. xi. 

Thomas Dampier was Lower Master 
1745-67 ; therefore he retained his lower- 
mastership while Barnard was Head Master. 
Barnard filled that post from 1754 to 1765. 
See ' Eton College Lists, 1678-1790,' edited 
by R. A. Austen Leigh (Eton College, Spot- 
tiswoode & Co., 1907), pp. xxx, xxxiii. 
Presumably either Hetherington and Lyne 
did not accept Barnard's self-denying offer, 
or Barnard cancelled it. 


EXECUTIONER'S BLOCK. Before now the 
height of a beheading-block has attracted 
the attention of ' N. & Q.' From two illus- 
trations in M. Georges Cain's 'Walks in 
Paris ' it is plain that this point cTappui 
was sometimes dispensed with altogether. 
The copy of a woodcut on a broadside of 

* L' Execution remarquable de Madame de 

Brinvilliers ' shows that lady kneeling on 
the scaffold without support, while the 
executioner holds the raised sword behind 
her ; and a contemporary print of the 
doing to death of Gontaut-Biron in 1602 
exhibits him in like condition. In his case 
the headsman struck him so terrible a 
sword-blow that " his head flew to the midst 

of the courtyard" (pp. 190 and 156 

respectively). ST. SWITHIN. 

" DISGATE " : " DISCHAUCE." (See 10 S. 
xi. 385.) One may be allowed to quote 
another, and more interesting, dis- com- 
pound, one, indeed, inviting criticism to 
" disgate." In ' The Brut, or the Chronicles 
of England' (E.E.T.S.), under the year 
1422-3 (p. 449), there appears : 

" And pat same yere, ]>e secuncl clay of Marche, 
]>er was brent in Northfolk a prest pat was dysgated 
of hys clergy for hys mys-byleue and hys herysy. 

The next entry records the death of 
" Richard Whyttyngton, Mercer." Date of 
MS. c. 1450. 

Another rare dis- compound is to " dis- 
chauce," in 1. 471 of 'The Tale of Beryn,' 
c. 1400, meaning to take off the hose, or 
nether garments : 
And perfor, love, dischauce yewe nat til Vis cbek 

be do. 
Cp. the name Chaucer. H. P. L. 

" BURGATOB,." This word is not in 
' N.E.D.,' but, according to The London 
Gazette of 14 Dec., 1701, an address was 
presented to William III. from ' ; the Bailiff, 
Burgator, and Inhabitants of the Borough 
of Hindon in the County of Wilts." 


THE EEL-PIE SHOP. The pieman is a 
thing of the past, for unless I am much 
at fault there is no living representative of 
this ancient craft and mystery. 

During great football matches in the 
North hawkers of meat pies are allowed on 
the ground when the game is not in progress, 
but these bear no resemblance to the Flying 
Pieman and his contemporaries. 

Within my own knowledge the last 
example in London was a character who 
haunted the eastern part of the City, pushing 
a kind of portable oven on three wheels. 
His cry was " Mincey mutton ! Mincey ! 
Mincey ! Mincey ! all 'ot, all 'ot ! Try 'em ! : 
I never tried them, a fact I now regret ; but 
perhaps I was wise. Presumably affluent 
piemen became proprietors of eel-pie shops, 
but evidently compilers of directories classi- 
fied them as pastrycooks, and they ceased 
to be identified long before lottery-office 

10 s. XIL JULY 10, 1909. NOTES AND QUERIES. 


keepers, gingerbread bakers, and lantern- 
leaf and horn-plate manufacturers disap- 
peared from the trades classification. 

Where are the eel-pie shops to-day ? They 
are worthy of better treatment than silent 
extinction. Surely some survive in the 
neighbourhood of Newington Butts, Mile 
End Gate, Deptford Broadway, or similar 
districts ; but at present we have to record 
with regret that the famous Eel-Pie Shop in 
High Street, Islington, almost opposite 
*' The Angel," has ceased to do business. 
It boasted an existence of over a century, 
and its appearance would substantiate at 
least two-thirds of that claim. The tin 
cupboards which kept the pies at a suitable 
temperature, and the marble-lined window 
in which two bowls of mince retained a 
perennial freshness, were indications of 
maturity and unchanging success. These 
premises and some of their neighbours are 
very much older than the plain brick 
exterior wall suggests. The low-ceilinged 
shops into which you step down are un- 
doubtedly earlier than the commencement 
of the nineteenth century. 


does not note this familiar phrase, but it 
is obviously an accepted one of very long 
standing, for it is to be found in a letter of 
16 June, 1680, from the Duke of Ormond to 
his son, the Earl of Ossory. The Duke 
observes : 

" I suppose his Majesty may save in England full 
as much as we shall lay out here [Dublin.] since the 
stations of the Land's End, Cape Clear, and the 
Chops of the Channel may be supplied by them 
[ships]." Historical MSS. Commissionj ' Ormonde 
MSS.,' New Series, vol. v., p. 336. 

Another instance is furnished in a " peti- 
tion of several merchants of London to the 
House of Commons " in 1707, wherein the 
presumption was expressed that, in given cir- 
cumstances, they might safely order their 
homeward-bound ships to steer directly for 
" the chopps of the Channel " (ibid., ' Port- 
land MSS.,' vol. viii. p. 301). 


The following occurs in the Exeter Flying 
Post for 7 April, 1859 : 

" Exeter Guildhall. William Phillips, a ' navvy,' 
in the employ of Mr. James Taylor, was charged 
with being drunk and committing a breach of the 
peace in South Street the previous evening. The 
Bench inflicted a fine of 5s. and the expenses ; or 
the alternative of six hours in the stocks. A 
fortnight was allowed him to pay the money." 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
bo affix their name's and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

Whyte Melville, in 'The Queen's Marys,' 
xvi. (1862), says : 

"The Purpose was so called because the figure 
exacted that at stated intervals the couples should 
dance together through the doorway into an adjoin- 
ing room, and, having made the circuit of that 
apartment, should return, unbosomed of any secrets 
they might have had to interchange, to the rest of 
the laughing company. It was a figure obviously 
adopted for the triumph of coquetry arid the dis- 
comfiture of mankind." 

No authority is cited for this by Whyte 
Melville. Where is this dance mentioned 
elsewhere ? Had it a French name ? Infor- 
mation about it is desired. 



THACKERAY QUERIES. 1. Where is to 
be found Thackeray's quotation "slant 
o'er the snowy swart " ? 

2. Does any one of your readers know 
the fable or fairy tale to which the same 
author refers in speaking of " the Prince of 
the Sidereal Realms " ? 


Nuremberg, Kressenstrasse 2. 

LIDDEL. In Albrecht von Haller's ' Biblio- 
theca Medicine Practicse ' (1777), vol. ii. 
p. 316, there is given a list of theses main- 
tained at the University of Helmstadt 
under Prof. Duncan Liddel as prseses. 
Haller cites his authorities, but in contracted 
forms which he does not explain. Thus : 

De melancholia. Helmst. : 1596. Burckh. 

Deapoplexia. Helmst.: 1605. Riv. 

Demorbis. Helmst: 1598. He. 

De symptomatibus. Helmst. : 1598. He. 

Who are Burckh., Riv., He. ? 

The last suggests J. C. Heffter's ' Museum 
Disputatorium ' (1764); but although in 
vol. ii. p. 243 of that work Nos. 4176 to 
4189 are fourteen theses maintained under 
Liddel as prseses, the two noted by Haller 
are not included. P. J. ANDERSON. 

University Library, Aberdeen. 

" COMPOSTELA." This is the name of the 
chief city of the old kingdom of Galicia, 
famous for possessing the shrine of St. 
James, the Apostle and patron of bpam. 
It was also called Santiago de Compostela 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 10, im 

or Santiago de Galicia. What is the ety- 
mology of Compostela ? Two answers 
have been given to this question. 

1. The name is said to be derived from 
" Jacomo Apostol," James (the) Apostle. 
For the form of the Spanish Jacomo com- 
pare Italian Giacomo, with a shifting of 

the accent. There was 
learned form Jacobo. 

also a Spanish 

2. Others derive the name from " Campus 
Stellae/' the plain of the star, and connect 
it with the story of the discovery of the 
body of St. James by the guiding of a star 
in the year 816 by Theodomir, Bishop of 

It looks very much as if the name " Com- 
postela " is a contaminated form, due to a 
combination of (1) and (2), having the 
Com- from (1) and the final -stela from (2). 
What is the oldest historic form of " Com- 
postela " ? A. L. MAYHEW. 
21, Norham Road, Oxford. 


SEA." Can any contributor to N. & Q.' 
oblige me with the full and proper words of 
this nursery rime ? It begins : 

I had three sisters beyond the sea, 

Para mara dictum Doniine ; 

They each sent a lovely present to me, 

Partum quartum Paradise temporum. 

The first was a cherry without any stone, 

Para, &c. ; 

The second, &c., 

Partum, &c. 

The spelling is merely guessed at, and 
Paradise is probably quite off it. In one 
version occur the words 

Heigh ho ! Carrion crow ! 
Perry merry dixi decko ! 

Wood Hall, Calverley, Yorks. 

CONSTANCE. Can any one inform me who 
was the artist of a fine painting of Hus 
before the Council of Constance "in 1415 ? 
It was well engraved some forty years ago. 

A ewbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

glad if some one will translate this heraldic 
motto. It belongs either to a Warwick- 
shire or a Worcestershire family, I believe, 

FRANCE ON SPELLING. I have before me 
a statement according to which the late 
Francisque Sarcey claimed absolute free- 
dom in spelling, and protested against any 
fixed rules, which he denounced as " les- 
chinoiseries de Forthographe." According 
to the same source, Anatole France also 
calls it nonsense to think one is obliged to- 
observe such rules for fear of losing caste. 

Can any reader kindly supply chapter and 
verse in both authors' writings ? 

L. L. K. 

LEADEN FIGURES. The makers of leaden 
figures and garden ornaments belong to the 
earliest years of Piccadilly. I believe much 
useful information respecting the industry 
and its fortunes in London generally has 
been provided in a volume or some of the 
many art periodicals, and I shall be obliged 
for the reference. 

The provision of statuary generally was 
presumably .a considerable business even 
before the Great Fire. Would not the 
buildings in Lincoln's Inn Fields (1617 ?} 
and the erection of handsome residences 
west of the City have occasioned such an 
industry ? If so, in what locality or street 
was it specially carried on ? Piccadilly at 
a later date, and Euston Road in our own 
times, were the birthplaces of gods and 
goddesses innumerable. 


the " Hen and Chickens " have had its origin 
as a trade sign in the City ? There were signs- 
with this name in Paternoster Row, in 
St. Paul's Churchyard, in Cheapside, in 
Southwark ; near the Royal Exchange,. 
Cornhill ; near the New Exchange, Strand ; 
at Holborn Conduit ; and on Hammond's 
Key, Eastcheap way. 


WELSH JUDGES. Is there any printed 
biographical list of the old Welsh judges, 
after the manner of Foss's ' Judges of 

England ' ? 


but it seems difficult to trace. 


the meaning of this ? I am told that it 
is Cornish, and is the motto of the Aplin 
family. LEO C 

to find out in what year the 18-gun brig 
Acorn (Capt. Clarkson) captured the slaver 



ABBOTS OF EVESHAM. Can any one give 
me a list of the Abbots of Evesham ? I 
think there were some named Kynach in 
early days perhaps in the eighth or ninth 


H. K. H. 

10 s. XIL JULY io, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

L. EL, ABTIST, 1793. I have two sepia 
drawings of little boys, nude figures, signec 
L. H., 1793 (the initials forming a mono 
graph), and I shall esteem it a favour i 
some correspondent of ' N. & Q.' can tel 
me of any artist of that period signing his 
works as above. One drawing represent 
four figures playing about a winepress ; the 
other shows three of the boys playing with 
a large vase, from the top of which issues a 
jet of water, while the fourth is asleep. The 
technique and figure-drawing are so gooc 
that I believe the drawings are by an artist 
of some repute. W. MILES. 

Caversham Park Gardens, Reading. 

Will any reader of ' N. & Q.' kindly volunteer 
information anent an ancient Yorkshire 
hunting squire named Draper and his 
renowned daughter Di Draper ? In her 
ardour for the chase she twice swam the 
river Ouse, opposite Cawood Castle, after 
the hounds. We in our family possess a 
large oil painting of her, and it is always 
said that Sir W. Scott took Di Vernon (in 
' Rob Roy ') from her. The painter's name 
is not on the likeness, but an engraving (an 
exact copy) has been met with in some 
magazine of the eighteenth century. I shall 
be grateful for any information. 

(Mrs.) E. A. HILLWELL. 
Wiatow, Dewey Avenue, Aintree, Liverpool. 

ASSOCIATION. Capt. Robert James Gordon, 
of the Royal Navy, left Cairo in May or 
June, 1822, on behalf of the African Associa- 
tion, for the purpose of ascertaining the 
sources of the Bahr el-Abiad, or White Nile, 
then an unknown mystery (The Quarterly 
Review, October, 1822, p. 93 ; J. J. Halls, 
'Life of Henry Salt,' 1834, ii. 205, 211). 
On 20 June the French traveller Frederic 
Cailliaud met him between Assouan and 
Dongola (Cailliaud, * Voyage a Meroe,' 1826, 
iii. 267). He visited several of the mountain 
regions of Kordofan, and, to use the expres- 
sion of the Arabs, "had written down all 
the country " (G. A. Hoskins, ' Travels in 

1823, which would be only six years before 
Lord Prudhoe's visit, it does not allow 
sufficient time for Gordon's journeys in 
Kordofan. Is anything more known of 
Capt. Gordon's travels ? His name does 
not appear in the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' 

39, Agate Road, Hammersmith, W. 

COL. PESTALL. I have a song entitled 
'Pestall,' published by B. Williams, 30 
(Fountain Court), Cheapside, with accom- 
paniment for the pianoforte. It bears no 
date, but must have been published at least 
sixty years ago. On the frontispiece is an 
illustration of a British officer in uniform, 
in a prison cell, with a chain connecting the 
wrists. Beneath the illustration is printed : 
" The melody of this song was marked on 
the wall by Col. Pestall (a victim to Russian 
Tyranny) the night before his Execution." 

Who was Col. Pestall, and what were the 
circumstances which led to his execution ? 

On 31 May, 1722, Thomas Ripley, Esq., 
and Richard Holt, gent., obtained a patent 
(No. 447) for making statues, architectural 
decorations, garden ornaments, &c., of arti- 
ficial stone. I shall be much obliged to 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' who can assist me 
n identifying the first-named patentee with 
the well-known architect of the same name. 
The notice of Ripley in the ' D.N.B.' does 
not give me the information I want, and I 

lave consulted the General 
N. & Q.' without result. 

Indexes to 
R. B. P. 

Ethiopia,' 1835, p. 180). 
Kordofan, but managed 

He fell ill in 
_ to reach Wad 

Medina, on the Bahr el-Azrek, or Blue Nile, 
a little north of Sennar, where he died and 
was buried. Lord Prudhoe, who visited 
Sennar in 1829, says Gordon arrived at 
Welled Medina about eight years before, in 
the month of June, and died in ten days of a 
violent tertian fever (Journal of the Royal 
Geographical Society, 1835, p. 47). But, 
unless we are to understand this as June, 

omewhere that the Chinese have a special 
god whom they worship when a new building 
s erected. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
ive the name of this god, or particulars of 
ny similar deity ? Is there a patron god 
f architecture or buildings in any system 
of mythology ? N. BOOTHROYD. 

Holmleigh, Batley. 

The Inq. p. m. of John Clayton of Crooke, 
Lanes, who died in 1625, shows that he was 
the owner of the above manors and a large 
quantity of other property in that county. 
These Lincolnshire estates seem to have 
passed, with his Lancashire property, to 
his daughter Dorothy, and so to the 
descendants of George Leycester of Toft, 
co. Chester, her husband. 

How did he acquire them ? It does not 
appear that his father (or his uncle, whose 
heir he was) owned them. Did they come 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 10, woo. 

to him with his wife ? Betham says she 
was Joanna, daughter of Sir Robert Pye ; 
but she seems to have been a daughter of 
Alexander Standish of Lanes. R. S. B. 

SPONGES. About what period were 
sponges first used for domestic purposes in 
England or Europe ? I cannot find this in 
any book of reference. M. 


VINTNERS' COMPANY. I should be very 
grateful to any one who could inform me in 
what magazine, more or less recent, I have 
come across an article on, or bearing upon, 
the early days of the Vintners' Company. 
I rather think it was in one of the monthlies. 

27, Paulet Road, Camberwell, S.E. 

obtain the words of English songs such as 
were sung at harvest suppers in Surrey 
and Sussex twenty years ago ? 


Wiggie, Redhill. 


(10 S. ix. 66.) 

As no one has as yet enlightened W. J. P. 
on the meaning of these two mysterious 
words, may I (although rather late) be 
allowed to inform him that they are mere 
ghost-words, both being misprints ? The 
fact is that the writer of the article on 
' Animals, &c., in the Island of Ceylon,' in 
The Sporting Magazine for April, 1796, had 
got hold of vol. iii. of Churchill's collection 
of voyages and travels, which contains the 
English translation of BaldEeus's work on 
Ceylon (published 1672), and dished up as 
original some of the information he found 
there. In chap. li. of that translation we 
read : 

" There are certain Birds [in orig. Kuykendieven. 
lit. 'chicken-thieves,' i.e., kites] in Ceylon call'd 
Mmhotos by the Portugueses, who [sic] often make 
bold with the young chickens." 

We see, therefore, that " murkattos " is a 
misreading of the printer's for "minhotos." 
This word minhoto, the dictionaries appear 
to imply, is a corruption of milhano, which 
is from the Latin miluus, through a form 

^ The other word, " capap," is an error for 

cacap." In the paragraph following the 

one . have quoted we read: "Ceylon 

produces great plenty of Fish, as Cacap 

Plaice, Crabs," and so on, nineteen other 
varieties of " fish " being named, among 
which the egregious translator (whom I have 
already gibbeted in ' N. & Q.') enumerates 
" Haddocks " (for Goa cod), " Sharks " (for 
mullets), " Orados " (the original has 
d'Orados), " Seals " (for soles !), and 
" Bomtos " (for bonitos, the original having 
the misprint Bomten), 

The word " cacap " is interesting, repre- 
senting, as it does, the Malay (ikan) kakap, 
from which comes the Anglo-Indian " cock- 
up," a word the origin of which neither 
Yule nor the ' N.E.D.' was able to give, but 
which is explained in the second edition of 
' Hobson-Jobson.' Wouter Schouten, who 
was a contemporary of Baldaeus's in the 
East Indies, in his ' Oost-Indische Voyagie ' 
(1676), ii. 159, says that "in the [Javanese] 
fish-markets is to be got in abundance such 
fish as cacop," &c. Valentyn, in his enor- 
mous work the ' Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indien ' 
(1724-6), has a number of references to this 
fish. In the section on Ceylon (p. 54) he 
enumerates among the fishes of the island 
" Cakab " ; and the governor Ryklof van 
Goens, in his memoir of 24 Sept., 1675, 
printed by Valentyn, speaks (p. 222) of 
" Cacabs." In his description of Batavia 
(p. 255) Valentyn mentions among the 
many sea-fish to be had there " kacab " ; 
and in his very lengthy account of the 
fishes of Amboina, he says (p. 344) : 

" The Cakab is likewise one of the most delicate 
and whitest fish that the sea here yields. It is also 
as firm of flesh as curd, so that it is the prime of the 
market. At Batavia, indeed, it is kept in tanks in 
the gardens." 

Valentyn's appreciation of the cockup is 
even stronger than that of Yule, who calls 
it " an excellent table- fish," and states that 
" it forms the daily breakfast dish of half 
the European gentlemen in " Calcutta. 
According to Klinkert, as quoted in 
'Hobson-Jobson' (2nd ed.), the more 
common form of the Malay name of the 
fish is siyakap. Now Niewhof, in his 
' Travels in the East Indies,' as translated 
in vol. ii. of Churchill's collection, says 
(p. 351): 

" The Fish call'd Siap Siap by the Javaneses, is 
a River Fish in great request among the Javaneses, 
and is taken in considerable quantity near Batavia.'' 

Niewhof does not mention the kakab, and 
one might be tempted to identify his siap 
siap (the reduplication may be simply the 
plural form) with the siyakap of Klinkert, 
were it not that Valentyn, in his description 
of Batavia referred to above, speaks of the 
" sjap sjap fish " separately from the 

io s. xii. JULY 10, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"*' kacab," and in his list of the fishes of 
Amboina (p. 342) describes the " Zap-Zap 
fish " as " very small." (The cockup, 
according to Yule, " grows to an immense 
size, sometimes to eight feet in length.") 
This siap or zap may possibly be identified 
with the (ikan) siya of Wilkinson's ' Malay- 
English Dictionary,' where it is described as 
" a freshwater fish (unidentified)," and the 
final p may have got in through confusion 
with the alternative name of the estuarial 

No instances of the literary use of the 
word " cockup " are given in ' Hobson- 
Jobson,' and the ' N.E.D.' contains only 
two one of 1845, and the other of 1854. 
'The second, from the Rev. C. D. Badham's 
* Prose Halieutics ; or, Ancient and Modern 
Pish Tattle,' p. 114, gives an amusingly 
incorrect derivation of the word : " the 
Lates nobilis, somewhat freely rendered 
' cock-up fish ' by the Bengalese." I 
wonder where the reverend M.D. found this 

Tenneiit, in his ' Natural History of 
Ceylon' (1861), gives the alternative scien- 
tific name of the cockup, Lates calcari/er, 
Bl., but says nothing about the fish. Nor, 
as far as I have been able to find, do any 
of the other writers on Ceylon mention it, 
with the exception of Cordiner, who in his 
* Description of Ceylon' (1807), i. 444, 
says : 

" The fishes are the same as those found in other 
parts of the Indian seas. But few of them are equal 
in flavour or delicacy to those which inhabit colder 

climates Many of those of the ocean are larger 

than cod or salmon. The most common are seer- 
fish, cockup, pomfret," &c. 

As Cordiner was chaplain in Ceylon from 
1799 to 1804, it is evident that the word 
* l cockup " was well established by the end 
of the eighteenth century, and earlier in- 
stances of its use may very probably be 
found. Meanwhile, however, this example, 
from Cordiner is some forty years earlier 
than the first, given in the ' N.E.D.' 


BARSTALL (10 S. xi. 305, 374, 431, 498). 
Timothy Barstall of Leith had in hand, 
14 July, 1825, a "steam coach," which was 
expected to start in about a fortnight. On 
10 Nov. it was not moving yet, but was 
expected to do so in a month. On 19 Nov., 
1828, a relative wrote : 

"After all, Timothy is very likely to succeed in 
his steam coach affair, and to be most amply 
remunerated for all his labour. It has run on the 

Ferry Road and in the Fort several times at the 
rate of eight to ten miles an hour with 16 or 20 
people upon it." 'Correspondence of William 
Fowler ' (50 copies privately printed, 1907 ; one in 
B.M. Library), pp. 539, 541, 551, 607. 
As Mr. Barstall was first cousin to my 
father, I should be glad to know whether 
anything further came of his enterprise. 

J. T. F. 

"POT-GALLERY" (10 S. vii. 388, 431; 
viii. 172, 254, 312, 493, 517 ; ix. 36, 212 : 
xi. 333). I am afraid Miss LEGA-WEEKES'S 
suggestion that " putt-gallery " was the 
original spelling of the word will be found 
to be incorrect. To begin with, the earliest 
quotation given by SIR JAMES MURRAY 
at the first reference from Stow dates back 
to 1598, and the following ones have the 
orthography " pot-gallery," " pott-gallery " 
where the meaning is clearly that of a land- 
ing-stage. I see no reason for altering my 
opinion expressed at 10 S. ix. 36 that the 
word is corrupted from " boat-gallery." 
The ' N.E.D.' gives the early forms of " boat " 
as " boot," " bote," and " botte," while 
the mutation of b into p has been sufficiently 
accounted for. Why does the 'N.E.D.,' 
by the way, omit the above 1598 citation, 
and give one of 1630 as its earliest ? 

As to " putt-gallery," a shed built over a 
mill-stream at Paris Garden, your lady 
correspondent may be right in deriving it 
from "to put," with the meaning of "a 
structure built out from another like a 
balcony " : but I think this may be a dis- 
tinct word, and probably an afterthought 
owing its existence to the prior term. 

Finally, if I am wrong as to the derivation 
from " boat-gall ery," there is the alternative 
of the word being a shortened form of 
" port-gallery," which might easily occur 
through its constant use by sailors and 
watermen. The examples " port - bar," 
" port-highway," and " port-street " will 
all be found in the 'N.E.D.' by those who 
may take the trouble to hunt for them ; 
while " portage," from port, i.e. " to carry," 
would align itself more closely with the 
rather inelegant variant " putt-gallery." 

N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

(10 S. xi. 447). The Rev. J. W. Cobb in his 
* History of Berkhamsted,' 1883, says : 

"After the battle of Hastings, William crossed 
the Thames at Wallingford and proceeded to Berk- 
hamsted, where he halted, not, as (Jhauncy says, 
being compelled to do so by a stratagem of 
Frederick, Abbot of St. Albans, but in order to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 10, 1909. 

receive the deputation of Saxon nobles which there 
awaited him to offer him the crown and swear 
allegiance to his government. Edgar Atheling, the 
heir to the Saxon throne, the Earls Edwin and 
Morcar, Aldred, Archbishop of York, and the 
Saxon Bishops Wulfstan of Worcester and Walter 
of Hereford, were at the head of this important 
deputation ; and when fair words and promises 
had passed on both sides, the Conqueror advanced 
to Westminster, where Aldred performed the 
ceremony of coronation." 

It seems quite probable that after this 
many of the waverers came in to pay homage 
to the new king at Barking. 

Bishop's Stortford. 

The ' Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ' says that 
after the defeat and death of Harold, 
William retired to Hastings to see whether 
the nation would submit to him, but, 
finding his hopes disappointed, marched 
northwards with his army, harrying the 
country as he went, till he came to Berk- 
hampstead : 

"And there came to meet him Archbishop 
Ealdred, and Eadgar child, and Earl Eadwine, and 
Earl Morkere, and all the best men of London, and 
then from necessity submitted when the greatest 

harm had been done Then on Midwinter's day 

Archbishop Ealdred hallowed him King at West- 
minster." Thorpe's Translation. 

I can find no mention of Barking in the 
' Chronicle.' C. E. LOMAX. 

Louth, co. Lincoln. 

389, 453). It is Cromwell's bones that are said 
to be preserved at Newburgh Priory. In my 
report on Sir G. WombwelPs early charters 
for the Historical Manuscripts Commission 
(vol. ii. of ' Reports on Various Collections,' 
1903, Preface, p. vi), 1 wrote: 

" In a brick sarcophagus in a loft at the top 
of the house, carefully secured against violation, 
the bones of the Protector are supposed to rest, 
surreptitiously rescued by the filial piety of his 

The sarcophagus is enclosed within an iron 
railing, in consequence of small attempts 
having been at some time made by inquisi- 
tive sight-seers to pierce holes in its walls. 

The body of Oliver Cromwell was exhumed 
with those of Ireton and Bradshaw (by Act 
of Parliament 8 Dec., 1660), as appears 
from the following : 

May the 4tb. day 1661, rec. then in full of the 
worshipfull Sargeant Norfolke fiveteen shillings 
for taking up the corpes of Cromell and Ireton & 
Brasaw rec. by mee. JOHN LEWIS. 

The three coffins were taken to Tyburn, 
and on 30 Jan., 1661 (the anniversary of 

Charles's death), the bodies were hanged at 
the three angles of gallows until sunset, 
they were then beheaded, the trunks thrown 
in a pit under the gallows (?), and the heads 
set upon poles at Westminster Hall. 

The decapitation was probably performed 
hastily, which would account for the nose 
being broken and for the head having been 
separated from the body by two distinct 
irregular blows, the first somewhat high in 
the neck. There is an ear missing, which, 
according to tradition, was taken by one 
of the Russells of Fordham. 

Samuel Russell, being in pecuniary diffi- 
culties, applied for assistance to Mr. Cox, 
who, partly (as he afterwards confessed) 
with a view to the acquisition of the head, 
advanced upwards of 100Z. during the seven 
years ending 30 April. 1787, when, very 
reluctantly, Mr. Russell by a legal deed 
transferred the head to Mr. Cox, who con- 
cealed it even from his own family, to 
prevent incessant applications to see it. 

In 1775 Dr. Southgate, Librarian to the 
British Museum, was asked his opinion of 
its identity, and after comparing it care- 
fully with medals, coins, &c., delivered his 
opinion thus : " Gentlemen, you may be 
assured that this is the head of Oliver 

The famous medallist Mr. Kirk writes : 

The head shewn to me for Oliver Cromwell's I 
verily believe to be his real head ; as I have 
carefully examined it with a coin, and think the 
outline of the face exactly corresponds with it, 
so far as remains. The nostril, which is still to 
be seen, inclines downwards as it does in the 
coin, the cheek bone seems to be as it is engraved, 
and the color of the hair is the same as one well 
copied from an original painting by Cooper, in 
his time. JOHN KIRK. 

Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 1775. 

There is an illustration of the head in a 
pamphlet entitled ' Narrative | relating to | 
the real embalmed head | of | Oliver Crom- 
well | now exhibiting | in Mead Court in Old 
Broad Street | 1799.' This is doubtless the 
history referred to in Carlyle's letter (10 S. xi. 
453.) F. M. R. HOLWORTHY. 

THE STORM SHIP (10 S. xi. 488). Your 
correspondent in far Japan has, no doubt, 
heard of the tale of the "Flying Dutchman," 
numerous versions of which are known in 
Germany. An explanation of the many 
" spectre ships " actually seen by various 
travellers is given in Sir David Brewster's 
' Letters on Natural Magic ' (London, 1833). 

L. L K. 

[ST. SWITHIN also mentions the " Flying Dutch- 

10 s. XIL JULY io, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


394). The story mentioned by MB. EDWARD 
PEACOCK came to me in German in * Des 
Herren Jesu Christi Kinder-Buch,' the gift 
of the starter and first editor of ' N. & Q.' 
I did not refer to this in my reply (p. 394), 
because there was nothing said of the names 
borne by the robbers, nor were they identi- 
fied with the malefactors who suffered on 
Calvary. One of a band which the Holy 
Family encountered when flying into Egypt 
preserved Joseph from death, and took him, 
the Blessed Virgin and the Child, to his own 

"Dieser alte Mordor hatte eine Frau welche er 
so sehr liebte, wie sein eigenes Leben. Da die Frau 
ihren Mann mit der Jungfraxt kommen sah, so 
fasste sie eine grosse Liebe zu derselberi und ihrem 
Kinde, begriisste sie sehr freundlich, fiihrte sie in 
ihr Haus, gab ihnen zu essen und zu trinken und was 
sie sonst nothig batten. Sie richtete ein Bad zu, 
das Kind zu waschen, bereitete ein schones reines 
Bett, und bat die Jungt'rau Maria, dass sie das 
Kind Jesum darin tegen sollte. Die Frau des 
Raubers hatte auch ein Kind, das sehr aussatzig^ 
iind am ganzeii Leibe schwarz war ; sie badete und 
wusch ihr Kind in dem Wasser, in welchem das 
Kind Jesus gewaschen worden war, und es wurde 
alsbald rein. Als diess ein anderer Rauber horte, 
der gleichfalls einen Ausschlag an seiriem Leibe 
hatte, wusch er sich gleichfalls mit diesem Wasser 
und ward rein. Da nahm der alte Rauber das 
Wasser und verwahrte sorgfaltig. Hatte Jemand 
einen Schaden an sich, er mochte so alt sein, als er 
wollte so bestrich er nur den Schaden mit dem 
Wasser und er wurde sogleich heil. Es kamen 
Viele, die ihn fur ihre Rettung reich beschenkten, 
wodurch er ein reicher Mann wurde und das Rauben 
nicht mehr nothig hatte." 

What is substantially the same tale, 

* Jesus-Christ et le bon Larron,' is included 
by M. F. M. Luzel in ' Legendes Chretiennes 
dela Basse-Bretagne ' (vol. i. p. 137). A note 
concerning it (vol. ii. pp. 375-6) gives the 
thieves other names than those which have 
been cited in ' N. & Q.' : 

" Comme on le voit, on n'est pas d'accord sur les 
noms des deux larrons. Dans les Collectanea, vul- 
gairement attribues a Bede, on les appelle encore 
Matha et Joca ; et dans une histoire de Jesus-Christ 
qui a e'te' ecrite en persan par le jesuite Jerome 
Xavier, que les Elze>irs ont imprimee en 1639, ils 
sont designes sous les noms de Lustrin et Vissimus. 
Selon les legendaires credules du moyen-age ce fut 
celui des larrons sur lequel porta 1'ombre du corps 
du Sauveur qui se convertit." 


(10 S. xi. 449). If John Mayne's song 

* Logan Braes ' (sometimes called from its 
tune * Logan Water') is the object of 
inquiry, it will be found in the preface to 
a little volume containing the author'? 

* Siller Gun, a Poem.' It is also included ir 
every fairly comprehensive Scottish antho 

ogy. When first published in The Star the 
yric consisted of two stanzas only, to which 
he poet subsequently added a third, admir- 
ably suited in all respects to his original con- 
ception. Some one, however, desirous of 
wringing a pathetic and touching predicament 
to a happy culmination, produced in three 
additional and poetically creditable stanzas a 
omforting and popular narrative, and gave 
the whole to the readers of ' Duncan's 
Pocket Encyclopaedia of Scottish, English, 
and Irish Songs,' published at Glasgow in 
1816. This composite version appears in 
Chambers's ' Scottish Songs,' i. 31. It is 
worthy of note that Burns, recalling the 
refrain of Logan's song as published in The 

While my dear lad maun face his faes, 
Far, far frae me and Logan braes 

momentarily thought it one of the old frag- 
ments of Scottish verse, and straightway 
produced his own ' Logan Braes.' This, 
while fine in many ways and not unworthy 
of its high origin, fails to reach the pastoral 
sweetness, the emotional fervour, and the 
simple pathos of Mayne's delineation. On 
the whole matter see Johnson's ' Musical 
Museum,' iv., ed. Laing, 1853. In its original 
version, consisting of two stanzas, the song 
is given, with the melody to which it is set, 
in Chambers's ' Scottish Songs prior to 
Burns ' ; and as finally completed by the 
author it appears in Graham's ' Songs of 
Scotland,' Rogers's ' Modern Scottish Min- 
strel,' and Mary Carlyle Aitken's ' Scottish 
Song.' For an account of Mayne himself see 
memoir in ' DJST.B.' THOMAS BAYNE. 

S. xi. 141, 210). If COL. PRIDEAUX is in 
want of a real joke by the late Thomas Hood 
instead of the supposititious one imagined 
by Thackeray in his Roundabout Papers, 
I can supply him with one, which, as far as 
I know, has not appeared in print. 

My friend the late William Fisher, a 
portrait painter of some celebrity and a 
member of the Arts Club, Hanover Square, 
was friendly with Hood, and related that 
when one calling on Hood he found him 
in bed, and Mrs. Hood, whom he described as 
" a horse-godmother sort of woman "(what- 
ever that description may mean), about to 
apply a mustard plaster on Hood's chest. 
Turning to his visitor, Hood said, referring 
to his spare frame wasted by frequent 
attacks of illness, " So much mustard and 
so little meat." 

Hood died 3 May, 1845. JOHN HEBB. 

Primross Club, S.W. 


(10 S. xi. 410, 474). In answer to H. C.'s 
query as to Dean Meredith's marriage, 
I may say that it took place at St. Mary's 
Church, Leicester, on 28 Feb., 1603/4, 
the bride being Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Chippingdale, Doctor of Law, who was a 
resident in the Newark, Leicester. 

There is also reference to Meredith in 
the ' Calendar of State Papers Domestic, 
Jamesl.,' vol. xiii., under date 21 March, 1605, 
which records a grant to John Chippingdale 
of the advowson of the parsonage of Cheriton, 
diocese of Winchester, to present Bic. 
Meredith, one of the King's Chaplains. 

In vol. xxviii., under date 9 Nov., 1607, 
is the grant to Ric. Meredith of the Deanery 
of Wells, void by death of Dr. Heydon. 


5, Linden Road, Bedford. 

WILLIAM GUILD (10 S. xi. 470). William 
Guild was the son of Matthew Guild, 
armourer in Aberdeen, and was born in 1586. 
He was educated at Marischal College, and 
his first ministerial charge was the parish 
church of King-Edward, near Banff, to 
which he was called in 1608. During his 
ministry at King-Edward the honour of 
Doctor in Divinity was conferred upon 
him by his Alma Mater. In 1631 he became 
one of the ministers of St. Nicholas' Church, 
and in 1640 he was appointed to the prin- 
cipalship of King's College. This office 
he held till 1651, when he was ejected by 
Cromwell's Commission. He thereupon 
asked to be reinstated in his ministry in 
St. Nicholas' ; but that was not done, and 
he seems to have lived in retirement until 
his death in 1657. 

Dr. Guild was the author of a great manv 
books (see Robertson's ' Bibliography of 
Aberdeen,' Spalding Club, 1893) ; but 
although he is not known by these books, 
Dr. Guild's name is honoured because of his 
liberality to some of our public institutions, 
and particularly to the Incorporated Trades, 
for whom he purchased in 1631 the convent 
buildings of the Trinity Friars (see Shirrefs's 
' Life of Dr. William Guild,' Aberdeen, 1798 
and 1799). JAMES B. THOMSON. 

Public Library, Aberdeen. 

Prof. Cooper's article in the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography ' on Dr. William 
Guild, Minister of King Edward (1608-31), 
afterwards Minister of the Second Charge in 
Aberdeen, and Principal of King's College, 
gives the essential points, and a useful 
bibliography is appended. As Dr. Guild's 
publications are for the most part very 

s.carce, the following additions to Prof. 
Cooper's list of twenty-one publications 
may be noted, viz. : 

1. Young man's inquisition. 1608. 

2. Levi : his complaint. Edinburgh, 1617. 

3. A short treatise agaynst the prophanation of 
the Lord's Day, especiallie by salmond - fishing 
thereon, in tyme 01 Divine Service. Aberdeen, 

4. To the nobilitie, gentrie, burrowis, ministers, 
and otheris of this lait combinatioun in Covenant, a 
freindlie and faithfull advyss. Aberdeen, 1639. 

5. Isagoge Catechetica. Aberdeen, 1649. 
From the list of editions of ' Moses 

Vnuailed ' (the work specially mentioned 
by MB. RUSSELL) a very interesting edition 
(London, 1623) is omitted. A nice copy 
of that edition is in this library, and a copy 
is also in the possession of the Aberdeen 
University Library. 

Dr. Cooper's bibliography gives the date 
of James Shirrefs's ' Inquiry into the Life, 
Writings, and Character of Rev. Dr. William 
Guild' as 1799. That, however, is the 
second edition. The first was issued in 1798. 


Public Library, Aberdeen. 

There is a ' Life ' of Guild by Dr. James 
Shirrefs (Aberdeen, 1799), who sums him 
up as " possessing not only the talents of a 
man truly great, but the still more amiable 
qualities of one eminently good." Lists of 
his works are given in ' D.N.B.,' Watt's 
' Biblio. Brit.,' and Darling's ' Cyclo. Biblio.'; 
and more modest ' Lives ' of him will be 
found in Chalmers's and Rose's Biographical 
Dictionaries. Portraits of Guild and his 
father are in Trinity Hall, Aberdeen. 


187, Piccadilly, W. 
[MB. A. R. BAYLEY also thanked for reply.] 

ST. PETER'S AT ROME (10 S. xi. 448). 
The story Vhich MR. L ANGLE Y wants is 
No. III. in 'Tom Tiddler's Ground,' being 
' The Extra Christmas Number of All the 
Year Bound,' 1861. Its title is ' Picking up 
Terrible Company.' 

According to the reprint of ' The Nine 
Christmas Numbers of All the Year Round ^ 
26, Wellington Street, Strand, and Messrs. 
Chapman & Hall, 193, Piccadilly (1870 or 
about), and the new edition of the stories 
published by Messrs. Chapman & Hall in 
1907, the writer of this thrilling story was 
Amelia B. Edwards. The two main figures 
in it are Francois Thierry, political offender, 
and Gasparo, burglar, forger, and incendiary. 
They are not on the dome of St. Peter's 
because they are convicts. Having escaped 
from Toulon, they happen to meet at Rome, 

10 s. xii. JULY 10, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


having enrolled themselves among the eighty 
men hired to light the dome and cupola o 
St. Peter's on the evening of " Easte 
Sunday, April the sixteenth." 

Possibly Miss Edwards had some reason 
for giving this precise date. It would, '. 
think, be 16 April, 1854. 


S. xi. 486). It does not require to be i 
septuagenarian to remember the tern 
" covered carriages " as officially used bj 
railway companies. In the later sixties 
and it may be later the Great Western 
Railway Company, to my personal recol 
lection, always announced its excursions 

as "First class, ; covered carriages 

." A. F. R. 

401). Political students who are at the 
same time men of leisure may be interested in 
recalling the history of the debates on the 
Budget of 1841, which has been admirably 
summarized in a work that has attained 
high rank as a classic during the lifetime 
of its author ' The Life and Letters of Lord 
Macaulay.' I can only be permitted to 
make a bare reference to a situation which 
in some important respects bore a striking 
similarity to that which is agitating the 
taxpayer at the present moment, and my 
sole object in writing is to invite attention 
to an apparent verbal irregularity in Sir 
George Trevelyan's historical review. One 
main feature in the Budget, which aroused 
strong opposition on the part of the planting 
interest in the West Indies, was a proposal 
to reduce the duty on foreign sugar, and on 
this the historian remarks : 

" Lord Sandon moved an amendment, skilfully 
framed to catch the votes of Abolitionist members 
of the Liberal party, and the discussion was dis- 
cussed through eight livelong nights, with infinite 
repetition of argument, and dreariness of detail." 
To discuss a Budget is a feat which requires 
unusual qualities on the part of our Parlia- 
mentary stalwarts, but to discuss a dis- 
cussion on a Budget is a tour de force which, 
if not beyond the capacity of the House of 
Commons, few would care to undertake 
except those vigorous writers on the Press 
whose power, if we may believe Lord Rose- 
bery, exceeds that of any statesman, and 
who in a collective gathering strike even 
Prime Ministers with awe. I am therefore 
inclined to think that the intention of the 
writer was to say that the discussion was pro- 
longed through eight livelong nights, a 
waste of time from which in these more 

humane days we are spared by the merciful 
use of the guillotine. The passage will be 
found at p. 401 of the cheap edition of the 
book in Longman's " Silver Library." 


HUSBAND (10 S. xi. 407, 497). A girl was 
sentenced to be burnt to death at Exeter 
in 1782 for killing her master. In T}ie 
Flying Post for 3 May, 1782, is the brief 
announcement : 

"On Monday, Rebecca Downing was committed 
to High-Gaol for poisoning her Master." 

The trial took place at the following July 
assizes, and is thus chronicled in the issue 
of the same paper for 2 August : 

" Thursday last the Assizes ended here, at which 
Rebecca Downing was sentenced to be burnt alive 
for the murder of Richard Jar vis." 

On another page of this newspaper are 
the following details of the execution in 
question : 

'Rebecca Downing was, on Monday last, 
pursuant of her sentence, drawn on a sledge to the 
place of execution, attended by an amazing con- 
3ourse of people, where, after being strangled, her 
aody was burnt to ashes. While under sentence, 
and at the place of execution, she appeared totally 
gnorant or her situation, and insensible to every 
iind of admonition." 

The " place of execution " was Ringswell, 
situated about a mile and a half outside the 
city. A small burial-ground was attached 
:o it, given by the Mayor of Exeter (John 
Petre) in 1557. 

The murder took place at East Portle- 
iiouth in South Devon. In the graveyard 
here, a little to the north-west of the 
fifteenth-century tower of the parish church 
dedicated to St. Winwaloe, a sixth-century 
Breton), may be seen an old slate headstone. 
The inscription thereupon is rather difficult 
o decipher, but, with a little trouble, can 
)e read as follows : 

" Here lieth the bodj of Richard Jar vis of 
ickham in this parish, who departed this life the ' 
5th day of May, 1782, aged 79. 

Through poison strong, he was cut off, 

And brought to death at last. 
It was by his apprentice girl, 

On whom there's sentence past. 

Oh, may all people warning take, 

For she was burned at a stake." 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

This subject has often been discussed, 
nd the columns of ' N. & Q.' contain much 
nformation with regard to it, as the follow- 
ng references will testify : 4 S. xi. 174, 222, 
47 ; 5 S. xii. 149 ; 7 S. viii. 387 ; ix. 49. 
'he most notorious case was that of Mrs. 



Catherine Hayes, Thackeray's " Catherine," 
who was executed on 9 May, 1726. 


SIB LEWIS POIXABD (10 S. xi. 365, 433, 
495, 515). I am at a loss to understand 
why MB. RHODES should think the judge's 
will better evidence of the number of his 
children than the statements of the Devon- 
shire historians. Was there anything to 
prevent his leaving all his property to six 
only of his twenty-two children, or for that 
matter to one only, if he felt so inclined ? 
In addition to the authorities already 
quoted by me I would refer your correspond- 

Prof. E. Suess of 
The Face of the 

ents to the following. 
Westcote, circa 1560, 

in his ' View of 

Devonshire ' states that the judge had 
eleven sons and eleven daughters. Five of 
his daughters were married, the Christian 
names of some of whom he is unable to 
give ; but he names their husbands, and 
we know that four of his sons attained the 
honour of knighthood. He does not men- 
tion the window. 

Risdon, circa 1580, in his * Survey of 
Devon,' says : 

" In Nymet church judge Pollard lieth honourably 
interred, haying a monument erected to his 
memory, a window of which church, whereunto he 
was a benefactor, sheweth his name, marriage, 
office, and issue, with his effigies and his lady's 
figured fairly in glass, having ten sons on the one 
side and so many daughters on the other side, a 
fair offspring." 

Moore in his ' History of Devonshire ' 
(1829) gives the story of the window with 
twenty-two children. 

Now Westcote was born some twenty 
years, and Risdon some forty years, after 
the judge's death, when the window was 
probably intact, and both may have seen 
it. Again, Prince, who confirms the story 
was a Devonshire vicar for the long perioc 
of forty-eight years six at Totnes, and 
forty-two at Berry Pomeroy close by. He 
must have been engaged for many years in 
collecting material for his ' Worthies o 
Devon,' a work that for the time at whicl 
he wrote it is singularly correct. He may 
surely be considered as trustworthy as any 
one, and a better authority than the judge" 
will. A. J. DAVY. 


PENINSULAS (10 S. xi. 490). The south 
ward direction of most peninsulas require 
a geological, not a meteorological explana 
tion. No such explanation can cover a 
cases, jsince there are several varieties o 
geological structure in peninsulas ; but th 
most striking cases viz., Africa, Arabia 

India, and Greenland can be shown to have 
once formed part of more extensive land- 
masses, and to be the upstanding relics 
between areas that have sunk along great 
fissure-planes these sunken areas widening 
and coalescing to the south. The classical 
work on this and allied^ subjects is ' Das 
Antlitz der Erde,' by 
Vienna (translated as 
arth '). For one attempt at a general 
xplanation of the earth -movements that 
lave produced these peninsular masses, see 
le popular account of the tetrahedral 
-heory of the earth in Prof. J. W. Gregory's 
Geography, Structural, Physical, and Com- 
arative ' (Blackie). A more complicated 
heory was expounded by Prof. Love in his 
ddress to the Mathematical Section of the 
British Association in 1907. 


"HACKBUT BENT" (10 S. xi. 507). 
Hackbut " is another name for, or form 
F, "Arquebus." " Bent "= aimed. See 
N.E.D.,' s.v. bend, where the phrase asked 
bout is quoted, from Scott's ballad ' Cadyow 
astle ' : 

With hackbut bent, my secret stand, 
Dark as the purposed deed, I chose, 
reference is, of course, to tht> assassina- 

ion of the Regent Murray by Hamilton of 
Bothwellhaugh. See ' Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border,' in the ' Poetical Works of 
Sir Walter Scott,' vol. iii. p. 428 (Edinburgh, 
Archibald Constable & Co., 1825). 

T. F. D. 

The words are to be found in Scott's 
Cadyow Castle.' The hackbut or hagbut 
was the ancient matchlock carbine, and 
bent " means " cocked." 


(10 S. xi. 410, 473). I am much obliged to 
bhe correspondents who kindly try to 
elucidate Anne Townshend's precise rela- 
tionship to Sir Thomas Browne. MB. 
FBED. JOHNSON, than whom there is no 
better authority on Norfolk pedigrees, says 
that from the facts he states " the inference 
is that Nevil Cradock [Anne Townshend's 
father] married a sister of Sir Thomas 
Browne." This is certainly a legitimate 
inference, though the fact that Elizabeth 
Cradock, presumably daughter also of 
Nevil Cradock, makes the Witherleys her 
principal legatees, might point to a relation- 
ship through the Milehams, as Hobart 
Mileham, a sister of Lady Browne's, married 

10 s. XIL JULY 10, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Edmund Witherley. What relation was 
Nevil Witherley to this Edmund ? Another 
sister of Lady Browne's, Willoughby Mile- 
ham, is not accounted for in the Mileham 
pedigrees I have seen. 

The Browne relations are numerous and 
most perplexing. Sir Thomas, in his letters, 
mentions the following " cozens " Barker, 
Hobbs, Cradock, Townshend ; Astley and 
lite lady (this was Dean Astley and his wife, 
who was a daughter of J. Hobart, to whom 
Sir Thomas signs himself " your unworthy 
Kinsman " the kinship apparently being 
through Lady Browne, whose mother was a 
daughter of John Hobart, but his place in 
the Hobarfc pedigree is unknown to me) ; cozen 
Witherley (his wife's niece) ; cozen Bendish ; 
cozen John Cradock ; cozen Buck ; cozen 
Rotheram ; and greater puzzle still " my 
sister Whiting." 

Lady Browne names as "cozens" Buck- 
barg (sic) Bendish ; Felton ; Mr. Cottrell; 
the Howells ; Tenison (wife of Joseph 
Tenison her nephew, son of Archdeacon 
Tenison and her sister Anne Mileham). 

Edward Browne, Sir Thomas's son, in his 
diary mentions the following relatives, viz., 
< my uncle Bendish, who perhaps now 
f!669] is Mayor"; aunt Bendish; cozen 
Betty Cradock, doubtless the Elizabeth 
whose will MR. JOHNSON quotes ; cozen 
Garway (his great-grandfather was Garway 
or Garraway) ; cozen Barker ; aunt Tenison 
(see above) ; aunt Gaw T dy ; and " my dear 
sister Cottrell." 

Allowing for the loose use of "cozen" 
in those times, and even of " sister," though 
I have given much time and investigation 
to the kin of Sir Thomas, Lady, and Edward 
Browne, I have yet failed to unravel the 
relationships of most of the foregoing, and 
I should be grateful to any correspondent 
who would help to throw light on them. 


BLACK DAVIES (10 S. xi. 507). There is a 
most unfavourable notice of this person at 
pp. 35-41 of * The Minor Jockey Club, or, 
A Sketch of the Manners of the Greeks,' 
published for R. Farnham, and sold by the 
booksellers at Bath, Newmarket, York, and 
London, n.d. (?1794). This is a work in the 
same style as ' The Jockey Club,' and writing 
-of Davies, the author says : 

" His friend Louse P...g...t, in the Jockey Club, 
has treated his old friend with most unjust and 
\mpardonable severity, which was not to be ex- 
pected, as there appears a wonderful similitude in 
the disposition of these worthies." 

I find that in 1820 the gambling house 
10, King Street, was kept by " the elder 

Davis." I do not know if this could have 
been Black Davis, who at one time kept a 
house in St. James's Street. F. JESSEL. 

DR. JOHNSON'S WATCH (10 S. xi. 231, 494; 
xii. 12). There is, as MB. LYNN states at 
the last reference, no textual authority for 
yap. But I think it was inserted in order 
to suggest more clearly the previous in- 
junction to work in the Biblical passage, 
otherwise " the night cometh " might 
naturally be t&ken as an injunction to rest. 
I note that yap is in the right place as 
second word. Walter Scott's sundial had 
apparently the same inscription with yap. 
It is figured on the frontispiece of his 'Journal' 
(2 vols., Edinburgh, David Douglas, 1890), 
and on the page of tissue paper over it is 
quoted : 

" ' I must home to work while it is called day ; for 
the night cometh when no man can work. I put 
that text, many a year ago, on my dial-stone ; but it 
often preached in vain.' Scott's 'Life,' x. 88." 

Where did Scott get this form of the motto ? 
Is there any record of his deriving it from 
Johnson ? * HIPPOCLIDES. 

(10 S. xi. 448). There is an account of the 
first-named architect in the ' D.]ST.B.' under 
Emlyn, the customary spelling of his name. 
To this may be added that one of his daugh- 
ters married Capell Lofft the elder (q.v.) ; 
while another, Maria, was the first wife of 
Thomas Clio Rickman (q.v.), under whose 
notice, however, this fact is not stated. 
I can give further particulars of this mar- 
riage, if required. 

It is, of course, ungraceful to criticize a 
work of such profound value and interest 
as the ' D.N.B.,' but it must be said that 
the absence therefrom of systematic genea- 
logical information is the despair of the 
rapidly increasing number of students of 
heredity, to whom the pedigrees of the 
persons whose biographies are to be found 
therein form an obvious field of research. 

Another instance that occurs to me of 
this lack of system is in the case of Sir 
Richard Owen, the anatomist, the name of 
whose wife (though mentioned, with the 
fact of her marriage, in the account of Clift, 
her father) does not appear in his own 
biography. PERCEVAL LUCAS. 

The restoration of St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, in 1787-90 was carried out by 
Henry Emlyn (not Emblin), an architect 
resident at Windsor, and the author of ' A 
Proposition for a New Order of Architecture, 
with Rules for drawing its Several Parts,* 


NOTES AND QUERIES, rio s. xn. JULY 10, im 

folio, London, 1781. He was elected F.S.A 
25 June, 1795; and died 10 Dec., 1815 
aged 86 years. There is a short biography 
of him in the Architectural Publicatior 
Society's ' Dictionary of Architecture.' 

Gravelly Hill, Erdington. 

507) was written and illustrated by my 
grandfather Major-General Godfrey Charles 
Mundy, Governor of Jersey, also the author 
of ' Our Antipodes ' and ' Journal of a Tour 
in India.' The only edition of which I 
have any knowledge is that to which your 
correspondent refers, but there may have 
been a subsequent edition of which I have 


(10 S. xi. 507). The second verse, 

De murraurer contre elle et perdre patience, 
is well known. I did not see the translation 
in The Spectator. Is it the excellent trans- 
lation of Longfellow ? H. K. H. 

The concluding stanza of this poem is 
to be found in " Les cent meilleurs Po ernes 
(lyriques) de la Langue francaise, choisis 
par Auguste Dorchain," published in London 
by Gowans & Gray, 1908. JOHN HEBB. 

Miss LA ROCHE, LADY ECHLIN (10 S. xi. 
501). MR. BLEACKLEY may learn some- 
thing about this lady from the " Delaval 
Papers," a mass of documents discovered 
at Seaton Delaval, some of which have been 
published locally, and others calendared 
by the Hist. MSS. Commission. 

K. B R. 

South Shields. 

30). This officer seems to have been 
identical with Lieut. Roderick Mackenzie, 
of the 71st Regiment, who was killed at 
the storming of Seringapatam on 15 May, 
1791, when the 71st so gallantly drove the 
enemy across the river. I am thus able to 
answer my own query. D. M. R. Q. 

CAPT, THOS. BOYS (10 S. xi. 487). There 
is a list of twenty-one captains of Deal 
Castle in the Rev. C. R. S. Elvin's later 
book on ' Walmer and Walmer Castle,' 
p. 91-3. The date of the appointment of 

pt. Thos. Boys is there given as 20 Feb., 
1551, and the name of his predecessor as 
Thomas Wingfield. 

Lyon's date (1538) is probably incorrect, 
as, according to a paper by Mr. W. L. 


Rutton, " Deal Castle and its fellows " were 
only founded in March, 1539. They do not 
appear to have been completed until 1540,. 
in which year they were placed under the 
control of the Lord Warden of the Cinque 
Ports by the statute 32 Henry VIII. cap 48, 
sect. 6. * G. H. W. 

(10 S. xi. 505). The village of Monkton, 
near Jarrow the reputed birthplace of 
the Venerable Bede used to be, and may 
be yet, known as " Mounten," or rather 
" Moonten," the dialect giving oo sound 
for ou. ^R. B R. 

POLITICIAN (10 S. xi. 410, 497). MR.. 
THORNTON mistakes the meaning of " seven- 
by-nine politician " in the U.S. : it means 
just the reverse of one who " cuts some 
figure," viz., a borne man, of tco limited 
abilities, force, or outlook to cut much of 
any. The phrase refers to the old-fashioned 
window-panes, before the time when glass 
filling the whole or half of the sash was 
common ; these were " seven by nine " in 
hundreds of thousands of farm or village 
houses, and an affliction to the hard-worked 
housewives who had to clean them. It 
differs from " parish politician " in England 
or " village politician " here, as not neces- 
sarily implying a restricted field of action ; 
there are plenty in the national field ; the 
name concerns what they do, not where or 
how conspicuously they do it. Its nearest 
synonym is " peanut " politician, i.e., bearing 
the same relation to large political ideas 
and plans as a peanut vender, or huckster 
of peanuts and roast chestnuts in a push- 
cart, does to large mercantile activities. 
Neither name implies a low position or 
importance : only the pettiness of the 
issues which form the staple of the activities. 
Chairmen of national committees, U.S. 
Senators, even Cabinet ministers, have often 
been peanut politicians ; that is, given up 
their whole souls to questions of petty 
patronage and mean huckstering for spoils,, 
without political principles or thought for 
the national welfare or dignity. The Duke 
of Newcastle in the elder Pitt's time was a 
'seven-by-nine" or peanut politician of 
the foremost type. Similar names are 
' two -cent " or " two-for-a-cent " ("ha'- 
Denny " comes just between) or " huckle- 
:>erry " (whortleberry) politician : the last 
having the same implication as "peanut" 
>ne who peddles huckleberries by the- 

Hartford, Conn. 

10 s. xii. JULY 10, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



County Folk-lore. Vol. V. Folk-lore concerning 
Lincolnshire. Collected by Mrs. Gutch and 
Mabel Peacock. (Published for the Folk-lore 
Society by D. Nutt.) 

THE DEVIL looks over Lincoln, according to the 
old saying. The adherents of the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute, who are to do the same thing 
at the end of this month, may be recommended 
to peruse this most interesting volume, which is 
full of fascinating tradition and folk-lore con- 
cerning the county of Lincoln. The whole is 
excellently arranged by the skilful hand of 
Mr. N. W. Thomas, and has been collected with 
admirable zeal by Mrs. Gutch and Miss Mabel 
Peacock, daughter of our old contributor Mr. 
Edward Peacock. The last-mentioned scholar 
in his ' Glossary of Words used in the Wapentakes 
of Manley and Corringham,' in our own columns, 
and elsewhere has done much to elucidate and 
preserve the fast-fading relics of earlier days. 
Miss Peacock says in her Preface that " the only 
striking characteristic of Lincolnshire folk-lore 
is its lack of originality." This, however, is a 
feature which pleases us, since many of the stories 
and customs recall slightly different variants 
with which we are familiar in different parts of 
England. Thus we knew well a " wise man " 
who was accused of " overlooking " people, and 
was called by village folk " a witch." 

Green's forsaken, and yellow's forsworn, 
But blue's the prettiest colour that's worn, 
is the Oxfordshire form we have heard of the 
couplet here quoted from Grantham. " Kex," 
" keck," or " kecksy," a general name for umbel- 
liferous plants, we know best in the second form. 
It is a word securely recorded in our language, 
for it occurs in Shakespeare, and also in the 
Dorset dialect of Mr. Thomas Hardy. 

Three sections full of interest are those con- 
cerned with ' Animals,' ' Goblindom,' and ' Witch- 
craft. ' At Stamford the custom of informing bees 
of a death is prevalent, a rite concerning which our 
correspondents have written at different times, 
and which appears hi the literature of ancient 
Greece. Under ' Ep worth ' we learn of " Tom 
Boggle," the almost universal name for a ghost, 
which reminds us of " poor Tom " in ' King Lear.' 
The same great play has "Handy-dandy," a child's 
game recorded here. Among the ' Goblin Names ' 
might, perhaps, be included Tennyson's " boggle " 
which was like a " butter-bump." We have 
met with several educated persons who carry a 
potato in their pocket or a chestnut for rheu- 
matism, just as Lincolnshire folk do. 

According to Mr. Peacock, " in making a bed 
you must be careful not to turn over the bed or 
mattress on Sunday, as is done at other tunes ; 
you will have bad luck all the week if you do." 
A Yorkshire informant tells us, however, that 
the Sunday turning means turning away love, 
and the Friday turning bad luck. From the same 
source we gather that to walk under a ladder 
is not unlucky if you wish hard. Bowing at the 
first sight of the new moon we have heard of often, 
but our folk-lore orders nine such curtseys. 

Mr. Peacock is also the authority for a quaint 
set of sheep -shearing numerals beginning " Yan, 

tan, tethera," which were employed at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century in several places 
in Lincolnshire. 

We pause over the pages of the volume with 
delight, and with difficulty restrain ourselves from 
many comments on the lore which is peculiarly 
the province of ' N. & Q.' 

Roman Life and Manners under the Early 
Empire. By Ludwig Friedlander. Authorized 
Translation by J. H. Freese and Leonard A. 
Magnus. Vol. II. (Routledge & Sons.) 
WE are glad to see the continuation of this version, 
which must be welcome to a large number of 
classical students. A third volume will complete 
the author's text, and we learn with great satis- 
faction that his excursuses and notes will be pub- 
lished in a fourth. The present instalment reads 
easily, and is very interesting on the subject of 
' Roman Luxury.' 

IN The Fortnightly Mr. J. L. Garvin's ' Imperial 
and Foreign Affairs : a Review of Events,' leads 
off, and is interesting throughout. Mr. Edward 
Clodd's article ' George Meredith : some Recollec- 
tions,' is genial and intimate, and probably the 
most interesting of the month to the literary 
reader. Mr. J. C. Bailey writes on ' Meredith's- 
Poetry.' Rowland Gray's ' Heavy Fathers " 
is clever, but not very convincing, dealing with 
two or three parents who have laid a heavy hand 
on their offspring. Mrs. Stopes has a learned 
article, which is well fortified with references, 
on ' Burbage's " Theatre," ' and her daughter 
Dr. Marie Stopes gives notes of ' An Expedition 
to the Southern Coal-Mines of Japan,' which are 
fresh and of decided interest. Mr. Edward 
Garnett in ' The Censorship of Public Opinion " 
prints a paper against Mr. Redford's office. There 
is something, we think, to be said on the other side, 
though we regard much of the censorship of plays 
in recent years as inconsistent. Mr. Maurice 
Hewlett begins ' Letters to Sanchia,' a narrative 
in his best and somewhat Meredithian manner.. 
The young charmeur represented reminds us, 
indeed, of a figure in Meredith's work supposed 
to be derived from R. L. Stevenson. 

IN The Nineteenth Century politics figure 
largely : Mr. W. Frewen Lord has an exaggerated 
tirade on ' The Creed of Imperialism ' ; Sir Felix 
Schuster attacks the Death Duties in unconvincing 
style ; and Mr. Austin Harrison introduces once 
again an inspired underling in ' The Cult of Teddy 
Bear,' which seems to us rather foolish. Prof. 
Vamb^ry concludes his ' Personal Recollections of 
Abdul Hamid II. and his Court,' and shows what a. 
bundle of conflicting habits and ideas the Sultan 
was. Mr. Marcus B. Huish deals with the repre- 
sentation of * British Art at Venice ' in a British 
pavilion secured by the liberality of Sir David 
Salomons, and suggests that Venice ought to 
raise a monument to Ruskin. The article, though 
sensible, is spoilt by inflated language. Mr 
W. C. D. Whetham and his wife in ' The Extinction 
of the Upper Classes ' have an important subject 
the modern limitation of children ; but we 
fear that public warnings are useless in such 
matters. In the breeding of unhealthy children 
those who should know best what they are doing 
are often the worst offenders. ' Frere Jacques ' 
is one of Miss Rose Bradley's accomplished travel 
articles, giving a pretty picture of late spring 
in Corsica. Canon Vaughan writes well on ' The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 10, 1900. 

Revision of the Prayer Book Psalter.' Mr. 
George B. Wilson makes a reply in ' " True 
Temperance " and the Public-House ' to Mr. 
Edwyn Barclay's statements as an eminent brewer. 

IN The Cornhitt Mr. Binyon has an ambitious 
and not wholly successful poem, ' Mother and 
Child.' It is, however, far preferable to the smooth 
cleverness which generally is accounted good 
verse nowadays. Miss Cholmondeley's ' Vicarious 
Charities : a Dialogue,' is admirably witty and 
sensible, and will be read with pleasure by many 
people in society who are bored and wearied by 
unsuitable applicants for help in various forms. 
Dr. Fitchett retells a vivid chapter of Australian 
history in ' The Tale of the Eureka Stockade ' ; 
and E. V. B. has an impressive short story of 
ghostly possession in ' An Unseen Terror.' 
Katharine Tynan sketches a very gracious figure 
with old ideas and a young heart in ' The Lady of 
the Manor.' ' The Seven Thirty ' is a delightful 
story of a London landlady by Dorothea Deakin. 
* Briton and Boer in South Africa,' by a Cape M.A., 
and ' Babies of the State,' by Mrs. H. O. Barnett, 
both treat in an informing way subjects of 
importance to every Englishman. The mortality 
among the babies dependent on the State is more 
shocking than the tale of any foreign war. 

IN The National Review Mr. Austin Dobson's 
account of 'Mr. Cradock of Gumley' is the most 
interesting article to any one with literary tastes. 
Cradock was not a great figure, but he has left 
memorable notes of great figures, such as Johnson 
and Garrick, which Mr. Dobson has woven into a 
charming article. 'The late Lord Glenesk and 
The. Morning Post' by M. T. Ferguson, dwells 
justly on the honourable part the paper and its 
modern maker have played in journalism ; but its 
progressive character in social reform is possibly 
exaggerated. It is said that the first regular War 
Correspondent was C. L. Gruneisen, who repre- 
sented The Morning Post, in the Carlist War of 
1837. Miss Black-Hawkins has a curious short 
paper on ' Wasps as Pets.' Mr. A. Maurice Low, 
in dealing with 'American Affairs,' rebukes The 
Spectator for its tone of condescension towards 
the United States ; and Mr. Benson Hayes, in 
'Hypnotism and Character,' tells of the suc- 
cesses of a French doctor, B^rillon, in curing 
diseases and unpleasant habits. The writer 
says ^that at the dispensary in the Rue St. 
Andre des Arts "the fee is a nominal one, 
within the means of the poorest ; and a glance at 
the number of patients present belonging to the 
working classes convinced me that faith in the 
healing power of hypnotism must be very widely 
spread in Paris." 'Episodes of the Month' is, as 
usual, a pungent summary of politics. The 
Imperial Press Conference is described as " a con- 
spicuous and unclouded success." Unfortunately, 
it was somewhat of a party character. Much is 
made of Lord Rosebery s famous letter concerning 
the Budget, and he is asked to take a " clear, strong 
lead," as both the dominant party in the Commons 
and the House of Lords are too apprehensive 
concerning their respective fortunes to look after 
the country. 

STUDENTS of history and biography are 
seriously indebted to L' Intermediate, which 
continues to afford valuable assistance in eluci- 
dating many doubtful details connected with 
the social development of the French nation 

and the growth of its literature. Among the 
families who have lately been discussed in its 
pages may be mentioned those who are con- 
nected by blood or alliance with the kindred of 
Jeanne d'Arc. The man who assassinated the 
Duke of Guise at Orleans in 1563 comes under 
notice ; and several famous, or infamous, actors in 
the great drama of the Revolution and the First 
Empire are also discussed. One query draws 
attention to the fact that under the ancien regime 
many people wore swords who had no legal 
right to do so. According to the police reports 
of the eighteenth century, Jews, actors, lettres, 
and others broke the formal rules in this respect. 
It does not appear, however, that they were 
prosecuted for infringing the law. 

A somewhat quaint account of the physical 
relics of St. Francis of Sales such as his heart 
and tongue is given in another note. His 
remains seem to abound. It appears that the 
' Hagiologie nivernaise,' by Monseigneur Grosnier, 
explains the existence of numerous examples of 
his hair and blood in the monasteries of the 
Visitandines by referring to " le inanuscrit des 
Visitandines," which shows that the saint's 
valet de chambre had an elevated conception of 
his employer's sanctity, and accordingly pre- 
served everything of which St. Francis had 
made use. His old clothes, the cuttings of his 
hair, and the blood taken from his veins when, 
following the fashion of the time, he was bled, 
were carefully hoarded. " I foresaw that one 
day all these would become relics," the servitor 
explained when questioned on the subject after 
the holy man's death. In this instance a man 
did prove a hero to his valet, and the latter had 
the acumen not only to recognize that he was 
living with a man of unusual type, but also to 
conclude that at some future date anything 
which had formed part of him, or been in contact 
with him, would have a value for the collectors 
of religious keepsakes. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print, and to this rule we can make no exception. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

DELTA. See the extensive literature of the 
subject. "First-hand knowledge" is in any case 
difficult to prove. 

V. H. C. ("Suppression of Duelling in England"). 
r See 10 S. ii. 367, 435 ; iii. 16, 475 ; iv. 333 f v. 112, 

W. J. S. Forwarded. 

10 s. XIL JULY 10, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


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Author of ' John Francis and The Athenceum J 

His father and mother His education His first poem "King of the College" Joins Edward Hewitt 
in founding a Mechanics' Institute in Leeds Gives a lecture before the Leeds Philosophical and 
Literary Society on ' The Fairies of English Poetry 'The Leeds Wits Friendships for W. E. Forster 
and the Marquis of Ripon Dr. Reynolds minister at East Parade Chapel and his friendship for the 
Knights Knight's marriage Leaves for London Feels capable of either editing The Times or 
commanding the Channel Fleet Writes for Literary Gazette under John Morley Succeeds J. A 
Heraud as dramatic critic of The Athenceum His views of Fechter and Irving Knight originates 
Banquet to the Come'die Francaise Reviews the French Academy's Dictionary in The Athenceum Also' 
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CONTENTS.-No. 290. 

NOTES : Players' Companies on Tour, 1548-1630, 41 Miller 
Bibliography, 42 Thomas Paine's Remains, 44 Yelver- 
tons of Easton Maudit, 45 Spurious Medals Squthey 
Capt. Thompson's Poems "And he was a Samaritan," 46 
Hengler's Circus "Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John" 
Moliere's Comedies " Plough, Thack, Stack, and 
Willing," 47. 

QUERIES : St. Nicolas's, Rouen Donna Maria of Spain 
Marchetti Collection of Drawings, 47 Saints' Satis- 
faction Jackson and Law Families Archdeacon Sted- 
man " Seecatchie " " Camelario," ' North-Country 
Parish Registers '" See how these Christians love one 
another" "Vache k Colas " Vachell Ford Family 
Byron and Crawley Freemasonry Pig Grass Nuns as 
Chaplains St. Dunstan's-in-the-West Engraving by Will, 
49 Dutch Boy and Dyke Flint Pebbles at Brighton Lory 
Family Earl of Bristol's House" Bec-en-Hent," 50. 

REPLIES : Phrases in American Newspapers, 50 Statues 
in the British Isles, 51 Lynch Law Lumley Family, 52 
Cawdor Dispatch Names terrible to Children, 53 Abp. 
Blackburne " Brokenselde " Swedish Painters Ships' 
Periodicals, 54 Ruby Wedding R. Newman" Though 
lost to sight "Johnson's Uncle Hanged Pan-Germanic 
Press, 55" Haughendo "Norfolk, Virginia Comets- 
Inventor of the Lucifer Match Holt Castle, 56 Groom's 
Coffee-House Beezley Carstares " At the back of 
beyond," 57 R. Carlile " Rhombus " Fleetwood Ben- 
jamin Hanbury's Library Sir C. Slade " Volksbiicher " 
"Fossel " Automaton Dancers, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lupton's ' Life of Colet ' ' Ruined 

and Deserted Churches ' ' The Heroine 'Cambridge 

County Geographies' Burlington Magazine.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


THE borough of Saffron Walden, Essex 
possesses two volumes of corporation 
accounts which extend, almost without 
break, from 31 May, 1545, to 31 Dec., 1835 
Unfortunately, these accounts are very 
meagre. The real affairs of the borough 
both in respect of income and outlay, were 
managed by the two Chamberlains, anc 
their accounts have not been kept. Th( 
-accounts preserved are those of the chie 
magistrate (at Saffron Walden termed " th< 
Treasurer"), and contain chiefly certain 
balances (e.g., of the Chamberlains' accounts 
and certain traditional expenditure (e.g., o 
borough hospitality to the Justices at the 
Sessions). Among the accidental items o 
expenditure are found notices of paymen 
to companies of players on tour. It wil 
l)e of interest to take these notices fron 
the north-west corner of Essex, and compar 
them with the notices already given (10 S 
vii. 181, 342, 422 ; viii. 43) from Maldon in 
the east of the county. 

The accounts are from Michaelmas t 
Michaelmas, and in some cases it seem 
possible to distinguish an autumn tour 
from a spring tour. In other years th 

;ems have been so obviously re-arranged 
groups at the drafting of the account as 
o forbid inference. It cannot be concluded, 
rom the absence of entries in any year, 
hat ho company visited Walden that year. 
The customary visit may have been paid, 
and the accustomed fee given by the Cham- 
berlains, and therefore absent from the 
Treasurer's account. ANDREW CLARK. 
Great Leighs Rectory, Chelmsford. 

1547-8 (probably spring, 1548. Elizabeth, 
wife of Thomas, Baron Audley, was no doubt 
'eeident in the Abbey buildings). Gyven to 
:erteyn players sent by lady Awdeley to the 
,owne, in reward, IQd. 

1559-60 (probably spring, 1560. Lord Robert 
Dudley, Master of the Horse, was brother-in-law 
X) the widowed heiress of Audley End). Gyven 
XD my lord Roberte his players, 3s. 4d. 

1563-4. Gyven to my lorde Rich his players 
and to other players, 5s. Wd. 

1568-9 (probably spring, 1569). Payd for a 
rewarde to the Queene's majestie her players, 
3s. 4d. 

1569-70 (probably spring, 1570). Given to my 
ord Ryche's players, 2s. 

1570-71 (Elizabeth was at Audley End, 19 Aug., 
1571). To the Quene's players and the Erie of 
Leycester's players, 6s. 8d. To Sir Raphe 
Sadler's players, 3s. Qd. 

1572-3 (probably autumn, 1572). Gyven to 
the Quene's majestie her players, .... 

1573-4 (probably autumn, 1573). Gyven to 
my lord of Sussex players [Lord Chamberlain], 

1576-7. To my Lord Chamberleyn's players, 
2s. Qd. 

1577-8 (probably spring, 1578. Charles, 
Baron Howard of Effingham, Lord Chamber- 
lain. Elizabeth was at Audley End, 1578). 
Paied to my lorde Howarde's players, 2s. 6d. 

1583-4 (probably autumn, 1583). Geven to 
the Quene's majestie's players, 6s. 2d. 

1586-7 (probably spring, 1587). Paid to the 
Queene's plaiers, 6s. 8d. 

1587-8. To the earle of Essex players, 5s. 
To my lord of Lycester's and my Lord Chamber- 
lain's men, 3s. 4d. To the Queene's players, 
3s. 4d. 

1588-9. Given to my lord Staffourd's players, 
3s. 4d. Gyven to the erle of Essex players, 2s. 

1590-91. Given to the Queene's players, 
3s. 4d. Given to one of the Queene's men a 
quart of wine, IQd. 

1591-2. Paid to the Queene's players, 6s. 8d. 
1592-3. Paid to the lord Morlei's players, 
3s. 4<Z. 

1595-6. To the Queene's majestie's players, 

1596-7 (probably spring, 1597). Payed to the 
Quene's players, 3s. 4d. 

1597-8 (probably spring, 1598). Payd to the 
Queene's players, 6s. 8d. 

1598-9 (probably autumn, 1598). Given to 
my lord Bartlett's players, 2s. 

1600-1 (probably autumn, 1600). Paid to tlie 
Queene's players, 6s. 8d. 

1605-6 (probably autumn, 1605). Given to 
the Kinge's plaiers, 6s. 8d. Given to the Queene's 
plaiers, 5s. 


1607-8 (probably spring, 1608). Bestowed on 
the Prince's players, 3s. 4d. 

1608-9 (probably autumn, 1608). Given to 
the Prince's players, 3s. 4eZ. 

1609-10 (Earl of Suffolk at Audley End, 
Lord Chamberlain). Given to the Prince's 
trumpeters and my Lord's players, 6s. 8d. 

1610-11 (probably spring, 1611). Given to 
the Duke of York's players, 10s. Given to the 
Duke of York's trumpeters, 3s. 4eZ. 

1611-12 (probably spring, 1612). Given, in 
reward, to the Queene's players, 5s. 

1613-14 (James I. visited Audley End, 1614). 
Given to the Quene's players, for a reward, 5s. 
Given to the Prince's players, 5s. 

1615-16 (probably autumn, 1615). Given to 
the Prince Paulsgrave servants and players, 5s. 

1616-17 (probably autumn, 1616). Paid to the 
Queen's players, 5s. (Probably spring, 1617). 
Paid to the Prince's players, 3s. 4d. 

1617-18 (probably spring, 1618). Given to 
the Queene's players, 5s. 

1620-21 (probably spring, 1621). Given to 
the Prince's players, 5s. 

1621-2. (Probably autumn, 1621.) Given to 
the Prince's players, 3s. 4d. (Probably spring, 
1622 : Anne of Denmark died 1619.) Given the 
late Queene's players, 5s. 

1622-3 (probably autumn, 1622.) Given to 
the King's players, 3s. 4d. 

1623-4 (probably spring, 1624). Given to the 
King's plaiers, 5s. 

1624-5. (Autumn, 1624.) Given to the 
Prince's players, 6s. 8d, (Spring, 1625.) Given 
to the King's players, 5s. 

1628-9. Geoven to the King's players and 
other players, at three tymes, 6s. 

1629-30 (probably spring, 1630). Given to the 
King's players, 2s. Qd. 

1630-31 (spring, 1630). Given to the King's 
players, 2s. 

(Concluded from p. 3.) 

THIS second instalment gives all the 
remaining Miller publications that I have 
been able to trace : 

1817. Marshall (Rev. Walter). The gospel- 
mystery of sanctification opened in sundry prac- 
tical directions, suited especially to the case of 
those who labour under the guilt and power of 
indwelling sin ; also a Sermon on Justification. 
. . . .With a life of the author. Together with 
Marshall improved ; hints concerning the means 
of promoting religion in ourselves or others, and 
a Sermon on Reconciliation, by the Rev. James 
Hervey. Haddington : printed by G. Miller 
and Son, for G. Miller, Dunbar. 1817. 8vp, 
8 pp. ( unnumbered )+i-xxi, 22-440 pp. Not in 

A similar edition, however, of Marshall's 
book (first published in 1692), "To which 
is added a Recommendatory preface by the 
late Rev. Mr. Hervey," was published in 
London in 1819, 12mo (B.M. 4411. e. 31). 
The author, a Presbyterian divine, born 
1628, died 1680. 

[1818 ?] The life and campaigns of Napoleon- 
Bonaparte, (late emperor of France, &c.) contain- 
ing details of his military achievements .... a 
circumstantial account of the "decisive battle of 
Waterloo ; with particulars of his exile to St. 
Helena, conversations with Dr. Warden, and his 
employment in the Island. Embellished with a 
portrait. To which is annexed, The consequences 
of the French Revolution. Haddington : printed 1 
by and for G. Miller and Son. No date [or date 
cut off by binder]. 12mo, 74+120 pp. Not in 

The portrait is missing. The book was. 
perhaps written by " Mrs. Grant of Duthil 
(the sister of Sir Neil Campbell, who accom- 
panied Napoleon to Elba) " : see ' Lamp of 
Lothian,' 1844, p. 525. Napoleon died at 
St. Helena in 1821 : this work was produced 
some time before that date. 

1818. Aitken (John). The frogs. A fabler, 
Dunbar : printed by G. Miller, 1818. 12mo, 
16 pp. Not in B.M. 

In original paper covers t plain. Dedica- 
tion : "To gossips of every description, 
within the borough of Dunbar, this fable 
is humbly inscribed." In the/ MS*. ' Notes 
on the Miller Family ' it is stated that William 
Miller, third son of George MiUer of Dunbar , 
married, in 1827, " ** Aitken of Dunbar, 
who seems to have died in 1835." William 
was born 24 Oct., 1796, and died 1837. 
Dr. Japp in his MS. notes states that he was 
a bookseller and bookbinder in Dunbar, a 
partner with his father, and succeeded him, 
in the business. See 1830 ' History of Dun- 
bar." Was his wife a relative of the author 
of this piece ? and was the author of this 
piece John Aitken, the- editor of Constable's 
MisceUany ? 

1818. Brown (Rev. John) of Haddington. A 

dictionary of the Holy Bible With a life of 

the author. A new edition, carefully revised, 
and improved with the author's last additions- 
and corrections. In two volumes. Dunbar : 
printed by and for G. Miller; Dunbar, and East 
Lothian printing-office, Haddington. 1818. 8vo. 
Vol. I. xxxii+632 pp. r with 5 plates (plate i. 
frontispiece portrait of the a>uthor.) Vol. II r 
600+xxxii pp., with 2 plates. B,M. 842. c. 14. 

Many other editions and works at Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, London, Paisley, Berwick, and 
Stirling. The author (1722-87) was a Dis- 
senting minister in Haddington from 1751, 
and Professor of Divinity under the Associate 
Synod from 1768 till his death. Though 
poorly born, and largely self-educated, he 
was a man of great learning, a voluminous 
writer, and a powerful preacher. Dr. John 
Brown, the author of ' Rab and his Friends,' 
was his great-grandson, and speaks of him 
with pride in ' Horse Subsecivae,' Second 
Series, ; Letter to John. Cairns, D.D.' 

10 s. xii. JULY 17, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1819. [Miller (James).] Verses in memory of 
Dunbar Collegiate Church. Edinburgh : Oliver 
& Boyd [J. Miller, printer, Haddington]. 1819. 
8vo, iv+40 pp. Anonymous. 

Reprinted in ' St. Baldred of the Bass,' 
Edinb., 1824. Halkett and Laing's 'Dic- 
tionary ' and the Advocates' Library (Edin- 
burgh) Catalogue give George Miller as the 
author. Not in B.M., and not in Mr. 
Unwin's collection : title and description are 
taken from copy in the Advocates' Library. 

1820. [Miller (James).] The luckless drave, and 
other poems. By the author of ' Verses in memory 
of Dunbar Collegiate Church.' Edinburgh : 
William Laing, South Bridge ; and Macredie and 
Co. Princes-street. 1820. [Printed by J. Miller, 
Haddington.] 8vo, 72 pp. [Original paper 
covers. " With anecdotes of the witches of East 
Lothian. Price 2s. 6$."] Anonymous. 
Contents: (1) The luckless drave; notes. 
(2) Wreck of the John and Agnes. (3) 
Shepherd of Lammermoor ; notes. (4) Shep- 
herd's song. (5) Mad woman's song. (6) 
Additional gleanings of witchcraft. Nos. 1, 
2, and 3 are reprinted in ' St. Baldred of the 
Bass,' Edinb., 1824. Halkett and Laing's 
' Dictionary ' gives George Miller of Dunbar 
as the author. 

1821. [Miller (George).] The affecting history 
of Tom Bragwell, an unhappy young man .... 
with some account of his companions in iniquity ; 
wherein, are strikingly delineated the rise, pro- 
gress, and fatal termination of juvenile delin- 
quency .... Humbly recommended to the serious 
attention of youth, as well as to the consideration 
of all parents, guardians, teachers, masters, and 
heads of families .... Haddington : printed .... 
by James Miller, for George Miller, Dunbar, by 
whom the trade will be supplied .... Sold, in 
London, by Darton & Harvey, Gracechurch 
Street. 1821. 12mo, xii+200 pp. [With fron- 
tispiece.] Not in B.M. 

The authorship is indicated on the title-page 
and in the text of ' Latter Struggles,' 1833. 

1824. Miller (James). St. Baldred of the Bass, 
a Pictish legend ; The siege of Berwick, a tragedy ; 
with other poems and ballads, founded on the 
local traditions of East Lothian and Berwickshire. 
Edinburgh : sold by Oliver & Boyd, Tweeddale- 
Court ; and Geo. B. Whittaker, London. [Printed 
by Oliver & Boyd.] 1824. 8vo, viii+416 pp. 
B.M. 11643. 1. 8. 

The frontispiece is drawn and engraved by 
W. H. Lizars. 

1826. [Miller (George).] Popular philosophy : 
or, the book of nature laid open upon Christian 
principles, and agreeably to the lights of modern 
science, and the progress of new discovery : 
being a new, improved, and much enlarged edi- 
tion of ' The book of Nature laid open, in a cursory 
and popular survey of several striking facts in 
Natural History, and in the Phenomena and Con- 
stitution of the Universe.' By the editor of 

' The Cheap Magazine,' and ' Monthly Monitor.' 

Printed for and published by G. Miller, 

Dunbar .... [Haddington : printed by James 

Miller.] 1826. 2 vols. 12mo. Vol. I. xii 
-f 314 pp. with frontispiece. Vol. II. vi+316 pp, 
with frontispiece. 

Each volume has its own index. " * The 
Book of Nature Laid Open,' &c. was first 
printed in a small periodical publication 
[The Cheap Magazine, vol. ii.], which the 
author published, and conducted as editor 
in 1814." Vol. I. preface, v. 

1830. Miller (James). The history of Dunbais 
from the earliest records to the present period i. 
with a description of the ancient castles and pic-?, 
turesque scenery on the borders of East Lothian, 
Published by William Miller, Dunbar, and sold 
by J. Miller, and G. Neill, Haddington. [Printed* 
by J. Miller.] 1830. 12mo. With vignette^ 
half-title, iv+292 pp. B.M. 10370. bbb. 17. 

1833. Miller (George). Latter struggles in the 
journey of life ; or, the afternoon of my days :- 
comprehending chiefly, the period between my 
forty-fifth, and the end of my sixtieth year, being 
the fourth book of my pilgrimage : from, the 
retrospections of a sexagenarian : in which .... 

will be found delineated some of the most 

important lessons and sublime maxims of our- 
Christian philosophy ; not in examples drawn 
from fictitious representations ; or imaginary 
characters, existing only in the regions of fancy 
and romance ; but from the incidents, and every 
day occurrences, of the latter, and most unfor- 
tunate part of the real life of a country bookseller 

Edinburgh : printed by James Colston, 

for the author, George Miller, of Dunbar, East 

Lothian 1833. 8vo, 406 pp., and 2 pp. of 

abridged testimonials, as Appendix. B.M. 4902. 
g. 11, and another copy, 10825, dd. 12. 

1836. Miller (James). Verses to Lord Ramsay 
on his marriage with Lady Susan Hay. Ediar. 
burgh : printed by Ballantyne and Company, 
Paul's Work, Canongate. MDCCCXXXVI. 40 pp f 
[Original paper covers.] Not in B.M. 

James Andrew Ramsay, Lord Ramsay , 
afterwards 10th Earl and 1st Marquis of Dal- 
housie, born 22 April, 1812 ; died 19 Dec., 
1860. Governor-General of India and 
" greatest of Indian Proconsuls." Lady 
Susan Hay, 1st daughter of 8th Marquis 
of Tweeddale, born 13 March, 1817, died on 
board ship while she was returning homo 
from India, 6 May, 1853. 

1841. Miller (James). Elegiac verses in memory 
of general, the right honourable the Earl of 
Dalhousie, G.C.B. Robert Ferguson, Esq. of 
Raith, M.P. and other eminent men connected 
with East Lothian. Edinburgh : printed by A, 
Turnbull and Co. High Street. MDCCCXLI. 8vo, 
iv+36 pp. [Original paper covers : " Price one 
shilling and sixpence."] 

This collected edition is not in B.M., which 
contains, however, 1414. d. 81. (5.) ^ 
' Elegiac Verses in memory of R. Ferguson 
. . . .Lord Lieutenant of Fifeshire,' 8vo, 
pp. 16, A. Turnbull & Co., Edinburgh, 1841. 
The copious notes give biographical details 
of the persons mentioned in the verses. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. - [io s. xn, JULY 17, im 

1844. Miller (James). The Lamp of Lothian ; 
or, the history of Haddington, in connection with 
the public affairs of East Lothian and of Scotland, 
from the earliest records to the present period. 
Haddington : printed and published by James 
Allan, and sold by Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 
1844 V 8vo, 528 pp. Not in B.M. 
" Every type of it ['The Lamp of Lothian'] 
was set up and every correction prepara- 
tory to printing off the sheets was per- 
formed by the author's own hand." ' Bio- 
graphical Sketch ' prefixed to edition of 1900, 
p. xix. A note on ' Printing in East Lothian' 
is given, p. 525. The book is regarded as 
a standard history of Haddington. 

1859. Miller (James). The history of Dunbar, 
from the earliest records to the present time. 
Dunbar : printed and published by James 
Downie. MDCCCLTX. 8vo. With frontispiece, 
vignette half-title, and illustration p. 211. 320 pp. 

1900. Miller (James). The Lamp of Lothian ; 
or the history of Haddington .... from the earliest 
records to 1844. New edition, with biographical 
sketch of the author. Haddington : printed and 
published by William Sinclair. 1900. small 4to, 
xxxii+236 pp. 

The ' Biographical Sketch ' is by Mr. Thomas 
Cowan, stationer, Haddington. There is 
.also a prefatory note by Dr. Wallace- James. 
The list may conclude with a book in the 
Miller Collection, but not by either father 
or son : 

1819. Mercer (Andrew).* Dunfermline Abbey ; 
a poem. With historical notes and illustrations 
Dunfermline : printed and sold by J. Miller 

1819. 12mo, xii-f-184 pp. 

'The printer and publisher, John Miller (died 
March, 1852, aged 74), was half-brother to 
George Miller of Dunbar : see the MS. 
' Notes on the Miller Family,' and ' Bifylio- 
graphy of Works relating to Dunfermline 
and W. of Fife,' by Erskine Beveridge, 1901, 
p. xvii. 

Additions to this bibliography, and in- 
formation with regard to the Miller family, 
Are invited. T. F. U. 

THOMAS PAINE, who, students now admit, 
was joint author of the American Declaration 
.of Independence, died on 8 June, 1809, near 
New Rochelle in the State of New York. 
He expressed in his will the earnest desire 
to be interred in the Quaker burial-ground 
,t New York, but although he believed in 
the Deity and in a future life, his general 
theological opinions did not accord with 
those of the Friends, and they refused 
sepulture. His body was accordingly in- 
terred in a field on his own farm, near New 
Rochelle. Shortly after the funeral, a 
fanatical mob invaded the farm, armed with 

pickaxes and hammers, and smashed his 
gravestone. A friend of Paine afterwards 
rode to the spot, and took away the largest 
fragment of the marble stone that he could 

About September, 1819, William Cobbett 
disinterred the remains, in the vain hope 
that they would receive in Paine's native 
land a public funeral befitting his talents. 
The exhumation is recorded in Cobbetfs 
Register, vol. xxxv. p. 382, in a note written 
by Cobbett from Long Island. On 21 Nov., 
1819, Cobbett landed in Liverpool with the 
coffin containing the remains, and then 
presented to his friend and co-Reformer, 
Edward Rushton, a fragment of the grave- 
stone. It is almost certain that this is the 
fragment taken away by the friend previously 
mentioned. I had a photograph taken of 
the stone in June, and a tape measure 
taken therewith shows that the fragment is 
about 1 ft. 7 in. in width, about 1 1 in. in its 
greatest height, and some 3 in. thick. The 
inscription is as follows : 


Author of common 

Died June 8th 18 

Aged 74 Years. 

Edward Rushton, the prominent Liverpool 
Radical, was a friend of Brougham, Canning, 
Campbell the poet, and O'Connell, and very 
intimate with Thackeray, whom he induced 
to write ' Vanity Fair.' Rushton became 
Stipendiary Magistrate of Liverpool in 1831, 
and died in 1851. The stone then passed 
into the custody of his son Wm. Lowes 
Rushton, the Shaksperian scholar, who 
died in March last in his eighty-third year. 
His aged widow, who resides in Liverpool, 
had to ransack the house in order to find 
the relic, a fact which made me regret that 
it is not preserved in some public building. 
The authenticity of the stone is vouched 
for by Wm. Lowes Rushton in his book 
' Letters of a Templar ' (Simpkin, Marshall 
& Co., 1903). 

To return to the history of the actual 
remains, I find the following in a rare 
pamphlet entitled ' A Brief History of the 
Remains of the late Thomas Paine, down to 
1846' (London, J. P. Watson, 3, Queen's 
Head Passage, 1847). Cobbett occupied 
Normandy Farm, near Farnham, Surrey, 
and died there on 18 June, 1835, having 
piously preserved the remains in a large 
trunk, awaiting the funeral pageant which 
never came. Within a month of Cobbett's 
death, his son was sued for debts with which 
the elder Cobbett had nothing to do, and 
all the son's household effects (including 



the sepulchral chest) were seized. In 
January, 1836, a public auction took place, 
and the chest containing the bones was 
actually presented to the auctioneer, " for 
him to put them up for sale." The humani- 
tarian feelings of the auctioneer, however, 
revolted, and he refused to recognize the 
remains as saleable. 

The facts were duly reported in Court to 
the Lord Chancellor, who declined to regard 
the remains as part of the estate, or to 
make any order relating thereto. In 1839 
the receivership ended ; and in March, 1844, 
the person who had acted as official receiver 
transferred the remains to a Mr. Tilley, 13, 
Bedford Square, London, in whose custody 
they were in 1846, when the pamphlet before 
me was written. 

What became of the remains subsequently 
is not clear. I have recently heard that Dr. 
Stanton Coit possesses part of the skull, 
but I have not verified the report. Wher- 
ever they be, it is to be hoped that they rest 
in peace. Of the identity of the sepulchral 
fragment there can, on the other hand, be 
no reasonable doubt. JAMES M. Dow. 

16A, Abercromby Square, Liverpool. 

In the recent memoir of Thomas Percy, 
Bishop of Dromore, entitled * Percy, Prelate 
and Poet,' by Miss Alice Gaussen, one is 
rather surprised to find so little mention 
made of the village of Easton Maudit, 
Northamptonshire, where he spent some 
of the best years of his life. It was at that 
time the residence of a family of distinc- 
tion in legal annals the Yelvertons, then 
Earls of Sussex. The theory has often been 
put forward that climate, food, and soil 
have much to do in influencing the life of 
any one, and this view is adopted by 
Buckle in his ' History of Civilization.' 

The Yelvertons were originally a Norfolk 
family, and possessed large estates in that 
county in the reign of James I. Sir Chris- 
topher Yelverton acquired by purchase 
the estate of Easton Maudit, in Northamp- 
tonshire, and was Speaker of the House of 
Commons as well as judge. He died at 
Easton Maudit in 1607. His son and 
successor Henry was Solicitor-General in 
1613, Attorney-General in 1617, and died 
in 1629. His son, Sir Christopher, the first 
baronet, died in 1654, and Sir Henry, the 
second baronet, in 1676. When resident 
at Easton Maudit, Thomas Morton, Bishop 
of Durham, filled the comparatively humble 
office of tutor in the Yelverton family, and, 
dying there in 1659, found a grave in the 

parish church ; a large slab which once 
covered his remains is still there. Sir 
Henry, the third baronet, was advanced 
the dignity of Viscount Longueville in 
1690, and died in 1714. Oldys records some 
amusing anecdotes of Barbara, Lady Longue- 
ville, his wife, who died in 1763, aged nearly 
LOO. She remembered Dryden and Edmund 
Waller, and had a strong hereditary attach- 
ment to the house of Stuart. The second 
Viscount was advanced in 1717 to the 
Earldom of Sussex, and died in 1730. 
Two of his sons succeeded him, the last, 
Henry Yelverton, dying in 1799. 

The members of this family are all buried 
n a chapel on the north side of the altar in 
the church, but the hall in which they 
resided has been razed to the ground, and 
of it not a vestige remains. The north 
aisle is literally filled with monuments of 
family, and their heraldic bearings. 
A chief gules, three lions passant, are con- 
spicuous. The barony of Grey de Ruthyn 
vested in them has descended until late 
years. The vicarage, the home of Percy 
:or many years, in which the ' Reliques of 
Ancient English Poetry ' was compiled, is 
on the opposite side of the road, and is now 
an unpretending structure. Simple indeed 
it must have been in those times, and we 
may dismiss as mythical the account of 
Percy having gathered at his hospitable 
board the literary celebrities of his day, 
though it is certain that he entertained as 
his guest Dr. Johnson. Robert Nares, 
Percy's successor at Easton Maudit, speaks 
of the parsonage in 1784 as merely a com- 
fortable cottage of stone containing two 
parlours. Goldsmith has left us a picture, 
perhaps not much overdrawn, of a rustic 
parsonage when George III. was king, and 
its simple-minded occupants. The benefice 
of Easton Maudit was in the gift of Christ 
Church temp. George II. and III., and 
continued so until purchased by the Mar- 
quess of Northampton, to whom the Yelver- 
ton estate now belongs. 

My knowledge of the place and its cele- 
brated vicar Thomas Percy arises from my 
having once held a curacy in the neighbour- 
hood, and having made many expeditions 
in former years to the church and village. 
Within a short distance towers the stately 
mansion of the Marquess of Northampton, 
Castle Ashby, built by Inigo Jones. A little 
biographical memoir of Bishop Percy from 
my pen was prefixed to the MS. folio of ballads 
edited by Messrs. Furnivall and Hales, and in 
it much information concerning the Yelver- 
tons was given- JOHN PICKFOBD, M.A. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 17, 1009. 

any of your readers visit the church of San 
Juan de los Reyes, outside the walls of 
Toledo the church on the outside of which 
still hang the chains worn by Christian 
prisoners in Granada when the Moors were 
in power let them beware of dealing with 
the custodian or sacristan. In 1904 he 
victimized me with an antique-looking 
medal, about three inches in diameter. On 
the obverse is the upper part of a mailed 
.nd helmeted man ; on the reverse, a spread 
eagle holding a key in each claw. Many 
spurious antiques of a similar character are 
sold in Scotland and elsewhere. The strange 
part of it is (as the British Museum authori- 
ties tell me) that these things are not often 
duplicated, though I cannot see how it can 
pay to make them separately. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

ROBERT SOUTHS Y. In The Lady's Maga- 
zine for May, 1799, there is a curious outrage 
on two of Robert Southey's best-known 
poems. One begins thus : 

Father Dennis's Comforts, and how he 

procured them. 
*' You are old, father Dennis," the young man said, 

, Your locks that are left are quite grey : 
You are hale, father Dennis, a hearty old man ; 
-Now tell me the reason, I pray ?" 
'/In the days of my youth," father Dennis replied, 

I remember'd that youth would fly fast ; 
-And abus'd not my health nor my vigour at first, 
That I never might want them at last." 

The editor must have been a cool hand 
thus to transform " Father William " into 
" Father Dennis " throughout the six verses. 
It is perhaps to escape detection that in 
giving ' The Well of St. Keyne ' on the same 
page he omits the author's name. 


The ' D.N.B.' is inaccurate with regard to 
the dates of the publication of these works. 
' The Meretriciad ' was first published in 
September, 1761, by C. Moran, "under the 
Great Piazza, Co vent Garden " ; see Public 
Advertiser, 24 Sept., 1761. It was followed 
in January, 1766, by ' The Demi-rep ' ; see 
Public Advertiser, 17 Jan., 1766. The copy 
of the latter poem in the British Museum, 
which is the second edition, bears the date 
1756 ; but the context shows unmistakably 
that this is a misprint, and a foot-note to 
one of the verses quotes Dodsley's ' Annual 
Register ' for 1764. From advertisements 
in the newspapers it would appear that 
The Courtesan ' was published in May, 
1765. All these poems were collected in 

one volume in 1770, under the title of ' The 
Court of Cupid,' printed, as before, for C. 
Moran, who at this time had removed to 
Tavistock Row, Covent Garden. 


HALE. The death of the Rev. Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale, the distinguished Bostonian 
preacher and litterateur, brings to mind 
some lines which I have always attributed 
to his versatile pen. In concluding an 
article in The Scotsman in 1896 on ' The 
Joint Hymnal for the Scotch Presbyterian 
Churches,' A. K. H. B. wrote as follows : 

" There is a quaint hymn which will never be 

in any hymnal. Though it brings the tears to one's 
eyes, it is quite too unconventional, and the lan- 
guage is what some call A murrikan. As the reader 

will never see it elsewhere, let him read it here. 
Mozart's beautiful music, beginning the famous mass, 
will go to it. I prefix a suitable text' And he was 
a Samaritan.' " 

Dr. Everett Hale edited for a time Old and 
New and Lend-a-Hand Record, and possibly 
A. K. H. B.'s hymn appeared in the latter. 
The excellent sentiment as well as precept 
of the " quaint hymn " will henceforth have 
a wider appeal when enshrined in the pages 
of ' N. & Q.,' some reader of which may be 
able to determine the question of author- 
ship : 

W'en you see a man in woe, 

Walk right up and say "Hullo ! 

Say " Hullo I* and " How d'ye do ?" 

" How's the world a-usiri' you ? " 

Slap the fellow on his back, 

Bring yer han' down with a whack ; 

Waltz right up, an' don't go slow, 

Grin an' shake an' say " Hullo ! " 

Is he clothed in rags ? sho ! 

Walk right up an' say " Hullo ! " 

Rags is but a cotton roll 

Jest for wrapphi' up a soul ; 

An' a soul is worth a true 

Hale and hearty " How d'ye do? ' 

Don't wait for the crowd to go ; 

Walk right up and say " Hullo ! " 

W'en big vessels meet, they say, 

They saloot an' sail away, 

Jest the same are you an' me 

Lonesome ships upon a sea, 

Each one sailing his own jog 

For a port beyond the fog, 

Let yer speak in' trumpet blow, 

Lift yer horn an' cry " Hullo ! " 

Say " Hullo ! " an' " How d 'ye do ? " 

Other folks are good as you. 

Wen ye leave yer house of clay, 

Wanderin' in the Far-Away, 

W'en you travel through the strange 

Country t'other side the range, 

Then the souls you 've cheered will know 

Who ye be, an' say " Hullo ! " 

14, Crofton Road, Camberwell. 



ARGYLL STREET, W. It may be useful to 
put upon record that from Tuesday, 15 June 
(according to The Daily Chronicle of that 
date), Hengler's Circus will no longer rank 
among the entertainments of London; It 
was founded in 1871, in Argyll Street, 
Oxford Street, 

*' by the late Charles Hengler, a son of the noted 
tight-rope dancer and equestrian. For many years 
it was one of the most popular of Metropolitan 
resorts, but when public appreciation of circuses 
began to decline it was converted into a skating 
rink. Last Christmas, howev r er, it was reopened 
for a few weeks as a circus." 

It is to be demolished, and replaced by a 
huge variety theatre, which will not be a 
music-hall, to be known as " The Palladium," 
in which an audience of 4,000 people will 
find accommodation. 


The version of this rime familiar to most of 
us is, I believe, 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 

Guard the bed that I lie on. 

One to watch and one to pray, 

And two to bear my soul away. 

But some twenty-two years ago an old 
lady, then over ninety, gave me a version 
of which the last line was 

And two to drive the devil away. 
Surely this must be the older version. 


The Feuille d'Avis de Lausanne of 26 April 
last, a popular daily journal, has the follow- 
ing, which I venture to translate in the 
hope that it may interest readers of * N. & Q. 

"The 'Moliere,' illustrated by Moreau the 

Siunger, which formed part of the collection of 
. de Janze, was sold on Saturday [24 April] to a 
Parisian bookseller, M. Rahir, lor the sum of 
177,500 francs. This unique work consists of six 
volumes, and contains thirty-three original draw- 
ings by Moreau. They were executed in 1773, and 
are bound up along with the comedies of our 
great master. In 1820 this ' Moliere ' was sold for 
1,200 francs. In 1844 M. de Janze purchased it for 
900 francs at the sale of M. de Soleines. It is be- 
lieved that the price named is the highest ever 
obtained for any book." 


I have seen scores of written applications 
for farmwork service, and in most of them 
have been the words, in one form or another 
which head this note. One of the latest 
after a general summary of what the appli 

cant can do in other branches, ends with 
'I can plough, thack, stack, and willing" 

" willing " means to do one's best, and 

also undertake all the sorts of work men- 
ioned. In most cases a verbal application 

would be " plew, stak, thak, an' willin'." 
To shepherd is a special thing as a rule, but 
he true husbandmen's pride is to " plough, 
hatch, stack, and willing " able to take 

all farmwork in hand. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
: ormation on family matters of only private interest 
a affix their name's and addresses to their queries, 
n order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

ST. NICOLAS' s, ROUEN. It is proposed 
to issue a history of this church, which was 
demolished in 1840. Some of the windows 
from it, bought at Rouen in 1802, were 
sold in London by Van Hamp & Stevenson. 
I know of the Visitation window in York 
Minster, but am desirous of tracing the 
others, and shall be grateful for information 
respecting any of the windows that may be 
in churches, museums, or private collections. 
The history will be illustrated, and a, copy 
will be sent to any one assisting in its 
compilation. Gr. LEFBANCOIS, 

Ex-Secretaire general de la Societe des 
Amis des Monuments Rouennais. 

21, Quai du Havre, Rouen. 

put me in possession of information that 
will enlighten me as to what became of 
Donna Maria, the fourth child and third 
daughter, I think, of Ferdinand and Isabella 
of Spain ? JOHN L. STEWABT. 

Lehigh University, Pennsylvania. 

On 20 Oct., 1743, a letter from Mr. John 
Talman was communicated to the Society 
of Antiquaries, giving an account of a 
collection of 2,111 drawings, bound in 16 
volumes, which had belonged to Monsignor 
Marchetti, Bishop of Arezzo, and was being 
offered for sale bv his nephew, Chevalier 
Marchetti of Pistoia, who demanded 750Z. 
for them. In Mr. Talman's opinion they 
were " worth any money." See Archceologia, 
vol. i. I should be glad of any information 
as to the purchaser, the subsequent history, 
and the present place of deposit of this col- 
lection. EDWABD BBABBOOK, Dir.S.A. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 17, im 

explain the following phrase, which occurs 
in a letter of 1636 : " They must bee con- 
tented with Sants satisfaction " ? The con- 
text implies that the persons concerned 
must resign themselves to getting nothing 
at all ; and, as another version reads " with 
Saincts satisfaction," the allusion is probably 
to the virtue of patience. W. FOSTER. 

glad of any information as to what became 
of the business of a James Jackson, attorney, 
of 15, Furnival's Inn, London. He acted 
for the Sherard and Molyneux families. 
By his will, dated 2 Jan., 1776, he left a 
legacy to his nephew Thomas Peircy of 
Little Chelsea, Middlesex, and Robert Law 
of Furnival's Inn, both of whom he appointed 
his executors ; and he directed that the 
residue of his personal estate should be 
divided equally between Robert Holliday 
(his nephew) of Endfield, Middlesex ; Mary 
Chapman, widow (his niece), and sister of 
the said Robert Holliday ; James Peircy 
the elder (his nephew) of Old Fish Street, 
London, sugar baker ; the said Thomas 
Piercy ; and John Margerum Close, clerk, 
and Henry Jackson Close, clerk (the sons of 
his late nephew the Rev. Henry Close). 
The will was proved on 10 April, 1777, in 
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 

Robert Law appears to have been an 
attorney, and to have carried on James 
Jackson's business. On 29 May, 1784, 
administration of the goods and chattels of 
the said Robert Law was granted to his 
father Thomas Law. 1 should also be 
obliged for any information that would 
enable me to trace the present representa- 
tives of this Thomas Law. Please reply 

Cork Herald. 

Office of Arms, Dublin. 

ARCHDEACON STEDMAN. I should be glad 
of information regarding the parentage and 
family of the Rev. Samuel Stedman, Pre- 
bendary of Canterbury, Archdeacon of 
Norfolk, and Rector of Denver, who married 
a daughter of Bishop Butler of Ely. 


Schloss Rothberg, Switzerland. 

Can any one tell me what is the exact mean- 
ing of these two terms, denoting kinds of 
seals, used by Rudyard Kipling in ' The 
Seven Seas,' 1898, p. 71 ? The words do 
not appear to be in any English dictionary. 
Holluschickie looks like a Russian name, 

which would be written in standard Russian 
goluUchiki, but in the dialects holubtchiki, 
with the sense of " sweethearts." The terms 
have, I believe, to do with the breeding 
season. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

be glad to know what is the meaning of the 
term camelario in modern Spanish slang. 
I am acquainted with the slang verb camelar, 
to love, but this may not be connected. 
Unfortunately, these colloquial neologisms 
are not given in any Spanish dictionary. 
' Camelario Zaragatono ' is the title of a 
book by an illustrious humorist, Juan Perez 
Zuniga, a most prolific dramatist and 
novelist, whose works already embrace 
about fifty items. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

TERS.' Who is the publisher of this book 
by Robert Blair ? There is no copy at the 
British Museum. 


121, Hither Green Lane, Lewisham, S.E. 

ANOTHER." What is the context of this 
sentence ? 1 have hunted Gibbon in vain. 

[The following editorial note to a similar question 
appeared in ' N. & Q.' nearly fifty years ago (3 S. i. 

AQQ\ . 

" We find the first mention of this saying in Ter- 
tullian, who notices it, not as employed by any 
particular author, but as a remark current among 
the heathen : ' " See," say they, " how they love one 
another " ; for they themselves [the heathen] hate 
one another.' 'Vide, inquiunt, ut invicem se 
diligant : ipsi enim invicem oderunt. ( Apoi. adv. 
Gent.' c. 39.) Bingham ('Antiq.,' book xv. cap. vii. 
10) gives the saying paraphrastically, See how 
these Christians love one another.' This last is the 
form in which we now have the saying. J 

" VACHE A COLAS." I venture to ask 
what this means, though 1 dare say it is 
quite elementary. It occurs in Anatole 
France's ' L'He des Pingouins,' p. 165 : 
" Si quelque chretien les approuve, a moms 
que ce ne soit une grande linotte, je jure 
qu'il est de la vache a Colas." 


Sibstone Rectory, Atherstone. 

[The French dictionary of Littre and Beaujean 
gives: "Par denigrement, la vache a Colas, le 

VACHELL. Have any of your readers 
come across the name Vachell in the first 
half of the eighteenth century, other than 
at Reading, Bath, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, 
and Lackford, Suffolk ? T. A. JAMES. 

25, Llanfair Road, Cardiff. 

10 s. xii. JULY 17, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


family of Ford does the crest of a lion 
rampant and a demi-lion rampant belong ? 

I shall be glad if any one can give me the 
pedigree of the family of Richard Ford, 
genealogist, born in or about 1776 (probably 
at Somerset). He died at the Vicarage, 
Kew, in 1842, having previously resided at 
Worcester Park House, Surrey, and 5, 
Ladbrooke Terrace, Notting Hill. He had 
a large family. 

My grandfather Dr. Alfred Ford had the 
pedigree when he was living at Pimlico 
about 1856. 

Please reply direct. 

Homestead, (Jxondge Road, Surbiton. 

shall be much obliged for a reference to the 
original of the following story, which I take 
from ' A Treatise on the utility of Swimming,' 
by H. Kenworthy, 1846, p. 21 : 

" Capt. Crawley of the Philomel British brig ot 
war and Lord Byron, after a merry day spent on 
shore at the island of Solmondrachi, were returning 
on board the brig, when the boat was upset by a 
squall of wind. His lordship saved Capt. Crawley's 

life by pulling him on the keel of the boat 

[Byron] swam to an Italian vessel three miles dis- 
tant, from whence a boat was sent for his 
companion, who but for this act of high intrepidity 
must have perished." 


exposure of Freemasonry appeared in the 
eighteenth century in a book entitled 
' Every Young Man's Companion,' of which 
the author or editor was a W. Gordon. 
The British Museum Library has a copy of 
the third edition, dated 1759. Can any 
reader give me the date of the first edition ? 


weed which grows in some cornfields, and 
runs to a great length along the ground. 
The commonest name for it amongst farm- 
ing men is "pig-grass," and they consider 
it quite useless. 

What may be the allusion to Richardson 
in the following lines ? 

Haste, Richardson, and with thee bring 

The very longest of fioning string. 

I see thee coming ; thy fame it spreads around ; 

But oxen they will rue the day 

When they gave up turnips for the best of hay. 
The lines were given me by an old lady who 
first heard them about 1815-20, and were, 
she thought, from a political broadsheet 
of that time, i THOS. RATOLIFFE. 


NUNS AS CHAPLAINS. In an article on 
Kirklees Priory, by S. J. Chadwick, F.S.A., 
in The Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 
part 63, p. 325, 1901, it is stated in a note 

"the chaplains ot nuns were sometimes women. 
See Jessopp's 'Visitations of the Diocese of Norwich 
(Camden Society), p. 291, and Eckenstein's ' Women 
under Monasticism,' pp. 376-7. Chaucer's Prioress 
had with her a nun * that was her chapleyne. See 
prologue to the ' Canterbury Tales,' lines 163-4. 
The lines of Chaucer referred to are : 
Another Nonne also with hire hadde she, 
That was hire chapelleine, and Preestes thre, 
upon which the editor of my edition (1853) 
observes in a note : 

" These and the following lines have been con- 
demned by Tyrwhitt as spurious. See his Dis- 
course, p. 78." 

Upon what authority does Tyrwhitt call 
them spurious ? What is to be thought of 
Dr. Jessopp's and Eckenstein's views ? 

J. B. McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

The famous projecting clock and its two 
figures have been lost to Fleet Street for 
nearly forty years. Their cost and date 
of erection are well known : 

"On the 18th of May, 1671, Mr. Thomas Harrys, 
then living at the end of Water Lane, London, 
made an offer to build a new clock with chimes, 
and to erect two figures of men with pole-axes, 

whose office should be to strike the quarters .The 

whole of this he proposed to perform and to keep 
it in order for the remuneration of 80 and the old 
clock." Denham's 4 St. Dunstan-in- the- West. 
It is on record that the vestry finally agreed 
to give the sum of 35Z. and the old clock 
" for as much of his plan as they thought 
proper to adopt, and on the 28th October, 
1671, the work was completed." 

Is anything known about this earlier 
clock ? With respect to the " two figures 
of men to strike the quarters," is it possible 
that Harrys was replacing earlier figures, 
or improving upon an Augsburg clock used 
in the church before 1671 ? 


I wish to learn the name of the original 
of an engraved portrait. Size of plate, 
7 Jin. by 6 Jin. Full face, half-length, 
tie wig, dress coat and waistcoat ; curtain 
Behind drawn back to show books on shelves. 
The portrait is within oval. The shield 
Dears : Per chevron and pale arg., gu., and 
azure ; a chevron chequy arg. and gu. ,* 
n chief a pale or charged with three hurts 
Between 2 stags' heads vert and or ; in base 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 17, im 

a hillock and a mullet arg. Crest : 2 arms 
embowed holding an anchor. Motto : 
" Servare modum, naturam sequi, ftnemque 
tueri." Underneath : 
Few know my Face, tho' all Men do my Fame ; 
Look strictly, and you '11 quickly guess my Name : 
Through Deserts, Snows and Rain I made my Way, 



(10 S. xi. 469; xii. 10.) 

Buffer. Under the form " bufa " this 
word will be found in the 'N.E.D.' in the 
sense of a dog ; while under " buffer " 
Farmer and Henley give no fewer than 
eight definitions in their ' Slang and its 

Caly. Years ago I noted at p. 80 of 

DUTCH BOY AND THE DYKE. I shall be I Romans's * Florida ' the following passage, 
greatly obliged if some reader can give me | describing the Indian r " - 1 1 - fc " 

My Life was daily risqu'd to gain the Day ! 
Glorious in Thought 1 but now my Hopes are gone ; 
Each friend grows shy, and I 'm at last undone. 

"Feint par L. Tocque". Et grave" par J. G. Will 
en 1745. Sold by B. Cole, the corner of King's 
Head Court, near Fetter Lane, Holborn." 


dates and authorities for a Dutch tale. 

jame of " chunke 
" They make an alley of about two hundred 

The incidents relate to a brave boy who, feet in length, where a very smooth caly 
finding a leak in a dyke as he was going ground is laid, which when dry is very hard "; 
home somewhat late at night, stopped the and I concluded that " caly " was a mis- 
place with his hand until he was relieved | print for clay. ^ '~ "*- *""" 


A. G. 

for clay. Romans's work contains 

next morning by some passer-by, and so various typographical peculiarities, some 
saved the neighbouring village from being | intentional, some not. 

Campus. The " accurately dated instance 
prior to 1880 " MR. THORNTON will find in 
a paper printed in the Publications of the 
Colonial Society of Massachusetts for March, 
1897, iii. 431-7. The word arose in 1774 
exactly how is not known at the College 
of New Jersey (now Princeton University), 
whence it 

until about 
The latter 

beach is covered with more or less rounded 
flint pebbles, caused, of course, by the action 
of the sea, with comparatively few broken 
or chipped. Inland, everywhere, are to be 
found immense quantities of pieces of flint, 

indications that they were once more or less 
round, like those on the beach unbroken 
or unchipped pieces being as few, I should 
say, as broken pieces on the beach. Can 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' explain this ? 

88, St. Leonard's Road, Hove. 

spread south, then 

1870 it had supplanted almost 
the earlier " college yard." 
term, one of the earliest of 
Americanisms, was in use at Harvard 
College in 1639, still remains in use there, 
and was employed at Princeton when the 
word " campus " originated. MR. THORN- 
TON is mistaken in defining " campus " as 
the common expression for a college 
playground." At a few colleges the word 


flad of any information concerning this 
imily. Richard Lory of St. Anthony, 

Cornwall, married in 1681 at St. Keverne, has" this restricted meaning, but usually it 
Cornwall, Emblyn Kyner. Their great- means the college grounds in general, 
grandson Jacob of St. Keverne married | Cradley. I take this to be an adjective 

formed from " cradle." If so, " cradley 
land " is land where it is necessary to use a 
cradle, " a light frame of wood attached to 
a scythe, having a row of long curved teeth 
parallel to the blade, to lay the corn more 
evenly in the swathe " (' N.E.D.'). 

Dandles. In The Salem (Mass.) Gazette of 
18 Dec., 1812, are the following lines, taken 
from an Albany paper of 9 Dec. : 
He goes, he goes, the Conqueror goes 
Clap your dandles, shake your toes." 

there in 1773 Alice Harvey of Grade. One 
of his sons was William, Commander R.N. 
I especially want to know who were Jacob's 
brothers and sisters, and who their descend- 
ants are. T. W. PENDARVES LORY. 

the Earl of Bristol's house in the City in 
1628 ? (Rev.) S. SLADEN. 

63, Ridgmount Gardens, W.C. 

BEC-EN-HENT," HOUSE-NAME. Can any " He comes, he comes, the General comes 
of your readers kindly explain the origin Bite your fingers, suck your thumbs. "- 

and meaning of these words ? 


These lines, whether from 
pretended "old ballad," 

real or merely 
perhaps a 


10 s. XIL JULY n, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


satirical version of Carey's famous song 
" He comes, he comes, the hero comes." 
But the word " dandles " is doubtless a 
misprint for daddies. In The Yankee 
(Boston, Mass.) of 11 June, 1813, occur the 
lines : 

I call'd on Old Rifle at Burlington Bay, 
Shook his daddle, and ask'd him the news of the 

For " daddle " see the ' N.E.D,' where 1785 
is the earliest example recorded. 

Dumb Betty. In Bartlett's ' Dictionary 
of Americanisms' (1878) defined as "a 
washing machine, barrel-shaped, with a 
rotary shank." I have several examples of 
the term. 

Fanny Wright. Frances Wright was a 
Scotchwoman, having been born at Dundee 
6 Sept., 1795. Why MB. THORNTON says 
that " she married (?) a man named Darus- 
mont," I do not know ; for the marriage, 
though an unhappy one, certainly took 
place. In the notice of her in the ' D.N.B.' 
the marriage is said to have occurred in 
France in 1838. This is an error, as appears 
from the following notice taken from Niles 1 
Register (Baltimore) of 31 March, 1832 
(xlii. 83) : 

" The celebrated Miss Fanny Wright has married 
a Frenchman at Paris the aid of Lucina was 
invoked by her previous to the wedding." 

In the same paper of 2 Aug., 1834, it is 
stated that " Madam Darusmond, formerly 
Miss Frances Wright, is delivering lectures 
on education in London " (xlvi. 380.) Her 
husband's name was Phiquepal Darusmond. 
The date of her death 2 Dec., 1852 
given in the ' D.N.B.' is also incorrect. 
The Daily Evening Transcript (Boston, 
Mass.) of Friday, 17 Dec., 1852, had a 
notice of her, beginning as follows : 

" Death of Fanny Wright. It is announced, that 
this celebrated female, latterly known as Madame 
D'Arusmond, died very suddenly at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
on Tuesday last {i.e. 14 Dec.]." 

But in The Western Christian Advocate 
(Cincinnati, Ohio) of Wednesday, 22 Dec., 
1852, we read (xix. 203) : 

" Frances Wright D'Arusmont better known as 
* Fanny Wright ' died, in our city, on Monday of 
last week [i.e. 13 Dec.], from the effects of a fall 
received by her some months since. She was 
about seventy years of age [an error for fifty-seven], 
and was pretty extensively known as a progressiveite 
in religion that is, one who wished to upset Chris- 
tianity, and who could use nothing better in place 
of it. She has a husband living somewhere in the 
world, and a daughter, we believe, now resident in 
New York City." 

Her ' Views of Society and Manners in 
America,' published in 1821, was, so far as 

I remember, the first book about this 
country written by a woman born in the 
British Isles. ALBERT MATTHEWS. 

Boston, U.S. 

" Buffer " and " buffing " are from Fr. 
bouffer, bouffe, to swell, swollen : a " puffed " 
person, swollen with self-importance or 

" Caly ground " I have always understood 
to be solid ground, as distinguished from 
swampy. In that case it is either from Fr. 
cole, steady, of firm foundation, or Sp. 
calar, chalky, of calcareous foundation. 

" Cradley ground " is probably named as 
suitable to the short up-and-down strokes 
of a reaping-cradle ; but it may refer to 
the rocking motion of teams which have 
to cross it. 

" Dandles " is old baby-talk, and not 
more an Americanism than " tootsies " or 
" ol' 'weetums " would be. If the " old 
ballad " ever existed, it was probably a 
nursery rime. 

A " dumb-betty " was simply a dumb- 
waiter. The figure of speech is the same in 
both cases a dummy servant. 


Hartford, Conn. 

Archbishop Laud's orders enjoined at his 
metropolitical visitation of the Cathedral 
Church of Chichester. 

"4. That you use some means with Mr. Peter 
Coxe, an Alderman of the City of Chichester, that 
the piece of ground called Campus now in his pos- 
session be laid open again ; that the Scholars of 
your free School may have liberty to play there, as 
formerly they have had time out of mind ; and if he 
shall refuse, to give us notice, or our Vicar-General, 
upon what reason and ground he doth it." 



ISLES (10 S. xi. 441). Regarding the state- 
ment that Bosworth Field is " unmarked by 
any memorial," I take leave to say that about 
forty years ago I visited the spot and made 
my way to (as it was locally called) " King 
Dickon's Well," on a stone above which was 
a Latin inscription, stating, if 1 rightly 
remember, that King Richard on the eve 
of the battle had slaked his thirst there, 
it would be interesting if some resident in 
Market Bosworth, which is near by, would 
supply a copy of this inscription. 


Stanmore Road, Edgbaston. 

In the park of Rush ton Hall, about eleven 
miles from Naseby, there is an alcove placed 
on an eminence from which one looks in the 



direction of the battlefield. In this alcove 
the following lines, written by Dr. Bennet, 
Bishop of Cork, have been placed : 

Where yon blue field scarce meets our streaming 


A fatal name for England, Naseby, lies. 
There hapless Charles beheld his fortunes cross'd, 
His forces vanquished, and his kingdom lost. 
There gallant Lisle a mark for thousands stood, 
And Dormer sealed his loyalty in blood ; 
Whilst down yon hill's steep side with headlong 


Victorious Cromwell chased the Northern horse. 
Hence Anarchy our Church and State profaned, 
And tyrants in the mask of freedom reigned. 
In times like these, when party bears command, 
And faction scatters discord throjigh the land, 
Let these sad scenes an useful lesson yield. 
Lest future Naseby s rise in every field. 



I was on Bosworth Field in September 
last. " Dickon's Well " as it is called 
locally was then in a good state of preserva- 
tion. It bore a tablet with a Latin inscrip- 
tion, which was affixed in 1812, when the 
well was restored and cleaned out by Dr. 
Pau. Unfortunately, the tablet is much 
defaced by 'the carved initials and names 
of foolish visitors. It is about time that a 
short Act of Parliament was passed making 
this wanton mutilation of public monuments 
a penal offence. JOHN B. TWYCROSS. 

Streatham Hill. 

There is a remarkable pedestal, as it is 
called, near Leominster, commemorating 
the battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461, in 
the Wars of the Roses, and celebrated by 
Shakespeare ; see ' Henry VI.,' Part III. 
Act. II. Sc. i. 

It is curious that no monument or column 
commemorates the battle of Towton, one of 
the greatest battles ever fought in England. 

MR. JOHN T. PAGE would find much in- 
formation concerning battlefields and com- 
memorative monuments in England in 
'Visits to Fields of Battle,' by Richard 
Brooke, F.S.A., which has also excellent 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

LYNCH LAW (10 S. xi. 445, 515). The 
case of the Irishman Lynchy, mentioned by 
M., cannot possibly have any relation to 
" lynch law, ' or be the progenitor of the 
term. Indiscriminate murder out of revenge 
is as old as the world, and never was called 
" law." Lynch law is a formal though 
extra-legal trial the lynchers professing 
to represent for the time society itself, 
freed from artificial restraints which hamper 
its proper action on the alleged ground of 

offences recognized as felonies by the very 
law which they supplant, though not 
perhaps chargeable with the same penalties. 
I am of course not excusing lynch law, but 
simply defining it. This is the original and 
genuine meaning : the later development, 
where a mob simply seize an alleged offender 
and murder him without even the form of 
trial, often after he has been legally sen- 
tenced to death and with the avowed 
purpose of substituting a mob murder for 
a legal execution often, too, for trivial 
offences punishable lightly or not at all by 
law is not lynch law at all, but merely 
mob violence, though it usurps the name 
of the former. Even this is legitimate 
compared with the action of a band which 
simply perpetrates a wholesale massacre of 
innocent people in revenge for what no 
society ever made even a legal offence. 
Whatever the origin of the term, it sprang 
from no such event as this. 

Hartford, Conn. 

MR. ALBERT MATTHEWS is positive, but 
not convincing. The practice of inflicting 
summary punishment upon hated or 
suspected persons is not peculiar to America, 
but was known in Great Britain many 
centuries ago in England under the names 
" Lydford Law " and " Halifax Law," and 
in Scotland under the names " Cowper Law " 
and " Jedburgh Justice." It hardly helps, 
then, to tell us, as MR. MATTHEWS does, 
that in America there was formerly another 
name. The only points are : (1) When did 
the equivalent expression " Lynch Law " 
come in ? and (2) What was its origin ? 
The 'N.E.D.' answers the first point with 
the date 1817, from an American book, 
but leaves the second point unanswered. 
The 'Annual Register' for 1816, with its 
account of the treatment of Lynchy in 
Ireland, gives a possible clue, to which, in 
my opinion, the attention of the readers 
of the ' N.E.D.' should have been called ; 
for, having regard to the stream of emigra- 
tion from Ireland to America, which had 
then begun, there would be nothing sur- 
prising in finding that an American writer 
was early in possession of the facts of 
Lynchy's case. MR. MATTHEWS cites two 
writers on the origin of the expression, but 
shows them to be mutually destructive. 


LTJMLEY FAMILY (10 S. xi. 508). The 
descent of the Earls of Scarborough from 
Uchtred, son of Liulf by Aldgita, daughter 
of Earl Aldred and sister of Elfleda, wife 

10 s. xii. JULY 17, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of Siward, governor of Northumberland, is 
based upon no evidence, and may be treated 
as pure fiction. This Uchtred is named as 
a benefactor of the monastery of Yarrow, 
as were Liulf his father and Earl Aldred, 
his maternal grandfather (Leland, ' Col- 
lectanea,' ed. 1774, p. 383). His brother 
Morcar was placed under the tuition of 
the monks as a novice by his kinsman Earl 
Waldeve when the Earl gave the church of 
Tynemouth to that monastery (ibid. ; 
Hoveden, ed. Stubbs, i. 134; 'Hist. 
Dunelm. Script. Tres,' Surtees Soc., p. xviii ; 
' Sym. Dunelmensis,' Surtees Soc., i. 99). 
Of Uchtred and Morcar, so far as I am 
aware, nothing further is known. It is, 
however, possible that Uchtred was the 
" Utredus films Ligolfi " who gave to St. 
Mary of York a third part of Croglin with 
the church, two oxgangs of land in Eston, 
parish of Arthuret, the mill of Scotby, half 
a ploughlancl in Cumwhinton, and tithe of 
the demesne of Temple Sowerby (' Cal. 
Chart., 1300-1326,' p. 116). There is no 
evidence that any of the places here named 
descended in the line of the donor. The notes 
relating to these gifts compiled by Chancellor 
Prescott in his edition of the ' Register of 
Wetherhal ' indicate that those towns were 
soon after in the possession of different 
holders of Cumberland and Westmorland 

A full century after the murder of Liulf, 
father of Uchtred and Morcar, which 
occurred in A.D. 1080, the first upon record 
of the house of Lumley comes into view in 
the person of Matthew de Lumley, who 
confirmed to Uchtred, son of Uchtred de 
Udeshende, and his heirs the town of 
Woodsend, which the grantor's father and 
uncle (unnamed) had given to the said 
Uchtred, son of Uchtred. Among the wit- 
nesses of this deed is Geoffrey de Conyers, 
parson of Sockburn, who is named in the 
Durham Pipe Roll for 1195-6 ('Priory of 
Finchale,' Surtees Soc., 76). About this time 
Agnes, relict of Ralph Prenthut of Lumley, 
gave to the monks of Finchale many parcels 
of land in Lumley, a fishery in Wear, and 
rent in Woodsend ; amongst the attestants 
being Matthew de Lumley and Matthew 
his son (ibid., 113). In the time of Bishop 
Hugh Pusac, probably between 1180 and 
1190, William, son of Uchtred, with the 
consent of Juetta his wife and Agnes, 
sister of the same Juetta, gave to Gerard 
the Marshal in marriage with the grantor's 
sister a parcel of land in Durham lying 
before the monks' gate (' Feod. Prioratus 
Dunelm.,' Surtees Soc., 198 n.). Juetta 

and Agnes were daughters and coheiresses 
of Robert de Heseldene, Agnes being the 
wife of Ralph Prenthut of Lumley. There 
are indications that William, son of Uchtred, 
acquired the name of Lumley from lands 
obtained in that town by marriage to the 
coheiress of Robert de Heseldene ( ' Priory 
of Finchale,' 113). It is possible that 
William, son of Uchtred, was brother of 
Uchtred, son of Uchtred de Woodsend, and 
that both were kinsmen of Matthew de 
Lumley ; but it is improbable that William 
and Matthew were brothers, as asserted by 
Segar in his ' Baronage.' In 1211 and again 
in 1213 Roger de Audre and William de 
Lumley each rendered account of 40s. for 
surety of Robert Bertram (Pipe Rolls). 

The evidences for proof of the descent 
of Roger de Lumley, Kt., from William, 
son of Uchtred, are inadequate, but surer 
ground is reached in 1269, when Sibyl, 
wife of Roger de Lumley, was found to be 
one of the daughters and coheiresses of 
Hugh de Morewich, and then aged 21 
years (' Cal. Inq.,' i. 230, 246). 


Hall Garth, Carnforth. 

G. D. would probably do well to consult 
' Records of the Lumleys of Lumley Castle,' 
by Edith Milner, edited by Edith Benham 
(George Bell & Sons, 1904). 


CAWDOB DISPATCH (10 S. xi. 508). The 
Cawdor dispatches and letters referred to 
by G. H. W. are in my possession. They 
are inserted in my Holland Rose's ' Napoleon,' 
extra-illustrated into 28 vols. folio (see 
' Collectanea Napoleonica,' A. M. Broadley 
and W. V. Daniell, p. 48). Other portions 
of them are published in ' Napoleon and 
the Invasion of England ' (H. F. B. Wheeler 
and A. M. Broadley, vol. i. chap. iii.). They 
are also alluded to in ' Dumouriez and the 
Defence of England against Napoleon.' 
They have not been published in extenso, 
but all the material portions of them will 
be found in the above works and the G.W.R. 
travel-book 'South Wales, the Country of 
Castles.' A. M. BBOADLEY. 

The Knapp, Bradpole, Bridport. 

509 ; xi. 53, 218, 356, 454). To the names 
that have appeared surely Morgan should 
be added. See Prof. Rhys's ' Celtic Folk- 
lore,' 1901, vol. i. p. 372. It is about the 
lake of Glasfryn in Wales : 

" Mrs. Williams-Ellis's own words : ' Our younger 
boys have a crew of three little Welsh boys who 
live near the lake, to join them in their boat-sailing 



about the pool and in camping cm the island, &c. 
They asked me once who Morgan was, whom the 
little boys were always saying they were to be care- 
ful against. An old man living at Tal Llyn, " Lakes 
End," a farm close by, says that as a boy he was 
always told that " naughty boys would be carried 
off by Morgan into the lake." Others tell me that 
Morgan is always held to be ready to take off 
troublesome children, and somehow Morgan is 
thought of as a bad one.'" 

There is more, but any one interested had 
better see the book. S. L. PETTY. 


The name of Grimshaw was a bugbear to 
children in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. He was Incumbent of Haworth, 
near Bradford, the home of the Brontes. 

Macaulay in his essay on Warren Hastings 
tells us : 

" Even now, after the Lapse of more than 50 years, 
the natives still talk of him as the greatest of the 
English ; and nurses sing children to sleep with a 
jingling ballad about the fleet horses and richly 
caparisoned elephants of Sahib Warren Hastein." 

Newbonrne Rectory, VVoodbridge. 

I am sorry to have to inform our friend 
the REV. JOHN PICKFORD that there is 
no monument or stone to mark the place of 
the burial of the above-named prelate in the 
church of St. Margaret, Westminster, nor, 
so far as T can trace, has there ever been one. 
Walcott, in his 'History of the Parish Church 
of St. Margaret,' 1847, gives a list of 61 
" monuments lost or destroyed," collected 
from various sources, covering a long series 
of years, but does not record one to this 

It may be worth notice that there are in 
this church monuments to two well-known 
prelates, viz., Laurence Womack, D.D., 
Lord Bishop of St. David's, died 12 March, 
1685, aged 73, and John Leng, Lord Bishop 
of Norwich, died 26 Oct., 1727, aged 62. 

Walcott gives the following extract from 
the registers : " 1743. April 1. Dr. Lancelot 
Blackburn, L d Archbishop of York." 



" BROKENSELDE " (10 S. xi. 10, 58, 110 
172, 233, 517). No doubt the berne in 
berne-selde is the usual M.E. berne, " barn." 
And there is no difficulty about Aernselde. 
I suppose the Ae to be merely a playful 
printer's variant of JE. The reference is 
to the A.-S. cern, " a cot," duly explained 
in the ' N.E.D.' s.v. Earn, " a place, dwelling, 
hut " ; common in compounds. It is still 
common in the form ran- in the word ran- 

sack ; and explained in my * Concise Eng. 
Etym. Diet,' ed. 1901 (previous editions 
are obsolete), under both Ransack and 
Rest (1) the Gothic spelling being razn. 

467, 514). In December, 1700, JohnHervey, 
1st Earl of Bristol, paid Cotton for his 
master Daula (sic) Wl. 15s. for a three- 
quarters portrait of his wife. In May, 1711, 
he paid Michael Dahl 21Z. 10s. for another 
portrait of his wife. I think this must be 
the one which was engraved by J. Simon. 
It belonged to Lord Howard de Walden, 
who died in 1868, and was sold at Christie's 
in 1869. I do not know where it went. 

In April, 1714, Lord Bristol paid Hans 
Hysing 167. 2,9. Qd. " for several copies of 
pictures and altering others, and an original 
portrait of Babel ye musician." In August, 
1715, he paid him 6Z. 9s. "for my dear 
wife's picture which I gave ye Countess of 
Pickbourg." I do not know where this is 

May I tack on a query which seems to 
concern another Swedish artist ? There are 
at Shatley Rectory, Suffolk, drawings in 
chalk of two children, Frederick William 
Hervey, afterwards 1st Marquis of Bristol, 
and his sister Elizabeth, afterwards Lady 
Elizabeth Foster. They are signed Christina 

ey, 1772. The first four letters of the 

surname are illegible. Who is the artist ? 

S. H. A. H. 

We have at Ecton a very good portrait 
of an ancestress by Michael Dahl. I am 
writing this away from home, or would 
give dates, &c., of the portrait, which is 
always much admired, a picturesque dress 
having been chosen for, or by, the sitter. 

Ecton, Northampton. 

SHIPS' PERIODICALS (10 S. xi. 328, 376, 
418, 454). A periodical was circulated on 
board the ship Light Brigade. It was 
composed and written on board, and after 
the voyage the MS. was sent to London 
and printed. Its title-page has : 

*' Salmagundi : a Weekly Hash, prepared on 
board the Light Brigade, on her Voyage from 
London to Brisbane, in the Year 1863. Henry 
Evans, Commander. Edited by a Passenger. 
Nulli Secundus. London : John Wilson, 93, Great 
Russell Street. 1863. Price one florin." 8vo, 
300 copies, pp. 50. 

On the same vessel and the same voyage 
a similar weekly periodical was circulated, 
called The Mainstay, 8vo, afterwards 
printed in London. D. J. 

10 s. XIL JULY 17, 



RUBY WEDDING (10 S. xi. 509). This 
means the fortieth anniversary. The follow- 
ing terms some of which, at any rate, are 
known wherever English is spoken may be 
considered worth inserting here : 

First anniversary 












Cotton wedding. 
Paper wedding. 
Leather wedding. 
Wooden wedding. 
Woollen wedding. 
Tin wedding. 
Crystal wedding. 
China wedding. 
Silver wedding. 
Pearl wedding. 
Golden wedding. 
Diamond wedding. 


I have a newspaper cutting of last Feb- 
ruary (I think from ' The Office Window ' 
of The Daily Chronicle) wherein the following 
occurs : 

"After forty years of marriage a ruby wedding 
is legitimate, and seventy-five justify diamonds." 

At 7 S. iii. 218 the late EVEBABD HOME 
COLE MAN gave a list of wedding anniver- 
saries, proceeding by fives up to the fiftieth 
and then a jump to the seventy-fifth. In 
this list the fortieth is " Woollen," and the 
thirtieth " Cotton " ; but for the latter my 
cutting has " Pearl." 

There was some years ago a controversy 
as to the " Diamond " celebration of a 
wedding whether it was the sixtieth anni- 
versary or the seventy-fifth. 



May not " deudegfed " be a mistake for 
deugeinfed, fortieth, from deugain (=dau 
ugain), forty ? That would suit the ages of the 
sons and daughters. The Welsh for twen- 
tieth is regularly ugeinfed, from ugain, 
twenty ; where is such a word as " dauddeg," 
to be found ? 

As to why the fortieth (or any other) 
anniversary should be called a " Ruby 
wedding " I can offer no conjecture. 

C. S. J. 

9). He was baptized at Wincanton on 
3 July, 1768, being grandson of Ralph and 
Ann Newman, and son of Robert and Mary. 
He was the eldest child of nine (five sons 
and four daughters). The last survivor of 
that generation was buried at Wincanton 
12 July, 1853. An ancestor of Robert was 
a leading man in Wincanton in 1638. A 
lineal descendant is now living at Wey- 
mouth. I have understood that Robert 

left Wincanton for Bonningham, and that 
the firm of engravers in London originated 
with him. 

An engraving of Wincanton was done by 
him when he was twenty-nine. It is at 
sight 10 in. by 7 in., and inscribed : 

"Engraved by R* Newman, from a sketch made 
by him on the spot. S.W. View of Wincanton, 
Somersetshire. Dedicated to R. Messiter, Esq., 
of Wincanton by his most obedient servant Robt. 
Newman. London, published 18' h May, 1797, by 
Robt. Newman, Engraver, No. 1, Charles Street, 
Hatton Garden." 


Newman designed and engraved a Masonic 
apron, upon which is the date 1798. A 
full description appears in the printed 
Transactions of the Lodge of Research, 
No. 2429 (Leicester), for 1902-3 ; and a 
folding plate of the apron is contained in the 
volume for 1905-6. W. B. H. 

(10 S. xi. 249, 317, 438, 498, 518). My copy 
of ' The Nun ' is dated 1844, and published 
by Seeley, Burnside & Seeley. The line in 
question occurs on p. 105 of this edition. 
The context is : 

"But we were separated in our seventh year, and 
after my father's death I lost sight of my mother 
and sister ; yet I might add, in the words of a beau- 
tiful song of my own county, ' Though lost to sight, 
to memory dear.'" 


I remember Mrs. Sherwood's tale ' The 
Nun ' when I was a child during the forties. 
It belonged to a governess of ours, and was 
then quite an old book, published probably 
about 1830 or earlier. C. S. J. 

429, 495 ; xii. 12). I have much pleasure 
in answering MB. F. A. RUSSELL'S question 
respecting my query. It was based on 
Miss Seward's well-known letter to Boswell, 
which is quoted in Mr. E. V. Lucas's book, 
'A Swan and her Friends,' p. 247. I did 
not mean to imply that I believed the 
statement, for I think most people will 
agree that everything which " the Swan 
said of Dr. Johnson ought to be regarded 
with the utmost caution. 


PAN-GEBMANIC PBESS (10 S. xi. 447).-- 
Alldeutsche Blatter, herausgegeben vom All- 
deutschen Verbande, erscheint wochentlich 
Steglitzer Strasse 77, Berlin W. 35, 19ter 
Jahrgang. H. GAIDOZ. 



NOTES AND QUERIES, rio s. xn. JULY 17, im 

"HAUGHENDO " : FYLDE OATH (10 S. xi. j 
509). Haughendo, for auchten-dole ; lit. ' 
"eighth part," is explained in the ' Eng. 
Dial. Dictionary,' s.v. haughendole ; and in 
the ' ISTew Eng. Dictionary,' s.v. eightin-dole. 

Some account of the A.-S. h, M.E. gh, 
is given at p. 92 of my ' Primer of Eng- 
lish Etymology.' The usual rule is that 
it is lost after a long vowel, and became 
/ after a short one. The o in A.-S. dohtor, 
" daughter," was short, which accounts 
for an / ; but was usually lengthened, 
which accounts for the loss of the guttural. 
" Sough " not only became " suff," but 
gave the modern " surf." But here the 
vowel was shortened ; it was originally 

MB. G. M. TAYLOR is quite right in surmis- 
ing that in " laughter " and " daughter " a 
guttural sound was the original. In Tudor 
times the augh words were sounded gutturally 
throughout England, but for the last three 
centuries the capital has substituted a/, and 
the guttural, retreating further and further 
north, has been all but extirpated from 
English speech by the widening influence of 
the grammar schools : 
La grammaire, qui salt regenter jusqu'aux rois, 
Et les fait, la main haute, obe'ir & ses lois. 
Such names as Baughan, Faugh, Feather- 
stonhaugh, Maughanby, are all pronounced 
with the sound of /. It is proper to add 
that a similar change has taken place in 
certain Irish names, which has even affected 
the orthography. We find beside the old 
historic names O'Morchoe and O'Donoghue 
the Anglicized corruptions Murphy and 
Dunphy. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

I have heard the oath " my Gough " 
used in the Isle of Man, with a distinct 
guttural. The Anglo-Manx dialect has many 
affinities with that of the Fylde. Whether 
this oath is used by Welshmen I cannot say. 

Grindleton Vicarage, Clitheroe. 

t TMn. HOLDEN MAcMiCHAEL also refers to the 

VIRGINIA (10 S. xi. 489). Pending a full 
reply to MR. HIBGAME'S query, which I 
trust will be sent to ' N. & Q.,' the following 
items may be of service. 

The records of the settlement of Norfolk 
County exist only in MS., in the Clerk's 
Office there. A history of Norfolk, &c., 
was published in Philadelphia, 1853, by 
Wm. S. Forrest : he states that the name 
was given by its first explorer, Col. Thoro- 

good, in honour of his native English 
county, from which he first emigrated to 
Elizabeth City County, afterwards crossing 
the James to the southern side. Unfor- 
tunately, he gives no dates, except " 1650 " 
as a minimum at head of chapter ; and as 
Norfolk County was granted 11 April, 1637, 
to Henry Frederick Howard, Lord Mal- 
travers, it must have been constituted before 
the latter date. The land for Norfolk town 
(fifty acres) was first bought under an Act 
of the Virginia Legislature, 8 June, 1680 ; 
the first purchasers of lots included Peter 
Smith, Richard Whitby, Henry Spratt, and 
Wm. Porteus ( Bruce' s ' Economic Hist. 
Virginia,' ii. 552). The town was incor- 
porated in 1705. FORREST MORGAN. 
Hartford, Conn. 

COMETS (10 S. xi. 489; xii. 15). Some 
few years ago a Yorkshire lad at Christmas- 
time, playing at Pope Joan, used words to 
this effect : " Why, this is what at home 
we call ' comete.' ' He pronounced the 
word either as " kumat " or " kumait," I 
forget which, but the accent was strongly 
on the second syllable. Thinking that the 
name might possibly have been introduced 
from Spain, I looked into Baretti's Spanish 
dictionary, where I found : " Cometa, 1, 
comet ; 2, kite ; 3, kind of game at cards." 

LUCIFER MATCH (10 S. xi. 427). See also 
8 S. iii. 466 ; iv. 70, 134, 177, 273. At the 
second reference the late PROF. TOMLINSON 
said that " to name one man as the inventor 
of the lucifer match " could only result 
from ignorance. Although I fell under the 
Professor's ban on this occasion, I none the 
less welcomed his erudite remarks on the 
subject and also those which followed. 

At the sale of the Bidwell collection of 
lamps and candlesticks at Messrs. Puttick's 
rooms on 3 July, 1906, an original box of 
" R. Bell's Improved Lucifers," containing 
thirty matches and the original sandpaper, 
realized nineteen shillings. 


FAMILY (10 S. xi. 308, 395, 490). MR. F. A. 
EDWARDS is doubtful whether the wife of 
Walter de Beauchamp was daughter or 
sister of Urse d'Abetot. She was daughter 
of Urse, and sister of Roger d'Abetot. As 
Roger was banished and his estates forfeited, 
Walter de Beauchamp must have obtained 
the fief, not, to speak strictly, in right of 
his wife, but by regrant (Round, ' Feudal 

10 s. xii. JULY 17, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


England,' pp. 175-6 ; Planche, ' Conqueror 
and his Companions/ ii. 180). Walter also 
obtained part of the fief of his wife's uncle 
Robert " Dispensator " " Robertus Dispen- 
sator f rater Ursonis de Abbetot," as he is 
styled in a charter of the Empress Maud to 
William de Beauchamp, son of Walter 
('Geoffrey de Mandeville,' pp. 313-14). 
Robert's fief was, however, divided between 
the Beauchamps and the Marmions ('Feudal 
England,' pp. 176, 194-5, 214). This led 
Mr. Round to suggest that Urse d'Abetot 
may have had another daughter, married 
to Robert Marmion (ibid., p. 176). 

" Urso " and " Ursus " are, of course, only 
Latinized forms of Urse, who, it may be 
added, was never " Earl of Worcester." 

I believe that no connexion has been 
proved between the above Walter de 
Beauchamp and Hugh de Beauchamp, 
founder of the Bedford line ( ' Conqueror 
and his Companions,' ii. 180). 



I am aware of the history of Holt Castle 
under the Beauchamps, Bromleys, and Lord 
Montforts ; I want to ascertain the missing 
link between the death of John Wysham 
(c. 1480) and the purchase by Sir Thomas 
Bromley (c. 1550). In 1500 the estate 
seems to have belonged to Sir John Bourne, 
who erected considerable domestic buildings 
within the castle walls. Who was this 
gentleman, how did he get the castle, and 
why did he sell it so soon ? TERTIUS. 

GROOM'S COFFEE-HOUSE (10 S. xi. 145). 
According to The Daily Telegraph of 12 Feb- 
rurary last, Groom's coffee and chop house, 
next door to "The Rainbow," Fleet Street, 
was sold at the Auction Mart on 1 1 February 
for 1,600Z. With it went the special recipe 
for the making of coffee, a secret, or supposed 
to be one. The lease from Christ's Hospital 
had seven years to run, at a ground rent 
of 521. 10s. per annum, with sundry small 
additional payments for insurance and in 
lieu of land tax. The net profits for the 
past few years were said to approximate 
to 500Z. per annum. The Groom family set 
up their coffee house in 1700. 


BEEZLEY (10 S. ix. 269, 338 ; xi. 475). I 
thank MR. PIERPOINT for his reference 
Bacon's Cycling Map locates the Sussex 
border about 2 miles east of Petersfield 
and also the village of Rogate, which is 
undoubtedly in Sussex, about 4 miles eas 
of that place. Bevan's ' Tourist's Guide t< 

lampshire ' gives the distance between 

etersfield and Rogate as 4 miles. I 

lave on more than one occasion walked the 

distance in an hour and ten minutes ; 

herefore I should say that 8J miles from 

D etersfield to the Sussex border is incorrect. 

F. K. P. 


597, 497). The Rev. James B. Johnstone 

in his ' Place-Names of Scotland,' 1892, has 

ome interesting observations on this name. 

He says : 

" The joy of the palaeontologist when he cracks 
pen a limestone nodule arid finds therein a 
magnificent Productus, every curve and line of the 
hell perfect, is hardly greater than the satisfaction 
f the historical philologist when he first discovers 
that a puzzling and prosaic name like Carstairs 
originally was ' Casteltarres ' (sic, c. 1170), Terras 
>eing a familiar Scotch surname to this day. Even 
yet all will not be well unless the student also 
mows that the oldest usage of the word ' castle ' in 
English was as a translation of the Vulgate's castel- 
um, where castellum means always, not a fortress, 
jut a village. Thus Carstairs, if dressed in Saxon 
garb, would be Tarreston, in Norman garb Tarres- 
ville." Introduction, p. xv. 

"Carstairs (Lanarkshire). In 1170, Casteltarres ; 
_n 1592, Carstairs. O.E. castel (or G. caisteal) 
Terras, ' T.'s castle or fort ' ; but see Castlebay. 
Terras is still a So. surname ; and cf. ' Tarris- 
holme,' 1376, in Liddesdale." Ibid., p. 59. 


" AT THE BACK OF BEYOND " (10 S. xi. 510). 

The * N.E.D.' defines this as " a humorous 
phrase for ever so far off, some very out-of- 
bhe-way place." The first instance given of 
its use is from Scott's ' Antiquary ' (1816) : 
"You whirled them to the back ^ of beyont 
to look at the auld Roman camp." 

De Quincey describes the phrase as " a 
smart American adage." 


United University Club. 

This adverbial expression means "at a 
great distance." In Scotland it is synony- 
mous with "fer outby." The term occurs 
in the following ludicrous phrase, " At the 
back-o' -beyont, where the grey mare fouled 
the fiddler," i.e., threw him off in the dirt. 
Jamieson says that in Roxburgh, when a 
person is asked where he got such a thing, 
and does not choose to tell, he answers that 
he got it at the " back-o'-beyont." It is 
used satirically, when one pretends not to 
believe the account given by another of the 
place where he met with anything. 


[MR. HOLDEN MACMlCHAEL also refers to ' The 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [to s. xii. JULY 17, 1909. 

CABLILE (10 S. xi. 370, 437; xii. 13). 
I have an earlier edition than 1836, the date 
given by Mr. RALPH THOMAS. The title 
page shows : 

"An Exposure of Freemasonry, or a Mason's 
Printed Manual, with an introductory Key- stone to 
the Royal Arch of Freemasonry. By Richard 
Carlile. London, printed and published by R. 
Carlile, 62, Fleet Street. 1831." 
It is a small octavo of 87 pages. 

I have also a later 

"Manual of the First Three Degrees third 

edition, revised and enlarged. By Richard Carlile. 
London, printed and published by R. Carlile, Fleet 
Street. Reprinted and published by W. Dugdale, 
Holywell Street, 1845." 

W. B. H. 

Carlile's ' Manual of Freemasonry ' was 
originally in three separate parts at five 
shillings each, Parts I. and II. appearing in 
1836, and Part III. in 1837. The last named 
was printed and published by Alfred Carlile, 
Water Lane, Fleet Street. In this earlier 
form the volumes are of interest to collectors 
of Masonic and anti-Masonic literature, but 
later they were much altered and had 
some vogue as quasi-authoritative manuals. 
I have not heard of their being of great 
value, and very much doubt the story of their 
being bought up and destroyed. 

In some correspondence I had with the 
late Mr. Holyoake he expressed the opinion 
that the best life of Carlile was that written 
by his daughter. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

"RHOMBUS" (10 S. xi. 448, 518). I 
regret that per incuriaml included in my 
reply the words " and remains to be 
solved." I was momentarily misled by 
Smith's mention of the fish before the 
geometrical figure. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

(10 S. xi. 183). In The Town and Country 
Magazine, viii. 503, the following death, on 
20 July, 1776, is reported : 

" Mr. John Gerrard Fleetwood (son of Charles 
Fleet wood, Esq., late patentee of Drury Lane 
Theatre) at Leeds, a performer in the York com- 
pany of comedians." 

This is the ensign referred to by R. W.B., and 
as his son Lieut. John Gerrard Fleetwood, 
R.N., was living in 1811, the Calwich 
baronetcy did not become extinct at the 
death of Sir Thomas Fleetwood in 1802. 

Charles Fleetwood, the Drury Lane 
patentee, mentions only two sons, Charles 
and Thomas, in his will, dated 20 July, 
1743 (though provision is made for children 

born later), so that John Gerrard Fleetwood, 
who died at Leeds, must have been born 
after it was made. 

As Lieut, J. G. Fleetwood, R.N., had 
children living in 1811, it is possible there 
may be male representatives now alive 
descended from him ; but whether their 
ancestor was the male next of kin to Sir 
Thomas, who died in 1802, is still an open 

The widow of the Drury Lane patentee 
married Francis Hayman, R.A., and there 
was one daughter born of this marriage. 

Bromley, Kent. 

xii. 9). This library was sold at Messrs, 
Puttick & Simpson's, 20-22 April, 1864. A 
copy of the sale catalogue, with prices and 
names of purchasers, may be consulted at 
the British Museum (Newspaper Room). 


SIB CUTHBEBT SLADE, BT. (10 S. xi. 508), 
The second baronet, Sir Frederic William 
Slade (1801-63), Q.C. and Bencher of the 
Middle Temple, married Barbara, sister of 
George, Lord Vaux of Harrowden, in whose 
pedigree the descent may be found through 
the Nevilles, I am told. A descent from 
the English Justinian, Edward I., is not an 
uncommon distinction. A. R. BAYLEY. 

" VOLKSBUCHEB " (10 S. xii. 9). The 
complete series of G. O. Marbach's (not 
Marbuch's) collection of " Volksbiicher " 
appeared in 52 numbers, published at 
Leipsic by O. Wigand, from 1838 to 1849. 
A copy of it, bound in nine volumes, is 
preserved in the Taylorian Library, Oxford. 


(10 S. xi. 186, 496). May we conjecture that 
this term is a misprint for faucet, or fauset, 
an obsolete word applied to a faceted stone ? 
See quotations (of the required date) in 
' N.E.D.,' s.v. faucet, sb. 2 


xi. 289, 357). Some similar contrivance to 
Dickens's " piping organ of weak intellect, 
with an imbecile party of automaton 
dancers," is introduced in Donne's second 
satire (11. 15, 16) : 

As in some Organs. Puppits dance above 

And bellows pant below, which them do move, 


10 s. XIL JULY 17, 1909. NOTES AND QUERIES. 



A Life of John Colet, D.D. By J. H. Lupton, D.D. 

New Edition. (Bell & Sons.) 
THE late Dr. Lupton was well known to be a 
devoted admirer and lifelong student of the famous 
Dean of St. Paul's. He edited his various works 
with careful notes and appendixes, and produced a 
charming Life of him in 1887. A new edition of 
this volume is now issued, and will be welcome, as 
this year is the fourth centenary of the foundation 
of the famous school with which Colet's name will 
always be associated. Dr. Lupton, strange to say, 
entertained some doubts whether the mystic 
number of one hundred and fifty and three, to which 
the scholars were to be limited, should be con- 
nected with the draught of fishes recorded in 
St. Johnxxi. 11 ; but Fuller knew of that tradition, 
and it would be difficult to assign a more satisfactory 
reason for an otherwise arbitrary number. 

Dean Colet as a man of light and leading is 
worthy of a place beside More and Fisher. Stand- 
ing between the Renascence and the Reformation, 
he had sympathetic affinities with both. His 
liberal opinions were no doubt to some extent due 
to his intercourse with Erasmus, his bosom friend. 
His judicious remarks on the interpretation of the 
Mosaic records of Creation show him to have been a 
man before his time, and the morning-star of 
Biblical criticism. 

Many incidental points of literary interest emerge 
in Dr. Lupton's delightful volume. He notices, for 
instance, that not a few of Shakespeare's Latin 
quotations are borrowed from the examples in 
Lily's Grammar, from which he acquired his "little 
Latin." A misprint seems to have been overlooked 
on p. 156, where " Sharmoveres Lane" should cer- 
tainly be Sheremoniers, as in Stow's ' Survey.' 

Ruined and Deserted Churches. By Lucy Eliza- 
beth Beedham. (Elliot Stock.) 
WE have here an interesting little book on a 
subject concerning which not much has been 
written. The author includes chapters on 
' Superseded Churches of the West and South,' 
* Ruined Churches in Norfolk and Suffolk,' ' Two 
Churches in One Churchyard,' and ' Guild, 
Wayside, and Chantry Chapels.' Her style is 
sentimental and unnecessarily verbose. Abund- 
ance of detail recalling the piety of the past is, 
however, provided, and there is a good supply of 
illustrations from photographs. Many of the 
stories of monuments are such as are ignored by 
all except a few zealous antiquaries. 

We hope that a further volume continuing the 
subject may appear from the same hand. There 
are plenty of examples in England which cannot 
be mentioned in a small book of 106 pages. The 
beautiful St. Catherine's Chapel with a stone 
roof, for instance, which crowns the little hill 
in front of Abbotsbury in Dorset, is well worth 
notice ; and the same place contains a finely 
buttressed monastic barn of great size and spacious- 
ness, which shows the massive work of the 
fifteenth-century builder. If the author had 
restrained her gift for quoting verse, often of no 
great merit, and uttering " improving " remarks, 
and thought of making an index, we should have 
been better pleased. 

The Heroine, by Eaton Stannard Barrett, has 
been reprinted in a comely form by Mr. Frowde. 
That this success of 1813 will be widely read is 
hardly to be expected, but the book has a good 
deal of interest for students of letters, and all 
that* can be said for it is so well said by Prof. 
Raleigh in his Introduction that readers are 
likely to be tempted to read on. The adventures 
of Cherubina are by no means devoid of wit and 
high spirits, if once we can, as Prof. Raleigh says, 
" accept the perilously slender illusion " of the 
story. At his best, the author breaks through, 
the formal veil of the literary manner and becomes; 
pointed and natural. He makes pretty play 
with the verse he includes, and is deservedly- 
lauded for his Johnsonian parody in Letter X. 

IN the new series of 'Cambridge County 
Geographies,' Kent, Essex, Surrey, and Sussex, all 
the work of Mr. George F. Bosworth, and Norfolk- 
and Suffolk, the work of Mr. W. A. Dutt, have- 
appeared. These brief volumes which contain 
physical and geological maps, diagrams, and a num- 
ber of general illustrations are decidedly bright, 
and attractive, while within the limits assignee! 
they afford an excellent basis for more detailed! 
study. Each contains some account of the famous 
men of the county, climate, and administration, 
regarding geography, indeed, in a very different 
light from the jejune handbooks of an earlier genera- 
tion. We hope that these books will be generally 
taken up in schools, and serve to foster a more 
general interest in a country full of attractions, of 
which the ordinary man as a rule knows little. 

The Burlington Magazine for July opens with an 
important editorial on ' A Purchase Fund for 
Works of Art,' in which it is suggested that such a. 
fund ought to be largely a Government affair, and 
might be entrusted to the -care of the First Com- 
missioner of Works, since a Committee is an 
unsatisfactory body to negotiate the purchase of an 
important work of art. It is further suggested 
that a body of acknowledged experts should be 
asked to draw up lists of masterpieces which ought 
to be bought for the nation. An authentic work of 
Jaques Daret, painted in 1434, is described, and! 
illustrated by a full-page plate. Other plates con- 
cern six ladies in the portrait exhibition in Paris,, 
criticized by M. Andre" PeratS in continuance of his; 
article in the June number. Mr. E. A. Jones; 
notices a large catalogue of drinking horns, silver 
cups, and spoons in the National Museum at 
Copenhagen. The cups, as is shown by several 
illustrations, are particularly fine. Some early- 
Portuguese paintings are also figured and described 
by Mr. Herbert Cook, revealing a source of art 
which is little known at present. ' Pictures lately 
in the Collection of the King of the Belgians ' are 
also the subject of an interesting article. The 
Hobbema, 'Cottages under Oaks,' is a delightful 
picture, which was once in an English collector's 
hands. Messrs. Morris & Co. write concerning the 
appreciation of their Arras tapestry work that the 
" closing of the looms" is not at present in contem- 
plation, though the sale of the tapestries "barely 
compensates for the loss involved in training 
workers, of whom only a minority arrive at 
fruition." The work at Merton Abbey certainly 
deserves wider recognition. The various notes and 
reviews exhibit that expert touch on which we 
are able to rely in The Burlington, and which 
gives it a secure position among real lovers of art. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL JULY 17, woo. 


MR. JAMES G. COMMIN'S Exeter Catalogue 252 
contains Britton and Brayley's * Beauties of England 
and Wales,' 26 vols., calf gilt, &. 3s. ; 'Bridgewater 
Treatises,' 12 vols., full calf, II. 5s.; 'British 
Essayists,' 45 vols., 12mo, half -calf, II. 12s. ; Madame 
de Steel's '(Euvres Completes,' 17 vols., full calf, 
1820, 21. 5s. ; and Tim Bobbin's ' Lancashire Dialect,' 
illustrated by Cruiksharik, 1828, 11. 4s. A fine 
copy of the first issue of 'The Complete Angler' 
with Hawkins's notes, 1760, is 21. 12s. The best 
edition of Wilkinson's 'Ancient Egyptians,' 3 vols., 
is 21. There is an interesting series of Coleridge's 
Works, Pickering, 1839-50, 16 vols., 12mo, cloth, 
21. 10s. ; and under Commonwealth, thirty tracts 
dealing with the Restoration of Charles II., 1659-67, 
21. 2s. 

Messrs. S. Drayton & Sons' Exeter Catalogue 
203 contains a fine copy of the original edition of 
Ackermann's ' Microcosm, of London,' 3 vols., 
royal 4to, 211. ; Pilkington's ' Dictionary of 
Painters,' 2 vols., 4to, morocco, 1820, 31. 10s. ; and 
Burke's ' Armory,' 1847, 11. 10s. Under Occult 
occur Casaubon's ' Treatise proving Spirits,' 1672, 
10s. Gd., and Sibley's ' Astrology,' 2 vols., 4to, 
circa 1800, 11. Is. Under Paris is the Edition 
de Luxe of Menpes, 75 full-page illustrations in 
colour, 16s. 6d. ; under George Herbert the 
fourth edition of ' The Temple,' 1635, 21. 10s. ; 
and under Harriet Beecher Stowe the Cruikshank 
edition of ' Uncle Tom's Cabin,' 1852, 11. 12s. Qd., 
and the first edition of ' The Minister's Wooing,' 
1859, 11. 5s. 

Messrs. Probsthain & Co. have just issued their 
fifteenth Oriental Catalogue, dealing with 
'Chinese literature. It is well classified. Mr. 
Arthur A. Probsthain in an introductory note 
states that it contains the collection made by 
the late Dr. Bushell, physician to the British 
Legation at Peking, during his stay in China. 
On his return he kept up his friendship with his 
books, for he was a thorough master of Chinese, 
reading and speaking the language with fluency. 
Sections are devoted to Journals and Transactions 
,of Learned Societies, Bibliography, Grammars, 
Dictionaries, Classics, Religion, &c. Under His- 
tory is a complete copy of the twenty-four dynastic 
histories of China, 126 vols., half -calf, 151. Another 
item is the travels of Hiouen Thsang, in the 
original Chinese, almost unobtainable even in 
China, 25Z. ; and under Chin Shin So is a col- 
lection of ancient inscriptions on bells, mirrors, 
stone, &c., with more than a thousand illustra- 
tions, 1821, 1QI. Among works on coins is one 
by Li Tso Hien, entitled 'Ku Ch'uan hui,' 5Z. 10s. 
The author is said to have spent untold sums 
upon the collection of coins known as the Weihien 
Collection. There is a descriptive catalogue of 
the Imperial Library at Peking in 20 vols., 
1868, 10Z. This is a fine specimen of biblio- 
graphy, a history of each work being included. A 
complete set of The China Review ; or, Notes and 
Queries on the Far East, in parts as issued, Vols. I.- 
XXV., Hong Kong, 1872-1901, is 301. Under 
Art and Sciences is Anderson's * Catalogue of the 
Collection of Japanese and Chinese Paintings 
in the British Museum,' extremely rare, 12Z. 12s. 

Mr. Quaritch has just issued the Third Part 
of his Catalogue of Rare and Valuable Books 
on the Fine Arts. It opens with Medici coloured 

reproductions. A choice copy of Monnet's ' De- 
scription abr6g6e des quinze Estampes sur les 
principales Journe"es de la Revolution,' oblong 
atlas folio, with 5 extra plates, half-morocco 
by Riviere, Paris, 1793-1802, is 181. 18s. There 
are rare and curious works under Pageants. 
These are headed by the fine series of 37 plates 
(including 3 drawn by Hondius) delineating the 
funeral rites in honour of Charles V. The plates 
of the procession joined together would form 
one large plate thirty-three feet in length. The 
volume is oblong atlas folio, 1559-1619, 251. 
Under William and Mary are a series of large 
Dutch engravings to celebrate William's departure 
from Holland, his coronation, &c., Amsterdam, 
1689, 25L There is a list of over 150 items 
under Palaeography and Facsimiles of Manu- 
scripts, followed by collections of original drawings 
by Phiz : ' Traits and Stories of the Irish Pea- 
santry,' by Carleton, 1843, 63Z. ; 'Peter Priggins,' 
by Hook, 1840, 261. ; ' Jack Hinton,' 150Z. ; 
' The Daltons,' ' Davenport Dunn,' and ' Harry 
Lorrequer,' 140Z. ; ' Tom Burke of Ours,' 210Z. ; 
and others. Under Pinelli is ' Orlando Furioso,' 
with the original drawings by Pinelli, Rome, 
1828 - 9, 120L Portraits comprise Guerin's 
' Leaders of the French Revolution,' 24 exquisitely 
coloured stipple miniatures, 21Z. ; ' The Kit-Cat 
Club,' Horace Walpole's copy, 1735, 42Z. ; and 
Lodge's ' Portraits,' 4 vols., folio, large paper, 
proof impressions, 1821-34, 631. Of special 
interest to Americans are the thirteen portraits 
drawn from the life by Du Simitiere, including 
Washington, Baron de Steuben, Silas Deane, 
General Reed, &c., 32 1. They are very scarce ; 
Mr. Quaritch has been unable to trace the sale 
of a set since 1880. Under Niagara are Cock- 
burn's 6 views, 26 in. by 17$ in., 151. 15s. A 
notable feature of this interesting Catalogue is a 
superb set of the first issues of the 71 plates of the 
'Liber Studiorum,' 1,5002. 

[Notices of several other Catalogues are held over.] 

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tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

CORRIGENDA. A nte, p. 10, col. 2, 1. 9 from foot. 
for "double-pointed" read double-jointed. P. 12, 
col. 1, 1. 20 from foot, for "Lownde's" read 
Lowndess; 1. 7 from foot, for "whether" read 

Q M V L. R. BRESLAR ("Swank"). See 10 S. ix. 
J. ROBISON. We do not advise in such matters. 

10 s. xii. JULY 17, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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10 s. xii. JULY 24, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.-No. 291. 

NOTES : Guy and Agnes Ayno, 61 The Parker Consecra- 
tion, 62 Dodsley's Collection of Poetry, 63 'The Com- 
plete Peerage 'Etymology of " Coffee "Towers of 
Westminster Abbey, 64 Antiquity of Trade-Marks 
"Saracen's Head," Snow Hill England in London- 
Coleridge and Opium, 65 "Te Igitur "" Sceptic ": 
" Sceugn "Devonshire Superstitions Rossall Slang, 66. 

QUERIES :' How a Man may choose a Good Wife' 
"Legend Weight" Geneva and Calvin Schopenhauer 
in English Milton on the Palm, 67 Alexandra Institu- 
tion for the Blind Imprisonment : Jury Homer in the 
Eighteenth Century "The Scomer upon the Hope" 
Eliza Fenning's Execution "The" prefixed to Place- 
Naines, 68 M.P.s Unidentified W. C Plowden in Abys- 
siniaEpitaph in ' The Antiquary,' 69 Tommy Short on 
Aristotle, 70. 

REPLIES : Miss La Roche : Sir F. B. Delaval " Chops 
of the Channel," 70 Harvest Supper Songs Seething 
Lane Robert Noyes Astronomy in the Middle Ages 
Hocktide at Hexton, 71 Bergerode, 73 John Slade, 
Dorset -Munro of Novar Capt. MacCarthy, 74" Bring," 
Archaic Use " Bosting," 75 Capt. Rutherfurd 
"Davelly" Rain Shylock Tract " Seynt-pro-seynt," 76 
" Comether " " Pudding " William the Conqueror 
and Barking Duels between Women Cowper Misprint- 
William Guild, 77 "Gala rag whethow" 'Nouveaux 
Tableaux de Famille ' " Tudor ": "." Tidder "Girdle- 
stone Thackeray and Hood Herrick on the Yew 
41 Branne and Water "Abbots of Evesham, 78 -Robinson 
Crusoe's Descendants, 79. 

NOTES OX BOOKS :-Ramsay's Translation of Tacitus- 
First Translations of Great Foreign Classics -Scott's 
1 Tales of a Grandfather ' and Cobbetfs ' Rural Rides.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


AMONG the kin of William of Wykeham, 
Bishop of Winchester, there was a certain 
Agnes, who, in a settlement that the Bishop 
made of the manors of Burnham and Brene, 
Somerset, in July, 1396, was described as 
** Agneti uxori nuper Guidonis Ayno." 
The late Canon Moberly in his ' Life of 
Wykeham ' (2nd ed., p. 304, n. 2) sought 
to connect this Guy Ayno with Oxfordshire, 
on the assumption that he bore a local 
name " from Aynho, near Banbury," which 
would seem to mean Aynho within the 
borders of Northants. But there appear 
to me to be reasons for suggesting that he 
was of the family of Heynow or Haynow, 
of Stenbury, Godshill, in the Isle of Wight. 

1. Several members of that family were 
Winchester scholars : Thomas, one of the 
seventy who entered the College buildings 
when first ready for occupation in 1394 ; 
another Thomas, who headed the list of 
1439 ; Richard, 1449 ; and John, 1466. 
INow both Richard and John were expressly 

stated in the register of admissions to be 
founder's kin. 

2. There was a Guy Heyno, of the same 
family, whom it seems reasonable to identify 
with the Guy Ayno referred to in the above- 
mentioned settlement. He was the son' 
and heir of William Heyno, who died -in 
1375, owner of Stenbury, a manor held by 
knight's service as of the lordship of Caris- 
brooke Castle and by an annual payment 
at the lord's manor of Bowcomb. At that 
date the lord of the castle was Ingelram de 
Couci, who, coming to England in 1360 as 
one of the hostages for King John of France, 
had subsequently married Isabella, eldest 
daughter of Edward III., and become Earl 
of Bedford and lord of the Isle of Wight. 
As Guy Heyno was under age at his father's 
death, he and his manor thereupon passed 
into De Couci' s custody. De Couci granted 
away . the boy's wardship and marriage to 
Christina Berland, and she afterwards to 
Thomas del Isle, whose executors were in 
occupation of Stenbury when Guy Ayno 
came of age in 1383 and petitioned for 
livery of his lands. For the commission to 
William Ryngebourn and others to inquire 
into the petition, see Patent Rolls 7 R. II. 
pt. 2, m. 25d. ; and for their return, dated 
at Newport, I. of W., 16 May, 1384, see 
Inq. p. m. 7 R. II., No. 46. It may be 
added that Carisbrooke Castle had by then 
come ,t3 the King's hands by reason (as 
stated in the return) of De Couci's adher- 
ence to the French ; for upon Richard II.'s 
accession De Couci renounced allegiance to 
England, and returned into the service of 

According to Worsley's ' Isle of Wight ' 
(1781), p. 220, 

' ' the manor of Stenbury was held by the family 
of De Aula from after the Norman conquest, 
from whom it descended to that of Heyno, who 
enjoyed it for more than two centuries, and lived 
at the manor house, which was surrounded by a 

At any late, William de Heynou had the 
manor in 1316 ('Feudal Aids,' ii. 321); 
and under the will of Thomas Hay no we, 
who died in 1506 (P.C.C., 13 Adeane), it 
became divisible among five of his daughters 
and coheirs, Mary, Elizabeth, Annes, Kate- 
rine, and Grace, some provision being 
made for two other daughters, Bone and 
Mildred, who were nuns at Wynteney (Hart- 
ley-Wintney). At 10 S. iv. 270 MB. A. T. 
EVERITT mentioned that Mary, one of these 
daughters, was the first wife of William 
Pound of Drayton, Hants. 

Precisely how Agnes Ayno was related to 
William of Wykeham has long been tut a 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xu. JULY 24 , 

matter of conjecture. His biographers, 
Lowth and Moberly, in the pedigrees they 
constructed, have offered different solutions 
of the point, but, in the absence of further 
evidence, it must remain questionable 
whether either solution is correct. My 
suggestion, which is, I believe, a new one, 
that Agnes was the wife of Guy Heyno of 
Stenbury, may possibly lead to the dis- 
covery of her parentage. H. C. 


(See 3 S. viii. 390 ; 4 S. ii. 435, 493.) 

THERE appears to be a curious flaw in 
the above-mentioned document, which 
escaped the notice of Perceval, Haddan, 
and Stubbs, who relied implicitly on the 
record. It will be seen that such an over- 
sight would easily occur, as the mistake 
consists of a misdescription of one of the 
minor dignitaries. 

The register states that the Archbishop's 
two chaplains, viz., Nicholas Bullingham 
and Edmund Gest, respectively Archdeacons 
of Lincoln and Canterbury, were present on 
17 Dec., 1559, and rendered their assistance : 
" Cui ministrabant, operamque suam pre- 
bebant, duo Archie'pi Capellani, viz., 
Nicholaus Bullingh'm, Lincoln., et Edmun- 
dus Gest, Cantuarien respective Archi'ni." 
Now the fact is that Edmund Geat was 
at that time Archdeacon of Canterbury, 
but Nicholas Bullingham was not Arch- 
deacon of Lincoln. He had been Arch- 
deacon of Lincoln under Edward VI., but 
he fled the kingdom on the accession of 
Queen Mary, and never again became 
Archdeacon. Owen Hodgson was made 
Archdeacon on 14 Jan., 1558. He died, or 
resigned, or was deprived (most probably 
the last), in 1558 or 1559 ; and the next 
Archdeacon was John Aylmer, 1562. In 
December, 1559, the Archdeaconry was 
vacant. The following table of dates will 
explain the matter : 

1549. Sept. 22. Nicholas Bullingham installed 
as Archdeacon of Lincoln. 

1553. July 6. Mary succeeded to the throne : 

shortly after this event Bullingham fled 
the realm. 

1554. May 23. Thomas Marshall was installed 

as Archdeacon. 

1558. Jan. 14. Owen Hodgson was installed as 


1358. Nov. 17. Elizabeth succeeded to the 

1559. June 27. Thomas Watson, Bishop of 

Lincoln, was deprived. 

1559. Nov. 5. The royal licence issued for the 
election of a bishop. 

1559. Nov. 6(?). Bullingham accepted the see. 

1559. Dec. 17. Parker consecration at Lambeth. 

1560. Jan. 12. Royal assent to election of 

Bullingham as Bishop. 

1560. Jan. 18. The Queen grants the arch- 
deaconry to Bullingham for three years, 
commencing with his acceptance of the 
bishopric, to be held in commendam 
the grant expressly stating that the 
archdeaconry is vacant. 

1560. Jan. 21. Bullingham is consecrated for 

1562. Nov. 6. John Aylmer is installed as Arch- 

1571. Bullingham is translated to Worcester. 

1576. Bullingham dies. 

The main particulars are gathered from 
certain letters published in The Weekly 
Register, 18579, the author being the Rev. 
Canon John Williams (R.C.). They were 
collected into a small volume in 1859. 
Canon Williams was not a thoroughly 
accurate writer ; but in these points he is 
correct. The list of archdeacons is taken 
from Le Neve's 'Fasti' (1716), p. 157. 
The royal licence, assent, and grant are set 
forth in Rymer's ' Fcedera,' xv. 549, 561, 
564. And I have verified the citation from 
the Lambeth Register with the photographic 
copy of the same. 

The date of Bullingham's acceptance of 
the See of Lincoln is conjecturally stated, 
on the supposition that the three years' 
grant ended when the new Archdeacon was 

It must be evident to every lawyer that 
if Bullingham was not Archdeacon of 
Lincoln in December, 1559, and if he was 
Bishop designate ; and if the Lambeth 
Register fails to describe him as Bishop 
designate, and does describe him as Arch- 
deacon ; then the Lambeth Register, as 
we have it, is not the original record of the 
transaction which it describes, but must 
have been made up sufficiently long after 
the transaction for the mistake to occur ; 
for surely no keeper of the records, making 
them up during or near December, 1559, 
could possibly have styled Bullingham 
Archdeacon. And in that case what became 
of the original record ? For an original 
record there certainly was. 

I wish to say plainly that I am not trying 
to introduce into these columns any debate 
concerning Anglican Orders, for in my view 
the question now raised does not materially 
affect them. 

I therefore beg that any contributor who 
may comment adversely on the present 
note will confine himself to proving, either 
that Bullingham was Archdeacon of Lincoln 
in December, 1559, or, if he was not, that 

10 s. xii. JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Lambeth Register can be considered an 
original and trustworthy record of the facts 
which it relates. 

The words of the grant of 18 Jan., 1560, 
are " infra praedictum Archidiaconatum 
mine certo et legittimo modo vacantem." 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 


(See 10 S. vi. 361, 402 ; vii. 3, 82, 284, 404, 
442; viii. 124, 183, 384, 442; ix. 3, 184, 
323, 463 ; x. 103, 243, 305, 403 ; xi. 62, 
143, 323.) 

MY preliminary article contained some 
information on the construction of the 
volumes of Dodsley's collection ; it is now 
possible to give some further details. Most 
of the pieces composing the first three 
volumes (January, 1748) were submitted to 
the judgment of George, the first Lord 
Lyttelton, before they were passed for 
printing. Some of them were suggested by 
Horace Walpole. Among these are the six 
Town Eclogues of Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu, the poems of Gray, the monody 
of their friend Richard West, and, I would 
add, Seward's ' Female Right to Literature.' 
Dodsley did not himself know the authors 
of many of the poems which he had inserted. 
Two months after publication Dodsley 
doubted whether there would be another 
volume of the collection, but he offered 
Shenstone to insert a single poem or so in 
the second- edition of those already pub- 
lished. By the middle of May a second 
edition had been arranged for. It was not 
until the autumn of 1753 that a fourth 
volume was in course of preparation anc 
that Shenstone was asked for further con 
tributions. They were forwarded by him 
to Dodsley in November, 1753, and January 
1754, and formed the concluding portior 
(pp. 293-361) of the fourth volume. Many 
pieces were inserted in this and the othe 
volumes from members of New College 
Oxford, who had passed through their 
school education at Winchester College, anc 
these were, I would suggest, suppliec 
through Spence, Dodsley's warm friend fo 
many years, and a member of both these 

In April, 1756, Dodsley set about th 
publication of the two concluding volumes 
which came out early in 1758, and wa 
again in communication with Shenston 
for contributions. This time the pieces c 
Shenstone and his friends filled the openin 
pages of the fifth volume. John Hoadlv, th 

lerical son of the well-known Bishop 
loadly, sent his friend Dodsley several of 
lis own productions, and suggested many 
thers ; but some of the pieces he pro- 
iosed were not included. Shenstone asserts 
hat the sixth volume was printed before the 
fth, and that he was not able to make 
ome of the corrections that he desired. 

Isaac Reed was editor of the 1782 issue, 
,vhich for the first time gave the authorship 
f most of the poems which had appeared 
anonymously, and furnished some brief 
>articulars of the lives of the poets. No 
>etter person could have been found for 
luch a duty, for the poetical history of the 
receding century was more familiar to him 
,han to any other living person, save perhaps 
Dr. Johnson. With these volumes the 
ssues of the collection ceased, but most 
>f their contents subsequently appeared 
n John Bell's ' Classical Arrangement of 
Fugitive Poetry.' Many of the pieces were 
also included in the 'New Foundling Hcs- 
pital for Wit.' A short time after their cessa- 
ion a brighter school of poetry arose. Many 
of the poems brought together by Dodsley 
will live in our national literature, but 
the spirit of five-sixths of the volumes has 

vaporated. A very harsh estimate of the 
set is given in the ' Portfolio of a Man of the 
World ' I do not think that he can be 
Mitford which appeared in The Gentle- 
man's Magazine for 1845, pt. ii. p. 344 : 

"Aug. 1819. I was looking in Dodsley's Col- 
.ection of Poems to-day, and certainly a more 
piteous farrago of llatness never was seen. There- 
are some of the standard poems of the preceding 
generation which stand out on high among the 
rest, but the performances of the day are really 
shocking to behold. There is a littleness, an 
utter dulness, that would be most disheartening 
were it not so gloriously contrasted by our 
resent race. If we turn from Dodsley's paltry 
t >age of dilettante rhymes to Scott t or Shelley, or 
Byron, what giants we appear in comparison to 
our fathers. The generation between the Rebel- 
lion of Forty -five and the French Revolution was 
one of the tamest in our history. The American 
War, so disastrous in its close, was first looked 
upon as a mere partisan warfare, a little outbreak 
among a set of impudent convicts, that would be 
put down in a month or two ; and it was so far 
off, and the whole so vexatious ! There was no 
national feeling excited ; we were fighting against 
ourselves ; it was a spiritless and melancholy 
struggle, and nothing great on our side was 
elicited. But after the French Revolution the 
ferment of the universe brought forth great 
spirits, great warriors, great statesmen, great 
poets. And now, when we look back at the 
namby-pamby .rhyming in Mr. Dodsley, we 
wonder how there could have been so many men 
in England who could write such stuff, or that 
the women could have been contented with such 
an unmanly set as must have been the composers. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 24, 1909. 

of ' Epistles in the manner of Ovid, from Monimia 
to Philocles,' or ' The Squire of Dames, in Spen- 
ser's style.' Spenser's ! And ' A song for Rane- 
lagh,' and ' Flowers by Anthony Whistler, esq.,' 
* A prayer to Venus in her temple at Stowe,' ' On 
.a message-card in verse,' and ' Verses under Mr. 
Poyntz' picture.' Besides ' Epistles to a Lady ' 
and ' Epistles to Camilla and Clarissa,' and 
inscriptions in grottoes, and lines on fans innu- 


AND ADDITIONS. I append two or three 
notes on G. E. C.'s valuable work. 

Nicholas Purcell is stated (vol. v. p. 155) 
to have been created Baron Loughmore by 
James II. " when in exile." I find, how- 
ever, in the "Act for the Settlement of Ire- 
Jand, 12 Aug., 1652," in a list of lords and 

others and among the lords, one Pursel, 

Baron of Loghmo. It would appear, 
;accordingly, that the title Loughmore was 
in existence as early at any rate as 1641, to 
the rebellion of which year the above- 
mentioned Act has reference. 1 should be 
:glad to know the Christian name of the 
;above " baron." 

Vol. i. p. 131, 1. 5, for 14 March, 1664, 
read 14 March, 1664/5. 

Vol. i. p. 184. In a document dated 
8 June, 1404, and printed in Rymer's 
* Foedera,' Walter Stewart is styled " Earl 
of Athole," whereas Sir James Balfour Paul 
* Scots Peerage') and G. E. C. both give 
1409 as the date of creation. 

Vol. i. p. 200. The statement about the 
wives of James Tuchet, 7th Lord Audley, 
requires further examination. See ' Calen- 
dar of Inquisitions post Mortem,' Hen. VII, 
Nos. 601 and 646. The dates present a 
difficulty. T. C. 

tory of this word involves several phonetic 
difficulties hitherto unsolved. Of course 
the ' N.E.D.' is right in stating that the 
European languages got the name about 
1600 from the Arabic qahwah, not directly, 
but through its Turkish form kahveh. The 
Turkish form might have been written 
.kahve, as its final h was never sounded at 
any time. Sir James Murray draws atten- 
tion to the existence of two European types, 
one like the French cafe, Italian caffe, the 
other like the English coffee, Dutch koffie. 
He explains the vowel o in the second series 
as apparently representing au, from Turkish 
ahv. This seems unsupported by evidence, 
and the v is already represented by the ff, 
;so on Sir James's assumption coffee must 

stand for kahv-ve, which is unlikely. The 
change from a to o, in my opinion, is better 
accounted for as an imperfect appreciation. 
The exact sound of a in Arabic and other 
Oriental languages is that of the English 
short u, as in *' cuff." This sound, so easy 
to us, is a great stumbling-block to other 
nations. A learned German professor once 
confided to me, with tears in his eyes, that 
after years of study and long residence in 
England he was still utterly unable to dis- 
tinguish between the words " colour " and 
" collar." In fact, he pronounced them 
both with o, and most foreigners do the same. 
I judge that Dutch ko/fie and kindred forms 
are imperfect attempts at the notation of a 
vowel which the writers could not grasp. 
It is clear that the French typ? is more 
correct. The Germans have corrected their 
koffee, which they may have got from the 
Dutch, into kaffee. The Scandinavian lan- 
guages have adopted the French form. 

Many must wonder how the hv of the 
original so persistently becomes ff in the 
European equivalents. Sir James Murray 
makes no attempt to solve this problem ; 
indeed, so far as I know, it has never been 
discussed by any philologist. I would point 
out that in Turkish there is a dis- 
position to substitute / for h. An example 
is kergef, the Turkish form of Persian kdrgeh, 
a workshop. Another is zilifddr, Turkish 
for Persian silahddr. (This, by the way, is 
the same word Byron spells selictar.) It 
does not 'seem credulous to assume that 
kahve might readily become kafve, then by 
assimilation kaffe. Some of the lesser lan- 
guages of Europe retain the original 
Turkish v Finnish kahvi, Hungarian kdve, 
Bohemian kdva, Polish kawa. In Servian 
and Croatian they say indifferently kafa or 
kava. The odd-looking Roumanian ca/ed 
and Russian kophei are due to stress upon 
the last syllable. 


TOWERS. Dean Stanley wrote (' Historical 
Memorials of Westminster Abbey,' 1896, 
p. 476) that, according to the Chapter 
Book, the western towers were finished 
1738/9 (17 February). He added in a 
foot-note that Wren restored the lower part 
of the towers and made a design for the 
whole, but that after his death in 1723 
" the upper part was completed by Hawks- 
more, and after his death 1736 probably 
by James." 

This is confirmed by Wyatt Papworth 
(Longman's ' History of the three Cathedrals 

10 s. XIL JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


fo St. Paul,' 1873, p. 86), who says that 
they were finished by John James, Surveyor 
at Westminster Abbey, 1725-46, and 
" Wren's name should be disconnected 
from them." This is clear enough, but 
Mrs. E. T. Murray Smith ('The Roll Call 
of Westminster Abbey,' 1903, p. 322) names 
" Dickenson " as being finally responsible 
for their completion. 

Yet another claimant for the honour i 
suggested in ' Nollekens and his Times ' 
(1895, p. 166), where J. T. Smith quotes 
" Old Gayfere, the Abbey Mason," aa 
having said to Nollekens : "I believe I 
told you that I carried the rods when 
Fleetcraft measured the last work at the 
North Tower when the Abbey was finished." 
For " North Tower," of course, read West 
Towers. The date of the work is beyond 

Hollar's excellent engraving of the Western 
face (1654?) clearly shows that the South- 
western Tower was alone unfinished ; for 
the others restoration only was necessary, 
and this is all Wren intended should be 

the case of Southern v. How, in the King's 
Bench, Mr. Justice Doderidge said that 
' 22 Eliz. an Action upon the Case was brought in 
the Common Pleas by a Clothier, that whereas he 
had gained great Reputation for the making of his 
Cloth, by reason whereof he had great Utterance to 
his great benefit and profit, and that he used to set 
his Mark to his Cloth, whereby it should be known 
to be his Cloth : And another Clothier, perceiving 
it, used the same Mark to his ill-made Cloth on 
purpose to deceive him, and it was resolved that 
the Action did well lie." 

" Deceive " should be defraud. See Sir 
John Popham's Reports, Addition, 2nd ed., 
1682, p. 144. 

Hence it appears that a man's property 
in his own trade-mark was recognized as 
earty as the year 1580, though I think the 
textbooks do not assign so early a date. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

This old hotel, immortalized by Dickens in 
' Nicholas Nickleby ' and also by the fact 
that Lord Nelson slept there when on his 
way to join the Navy, finally closed its 
doors on Saturday the 3rd inst. The 
original building was pulled down some 
years ago, and the present building erected 
close to the site. Anything more unlike the 
inn as Dickens knew it could hardly have 
been built, and I well remember the keen 
disappointment I felt when this modern 

London hotel was pointed out to me as 
its successor. A letter written from 
it in 1780, and describing the burning 
of Newgate by the Gordon rioters, refers, 
to it as " the most comfortable and 
commodious inn in the City of London." 
It flourished for some years after its rebuild- 
ing, but of late, owing to the demand for 
more up-to-date hotels, it had fallen on 

ENGLAND IN LONDON. 1 learn from 
Shelton's translations of ' Don Quixote ' 
(Part II. chap. Ivii.) that it was a popular 
error in Spain to believe that the lesser 
contained the greater. A note attached to- 
some verses of the " witty and wanton 
Atisidora " 

Mayst thqu false accounted be 
From Seville to Marchena, 
From Granada to Loia, 
From London to England- 
remarks : 

" Though these verses were made on purpose to- 
be absurd, yet sure the author here fell into the 
common absurdity that I have known many of his 
countrymen do, which is that England is in Lon- 
don, and not vice versa." 

Charles Jarvis evaded the passage when he- 

May thy disgrace 
Fill ev'ry place, 
Thy falsehood ne'er be hid, 
But round the world 
Be toss'd and hurl'd 
From Seville to Madrid. 

Shelton's version of the romance, though 
less elegant than his, has a compensating 
quaintness ; but neither explains Sancho's 
difficulty as to the meaning of the Spanish 
cry " ' St. Jaques, and shut [or, close] Spain/ 
Is" Spain open, trow, so that it needed to 
be shut ? or what ceremony is this ? " 


ber of The Canadian Magazine (Toronto) 
has an article by S. T. Wood on the tragedy 
of Coleridge's life, with facsimiles of letters- 
from S. T. C. to the chemist in Tottenham 
Court Road from whom Coleridge obtained 
a supply of opium during his residence with 
the Gillmans at Highgate. These letters 
were preserved by Miss Dunn, daughter of 
the chemist. Miss Dunn became the wife 
of the Rev. W. H. Morris, a clergyman 
stationed near Toronto, and the notes 
which reveal the surreptitious purchase of 
drugs are at the present time in the pos- 
session of the family of one of the clergy- 
man's daughters by a former marriage. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. DO s. xn. JULY 24 , 1900. 

Hall Caine in his life of Coleridge declares 
that the onus of proof is on those who 
doubt Gillmaii's claim to success in curing 
Coleridge of the drug habit. These letters 
appear to set all spesulation on the subject 
at rest. In one letter (which is undated) 
Coleridge writes : 

DEAR SIR, If it be in your possess", could you 
favour me with an oz. of the Liquid Morphii, equal 
in strength to Laudanum, or in lieu of this half a 
scruple of the Acetate Morohii ? S. T. C. 


" TE IGITUB." Some years ago, when 
visiting Chichester Cathedral, I saw in the 
library an illuminated missal open at a 
page commencing " Te Igitur." As the 
book was in a glass case, I had not the 
opportunity of examining it. I find in the 
description of the trial of Rebecca in ' Ivan- 
hoe ' the following allusion to it : 

" 'Hath he made oath,' said the Grand Master? 
* that his quarrel is just and honourable? Bring 
forward the crucifix and the Te Igitur? " Chap, 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" SCEPTIC " : " SCEUGH." The word 
sceptic has long enjoyed the doubtful honour 
of being quoted as the only one in English 
in which sc is sounded sk before e. There 
h, however, one other example, and that 
is the North-Country term sceugh, pro- 
nounced skew. It is common in place-names, 
as Lambsceugh, Middlesceugh. In Lan- 
cashire it is written scough, but by another 
curious anomaly the Lancashire surnames 
Ayscough and Myerscough are popularly 
pronounced Askew and Maskew, as if they 
ended in sceugh instead of scough. We seem 
here to have the orthography of one dialect, 
and the pronunciation of another. It is a 
parallel case to that of the place in the Sand- 
wich Islands which Mark Twain mentions, 
spelt Kawaehae and pronounced To-a-hi. 

schoolmaster, whose school is situated a 
few miles from Exeter, recently gave the 
boys in his senior class a composition 
lesson to write at home upon local super- 
stitions. The replies stated the following 
things to be unlucky : 

To open a door to a black cat. 

For a cat to bring a dead snake into the 

To keep a kitten that has been born in 
the month of May. 

For a cat to sit with its tail towards the 

To let a goose sit on eggs when a west 
wind is blowing. 

To put your boots or a pair of bellows on 
the table. 

To put on your coat inside out. 

For two persons to wipe themselves upon 
a towel at the same time. 

For two to jump a gate) together. 

,To give away anything that has been 
received as a present. 

' To meet and pass any person on the 

To give a baby copper money. 

To allow an infant to look into a looking- 
glass before it is two years old. 

For a magpie to fly in front of you. 

To put on the left stocking first" 

To break a salt cellar. 

To cut finger-nails on Sunday. 

For boys to be baptized before girls at 
Church where babies of both sexes are 
present for that purpose. 

For a grave to be left open on a Sunday, 
because in that case one of the same family 
will die within the year. 

To bring holly berries into the house before 
Christmas Eve. 

To sing Christmas carols at any time savo 
during that festive season. If this is done, 
a cow or some other of the stock will surely 

To open the street door on New Year'? 
morning to a person with light hair. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

[Several of the superstitions noted are very widely 

:J|RossALL SLANG. (Cf. 10 S. vii. 125, 193.) 
A few weeks ago I ventured to make the 
attempt to draw inferences from a list of 
Rossall words and phrases supplied me by a 
colleague, who is himself an O.R. It is 
possible that some readers of ' N. & Q.' may 
be able to furnish corrections or confirma- 
tions of my inferences. The sum of these 
was that, with one exception, our Rossall 
vocabulary is not drawn from Lancashire 
sources, and that Wiltshire and Ireland 
have had most effect upon it. I hazard 
the conjecture that the ' English Dialect 
Dictionary ' has unfortunately been negli- 
gent enough to record the slang of the 
public schools as evidence of the counties 
in which these schools stand, so that it is 
impossible to judge from the ' Dictionary ' 
whether I am right in believing the Wiltshire 
words are really only words imported from 
Marlborough, or are to be filiated to that 
county in some other way. Similarly I 

10 s. XIL JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


suspect the attribution to Berkshire of the 
slang "Fain I," and doubt if it be not in 
reality only in use in that county at Welling- 
ton College. 

The Rossall words I examined were 
" to clew " (Glos. and Wilts) ; " a frowst " 
(Scotch, Irish, Glos., Wilts, &c.) ; " Fain I " 
(Chesh., Staffs, Glos., Berks, Som., Dev.); 
" to sack " (Irish is nearest ; and cf. the 
quotation from Oxford, 1846) ; "a budge " 
(Irish); a " throdkin " (Lanes, Fylde). 
Besides, I had to notice " to stub " (which, 
it has been suggested, is German in origin) ; 
" a cop " (cf. Wyle Cop at Shrewsbury) ; 
" a scanty " and " hot day " (mere 
argot, I judge). As to " guntz," I sug- 
gested that it was abbreviated from 
gun-stick= ramrod (applied because of the 
first sergeant's upright carriage), the change 
of order in the consonants resembling the 
variety in the pronunciation of the Greek (. 

T. N. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

I am preparing a new edition of the play 

* How a Man may choose a Good Wife from 
a Bad,' first published in 1602, and some- 
times ascribed on loose grounds to J. 
Cooke. I shall be obliged to readers of 

* N. & Q.' for any information or references 
that may add to our very scanty knowledge 
of the history of this interesting drama. 

A. E. H. SWAEN. 
Groningen, Heereplein. 

" LEGEND WEIGHT." In an account of 
the launching of H.M.S. Shannon in 1906, 
given in The Times, the following words 
occur : " drawing a foot less water at 
legend weights." 

I shall be glad if any one will explain the 
meaning of the word " legend " in this 
connexion. G. M. H. P. 


GENEVA AND CALVIN. The Comte d'Haus- 
sonville, who had the honour, in the name 
of the Academie Francaise, recently to 
express the thanks of the foreign delegates 
at Geneva at the celebration of the 400th 
birthday of Jean Calvin and the 350th year 
of the University of Geneva, alluded in his 
discourse, to an unjust phrase attributed 

to a French author, and made a long time 
ago : " Qu'on n'a jamais souri a Geneve 
depuis Calvin." As the speaker did not 
state the name of that French author, it 
might be worth while to find out, by the 
help of ' N. & Q.,' his name and where the 
saying occurs. INQUIRER. 

article on the philosophy of Schopenhauer 
appeared in The Westminster Review for 
April, 1853. I should like to know by 
whom it was written. When were Schopen- 
hauer's works translated into English, and 
by whom ? When was the period of his 
greatest vogue in England ? 


Som me. 

['The World as Will and idea,' translated by 
R. B. Haldane (the present Secretary of State for 
War) and J. Kemp, 3 vols., appeared 1883-6 ; and 
a literal translation of ' On the Fourfold Root of 
the Principle of Sufficient Reason ' and ' On the 
Will in Nature' in 1889. Mr. T. Bailey Saunders 
published several translations from Schopenhauer 
between 1889 and 1896. See also the 'Life' by 
William Wallace, 1890, with bibliography.] 

MILTON ON THE PALM. Mr. Dallimore in 
his book ' Holly, Yew, and Box ' writes : 

" Milton in the following lines appears to be 
describing the Yew though he speaks of it as a palm : 
Cedar, and pine, and fir, and branching p_alm. 
'Par. Lost,' Book IV. 

Nearer he drew, and many a walk traversed 
Of stateliest covert, cedar, pine, or palm. 

'Par. Lost,' Book IX. 

There will I build him 

A monument, and plant it round with shade 
Of laurel ever green, and branching palm. 

* Samson Agonistes.' " 

I find on inquiry that Mr. Dallimore's 
reasons for so thinking are briefly that 
cedar, pine, and fir are allied to the yew, 
and would naturally group with it ; that 
the expression " branching " could not 
be applied to a true palm ; also that the 
yew was popularly called palm in Milton's 
day (I should rather say that the words were 
used interchangeably), because the yew was 
often employed for the palm in church 

I should be very glad to know the opinion 
of Milton scholars on this subject. I 
venture to think that Milton did not mean 
the yew when he wrote palm. He was not, 
I believe, a botanist hardly, perhaps, a 
very minute observer of nature ; and I 
think the palm would occur to his mind 
rather than the yew in connexion with 
Eden, and that he would not trouble about 
its associates. I think the term " branch- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 24, im 

ing " is just the word he might use tD 
describe the great leaves spreading out 
like a large umbrella of the true palm. 
In Book VIII. he writes of the 

fruits of palm tree, pleasantest to thirst 
And hunger both. 

There, at least, the true palm must be 
meant. I. M. L. 

THE BLIND. This Institution was founded 
in 1865, and located at 6, Queen Square, 
Bloomsbury, its secretary being J. H. Yates. 
In 1876 it made an offer to turn over its 
assets and liabilities to the School for the 
Indigent Blind an indication of being in 
low water. 

I am anxious to learn the work it did, 
the objects of the Institution, and how it 
was supported in brief, to what extent, 
and how, it benefited any class of the blind. 
(See 10 S. x. 232.) J. E. D. H. 

IMPRISONMENT : JURY. The following 
statements are made in ' The Inquisition,' 
by E. Vacandard, translated by B. L. 
Con way, 1908 : 

" It is interesting to note that imprisonment for 
crime is of purely ecclesiastical origin. The Roman 
law knew nothing of it. It was at first a penalty 
peculiar to monks and clerics." P. 32. 

After mentioning that the assessors of 
the inquisitors voted the sentence, the 
author remarks : " We have here the 
beginnings of our modern jury " (p. 140). 

Can these statements be supported ? 

W. C. B. 


I have been reading during my holidays a 
very interesting volume entitled 'An En- 
quiry into the Life and Writings of Homer.' 
It is the second edition, and has these words 
on the title-page : " London : Printed in 
the year M.DCC.XXXVI." Neither publisher's 
nor author's name is there given, but at the 
end of the book I find a page of advertise- 
ments of " books printed for J. Oswald, at 
the Rose and Crown in the Poultry," who, 
I suppose, sent it forth. It is dedicated 
"To the Right Honourable A****, Earl of 
*****," and is one of the most beautiful 
volumes produced in the eighteenth century, 
so far as I can judge. It is adorned with 
twelve plates, designed by Gravelot, nearly 
all of which are engraved by G. Vander 
Gucht ; one (p. 58) is by P. Fourdrinier, 
and two are by G. Scotin. Furthermore, 
there are eleven tail-pieces, designed by 
Gravelot and engraved by Gucht. The 

book contains 346 pages, and is furnished 
with a copious index, consisting of 78 pages, 

I can find nothing about this admirably 
printed and artistically illustrated volume 
in Pickering's edition of Lowndes's ' Manual.' 
I have a copy of Robert Wood's ' Essay on 
the Original Genius and Writings of Homer,' 
printed in 1824, but first published in 1775, 
in which a reference is made on p. 79 to the 
book mentioned, but no name is given. In 
Jacob Bryant's ' Dissertation concerning 
the War of Troy,' &c., of which I have the 
first edition, published, according to Lowndes, 
at London in 1796 (no date is on the title- 
page, neither is the place), no reference is 
made to the work about which I am writing. 
I do not find a word about it in Boswell's 
' Life of Samuel Johnson.' I should much 
like to know the name of the author, who 
was a ripe scholar and wrote admirable 
English. JOHN T. CURRY. 

[ By Thomas Blackwell the younger, for whom see 
'D.N.B.' and the authorities quoted. The first 
edition appeared in 1735.] 

was a scomer, that it should be placed on a 
hoop as a sign in Birchin Lane ? In 1497 
the Prioress and Convent of St. Helen's, 
Bishopsgate, granted to Thomas Knight 
a '* brue hous called the Scomer upon the 
Hope for three score years at a yearly rent 
of v']li. xiijs. iiijd. sterling." 


Fenningwas hanged at Newgate in July, 1815, 
for having administered poison in dumplings 
to the family of Robert Gregson Turner, a 
law stationer in Chancery Lane. Timbs in 
his ' Curiosities of London ' mentions that 
years afterwards a nephew of the Turners, 
on his death-bed at Chelmsford, confessed 
that, irritated with his uncle and aunt 
because of their refusal to give him money, 
he sprinkled powdered arsenic on the 
dumplings during the temporary absence of 
the servant from the kitchen ; Eliza Forming, 
he added, knew nothing of this. Is there 
any authentic evidence of such a confession 
having been made, and where can it be 
found ? WALTER BELL. 

In a district with which I was familiar when 
a boy the people speak of The Dullatur, Tftf 
Haggs, The Arns. Why should the3e names, 
have the article prefixed ? 


10 S. XII. JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


M.P.s UNIDENTIFIED. Can any on< 
kindly identify and give some particulars o 
the following members of Parliament ? 

Thomas Salusbury, M.P. Liverpool 1754 till he 
died in 1756. 

Samuel Savill, M.P. Colchester 1741-7. 
John Sawyer, M.P. Downton 1713-15. 

John Sawyer, M.P. Leominster 1790 until un 
seated in 1791. 

Nathaniel Saxon, M.P. Ilchester 1806-7. 

John Raymond, M.P. Wey mouth 1741-7. 

Richard Ramsbottom, M.P. Windsor 1806-10, 
when succeeded by his nephew John R.. jun. 

Thomas Renda, M.P. Wallingford 1701-5. 

George Richards, M.P. Bridport 1741 until he 
died 25 Nov., 1746. 

Thomas Richmond, M.P. Maldon 1708-11. 

William Rickford, M.P. Aylesbury 1818-41. 

Thomas Ridge, M.P. Poole 1708-11. 

Gabriel Roberts, M.P. Marlborough 1713-15. 

John Roberts, M.P. Harwich 1761-72. 

John Roberts, M.P. Taunton 1780-82. 

John Robins, M.P. Stafford 1747-54. 

George Robinson, M.P. Tregony 1713-15. 

George Robinson, M.P. Great Marlow 1731-2. 

Nicholas Robinson, M.P. Wootton Bassett 1734- 

Samuel Robinson, M.P. Cricklade 1710-13. 

Richard Bateman Robson, M.P. Oakhampton 

Augustus Rogers, M.P. Queenborough 1783-4. 

Nathaniel Rogers, M.P. Hull 1717-27. 

Thomas Rogers, M.P. Coventry 1780-81. 

Henry Rosewarne, M.P. Truro 1780-83. 

Patrick Ross, M.P. Horsham 1802-4. 

Thomas Ryder, M.P. Tiverton 1755-6. 

Charles Fotherby, M.P. Queenborough 1713-15. 

Evan Foulkes, M.P. Stamford 1808-18. 

James Fraser, M.P. Gatton 1787-90. 

Samuel Pargiter Fuller, M.P. Petersfield 1715-22. 

Francis Eyre, M.P. Morpeth 1774-5. 

Christopher Idle, M.P. Wey mouth 1813-18. 

Please reply direct. W. R. WILLIAMS. 
Talybont, Brecon. 

Chichele Plowden travelled in Abyssinia 
from 1843 to 1846, and was again in that 
country as British Consul from 1848 till his 
death in 1860. The account of his travels 
was arranged and edited from his papers 
by his brother Trevor Chichele Plowden 
( ' Travels in Abyssinia and the Galla Country, 
with an Account of a Mission to Ras AH 
in 1848,' Longmans & Co., 1868). But his 
journal printed in this volume covers only 
a short portion of the time Plowden spent 
in Abyssinia. It commences with a visit 
to the hot springs of Goramba in June, 
1844 (p. ,160), and breaks off as suddenly 
with his return to Begemder from Ras Ali's 
camp with the treaty signed (p. 438). He 
does not give the date of this (he is generally 
sparing in this respect) ; but as the treaty 
was signed on 2 Nov., 1849 (Dr. Chas. T. 
Beke, ' The British Captives in Abyssinia,' 

1867, p. 21), Plowden's departure must 
have been immediately after that date. 
Is there any available information as to 
Plowden's first wanderings in 1843-4, and 
as to the last ten years of his life ? His 
brother alludes (pp. 453 and 469) to private 
diaries kept by Plowden during his consulate 
(1848-60), which, for some unexplained 
reason, were not published. If these are 
still in existence, they would doubtless 
throw much light on a very interesting 
period in the history of Abyssinia, or Ethiopia 
as the country should rather be called. 
They would no doubt contain much not to 
be found in the Parliamentary Blue-book. 
This also seems to leave some important 
lacunae, for Mr. Trevor C. Plowden writes 
(p. 477) that "Her Majesty's Government 
have not thought it right to include the 
really important portion of the correspond- 
ence on these subjects [the slave trade and 
the expulsion of the Roman Catholics] 
in the papers presented to Parliament." 

I shall be glad to have references to any 
other information about Plowden and his 
researches in Abyssinia. 


39, Agate Road, Hammersmith, W. 

Many of the readers of ' JST. & Q.' will call 
to mind in the eleventh chapter of ' The 
Antiquary ' the epitaph on the last bailiff 
of the abbey before the Scottish monasteries 
fell into lay hands. The first two lines are 
as follows : 

Here lyeth John o' ye Girnell : 

Erth has ye nit, and heuen ye kirnell. 

I have been surprised in reading Hearne's 

Remarks and Collections,' vol. viii. p. 77, 

published by the Oxford Historical Society 

n 1907, to encounter a letter to Hearne 

written by Philip Harcourt, who sends 

" An inscription on a stone in Haddlow Church 
Yard w th in 4 miles of Tonbridge, compos'd by ye 
Vicar, w ch is as dull as an old Frier w d have wrote 
300 years agoe : 

" ' Death hath added to this place the Body of 
Vlrs. Silance Carnel, ye beloved wife of Mr. Tho 8 
Darnel of this Parish. She dyed Nov. 16, Anno 
Domini 1714, ^Etat. suae 77. 
Death, why doest tho[u] grin so this sad Day, 
therein thou hast crop t a Flower of May ? 
Thy Harvest is no Wheat, but Darnel, 
Thou hast gott the Shell, out Heaven the Carnel.' " 

To me this is quite new. Is it possible 

hat it may have been printed in some 

x>ok seen by Sir Walter Scott before ' The 

Antiquary ' was written ? or may we con- 

lude that the two rimes have no connexion 

with each other ? K. P. D. E. 


NOTES AND QUERIES, rio s. xn. JULY 24, 1900. 

' Memories,' by the Rev. Frederick Meyrick, 
the following observation occurs : 

"He [Thomas Short] lectured in Aristotle's 
' Rhetoric,' and after a time he passed by many 
years the age at which Aristotle says that man's 
powers are at their best. It became a great enjoy- 
ment to various generations of undergraduates to 
hear him say, when he came to that particular 
passage, ' In those hot climates, you know, people 
come to their acme much sooner than with us.' 
P. 11. 

The quotation is not verified. Where 
does it occur in the ' Rhetoric '? It is not 
likely that the tutor had in his " mind's 
eye " the lines of Byron : 
These few short years make wonderous alterations, 
Particularly among the sun-burnt nations. 

' Don Juan,' Canto I. st. 79. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


(10 S. xi. 501 ; xii. 38.) 
THE following extracts from Samuel 
Foote's letters in the " Delaval Papers" 
will supplement MR. HORACE BLEACKLEY'S 
interesting note. Unfortunately, in the 
majority of the private letters of the Delaval 
family of the period under notice, the year 
in which they were written is not given ; 
and as they were all "franked" letters^ 
there is no official date-stamp. From 
collateral evidence, however, Samuel Foote's 
letters would be written about 1753 ; for 
Sir Francis Blake Delaval, writing to his 
brother, informs him, under date 24 March 
1753 : 

" I have just come from Mr. Foote's Farce, which 
went off with applause. Miss Macklin danced a 
minuet, played on a Sandola, and accompanied it 
with an Italian song, all of which she performed 
with much elegance." 

Foote's letters in which he mentions Miss 
Roach would be written in the same year 
as Sir F. B. Delaval's letter. While Foote 
was the intimate friend of Sir F. B. Delaval 
he was also the companion of John, after- 
wards Lord Delaval, and the letters pre- 
served in the " Delaval Papers " in which 
reference is made to Miss Roach were 
addressed to John Delaval. 

Under date of 5 April he writes : 
"I have to thank Dear Mr. Delaval for his last 
favour, which I own a little disappointed me 
having flattered myself with the hopes of seeing 
you in Town with your brother. ' The Englishman 
at Paris has been better received than I expected. 

Garrick and all the Deluise [?] of the Theatre say 
kinder things of it than modesty will permit me to 
repeat. Upon the whole it was damnably acted, 
Macklyn miserably imperfect in the words and in 
the character (oh, stain to comedy !). You might 
have seen that 1 meant an English Buck by the 
power of dulness instantaneously transformed into 
an Irish Chairman. 

"Miss Roach, accompanied by some frippery 
French women, occupied, to the no small scandal 
of the whole House, the Prince's Box ; whilst the 
Duchess of Bedford, &c., &c., were obliged to take 
up the Seats upon the Stage. The piece will be 
printed the 25th instant, which I will enclose to 

On 17 January he writes from " Pal Mai " 
" To John Delaval, Esq., at Seaton Delaval, 

near Newcastle, Northumberland. 
" I am sorry Dear Mr. Delaval should suppose he 
wants a subject to interest arid entertain me, whilst 
he has it in his power to communicate his own 
happiness and that of his family. To the latter 
you have this morning a collateral addition by the 
birth of a Son to Miss Roach." 

In a memoir of Sir Francis in ' The 
Literary Register 'of 1771 (the year of his 
death) the writer, after describing the 
marriage and divorce of Sir Francis and 
Lady Paulet, states that 

" in the mean while Miss R h shone in all the 
splendor of a duchess ; Frank presented her with a 
new set of magnificent jewels, which she afterwards 
lost, and was the subject of an inquiry before Sir 
John Fielding. Like Ninon cle 1'Enclos, she made 
no secret of her amour, but appeared at Ranelagh, 
and other public places, with her son and daughter, 
the pledges of their mutual affection." 

Notwithstanding this evidence of the 
weak side of Sir Francis Blake Delaval, it is 
only just to add that the grief of his con- 
temporaries at his death strongly marks his 
character. With many foibles, caprices, 
and even vices, Sir Francis was a valuable 
member of society : he was generous, 
sincere, affable, and polite ; his social 
virtues and convivial humour rendered 
him the soul of all merry meetings and 
select parties, and he was universally known 
and beloved. Horace Walpole, writing 
about Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, 
asks : " Don't you know that next to Mr. 
Pitt and Mr. Delaval he is the most iashion- 
aole man in England ? " 


Delaval House, Sunderland. 

" CHOPS or THE CHANNEL " (10 S. xii. 27)' 
MR. ROBBINS must surely have a very 
mean opinion of the workmanship of the 
*!New English Dictionary,' to think it even 
possible that " this familiar phrase " is not 
recorded in it. If people, before writing 
to * N. & Q.' to say that a word is omitted 
from the ' Dictionary,' would examine the 

10 s. xii. JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


* Dictionary ' more carefully, more than half 
the instances of omissions alleged in ' N. & Q.' 
and elsewhere would disappear, to the 
saving of wasted space. The present phrase 
is recorded in the ' Dictionary,' properly 
explained, I think, and furnished with four 
quotations, selected out of some forty-five, 
which could have been given if the Dictionary 
extended to a hundred volumes instead of ten. 
But MB. ROBBINS has supplied one twelve 
years earlier from a work published since 
C was prepared, and for this we thank him. 
Many such additions will be possible as 
historical MSS. are printed. 

"Burgator" (10 S. xii. 26), also noted 
by MR. BOBBINS, is not a " familiar phrase " ; 
if not a misprint of some kind (e.g. of bursator), 
it must be the Latinized form of some 
derivative of burgh or borough ; perhaps 
investigations made at Hindon might throw 
light upon its meaning and history. Will 
any one investigate, and give us the results 
for our Supplement ? 


HABVEST SUPPEB SONGS (10 S. xii. 30). 
One song much sung on these occasions, 
namely, 'The Brave Old English Oak,' 
was recognized by Chorley, the musical 
critic, as his own, when he attended, towards 
the end of his life, the only harvest supper 
of that life, on the borders of Hampshire 
and Surrey. D. 

SEETHING LANE (10 S. xi. 485 ; xii. 11). 
I am much obliged to DB. SHABPE, whose 
help is greatly appreciated. I am glad he 
has found " Syfethenlane." But there is 
no reason why this may not mean Syfechen, 
because c and t are so often miswritten for 
one another. I first discovered this for 
myself (though it was known before) some 
forty years ago, when I came across the 
amazing word tercis in a MS. in Trinity 
College. The riddle was solved when I 
found that other MSS. had the form certes, 
as T then knew what was meant. 


ROBEBT NOYES (10 S. xi. 288, 431, 512). 
Through the kindness of Robert's grandson 
the REV. DB. NOYES, I am enabled to add 
a fact or two to those contained in my reply 
at the second reference. Robert Noyes died 
March, 1843, and is buried in St. John's 
Churchyard, Wolverhampton. He came of 
a well-known Wiltshire family, and began 
life in a bank, but soon gave up business to 
devote himself to painting. His work was 
done mostly in Wales, Shropshire, and 

Staffordshire. He married Anne Giddings, 
who died at Leamington in 1869. Like 
MB. JOHN LANE, DB. NOYES is interested 
in his grandfather's work, and is forming a 
small collection of it, but is unable to dis- 
cover where the best of it is gone. Perhaps 
some one at Wolverhampton could give 
further information. A second-hand book- 
seller in Birmingham bought some of his 
drawings about ten years ago, and was 
at the time unwilling to restore them to the 
family, who regretted having let them go. 

The College, Cheater. 


xii. 9). Perhaps the following books may 
be of use : Wright's ' Popular Treatises 
on Science ' ; ' Leechdoms, Wort-cunning, 
and Starcraft of Early England,' ed. T. O. 
Cockayne (Rolls Series) ; Roger Bacon's 
' Opera Inedita ' (Brewer). The British 
Museum (Royal Lib. 7 F. viii. fo. 99-191) 

Possesses a complete MS. of an early writing 
y Roger Bacon, the ' Computus,' on astro- 
nomy and the reformation of the Calendar 
(1263). A. R. BAYLEY. 

HOCKTIDE AT HEXTON (10 S. xi. 488). 

Alexander Tille's book on the history of the 
German Christmas treats the Christmas 
tree as an almost modern development of 
the bough, or switch, used in heathen and 
early Christian times for blessing cattle at 
the great fore-winter festival, when the 
animals were driven from the summer 
pastures into their winter quarters. This 
view scarcely accounts for the English 
Christmas bough, unless it may be supposed 
to descend from the switch in another line ; 
but if it be correct, the English Hocktide 
poles and Maypoles, with the Scandinavian 
midsummer poles, may possibly have been 
derived from the rods used for blessing 
cattle when they were driven out to their 
grazing-grounds in spring touching with a 
green bough or twig being an Indo-Germanic 
custom. Similar poles are known in Russia, 
and they were even formerly used by the 
natives of Central America before the people 
left off heathen worship. 

Possibly, after all, both the English 
Christmas bough, and its supplanter the 
German Christmas tree, may represent a 
branch, shrub, or tree honoured within- 
doors at the great fore-winter festival as the 
representative of that vegetation which was 
now entering into a dormant state in the 
outer world. In this case the open-air pole 
of springtide would stand for the reawakening 
of field and forest. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 24 , im 

The Hocktide prisoners' base probably 
has to do with the seasons, and therefore 
with the pasturing of cattle also. It has 
many parallels in various parts of the 
world, but usually the contest is between 
the people inhabiting different divisions of 
a district, or wards of a town. The camping 
of East Anglia, the hurling of Cornwall, 
and certain violent Italian games were, or 
are, such contests. 

In Kilkenny and Wexford the people of 
certain baronies and parishes used to kick 
a huge football prepared with thread of 
wool. To whichever side it was carried the 
luck of the defeated party was said to be 

A traditional ball-game of France, which 
was played with a zeal endangering limb 
and life, appears, according to the anti- 
quaries of the country, to have referred 
to the sun, and therefore to happy fortune 
in regard to the weather, pastures, and 
arable land. Many other instances might 
be quoted. 

In his ' Wanderings of an Artist among the 
Indians of North America,' 1859, pp. 104, 
190, Paul Kane says, " We entered the 
straits between Lake Winnipeg and Play- 
green Lake," and adds : " The lake derives 
its name from a green plain which the 
Indians frequent to play their great game 
of ball." Later he remarks: <r They [the 
Chinooks] also take great delight in a game 
with a ball, which is played by them in the 
same manner as the Cree, Chippewa, and 
Sioux Indians." He then describes the 
game as having two goals about a mile apart, 
and as being conducted with sticks having 
a small ring, or hoop, at the end, with which 
the ball is picked up and thrown to a great 
distance. " At this game they bet heavily, as 
it is generally played between tribes and 
villages." Nansen says in * The First Cross- 
ing of Greenland,' 1892, p. 218, that the 
Eskimo have a pretty legend of the Northern 
lights, and believe them to be the souls of 
dead children playing at ball in heaven ; 
but he does not describe the earthly game 
which suggested the idea. 

According to H. H. Bancroft's ' Native 
Races of the Pacific States of North Ame- 
rica,' 1875, ii. 297, the national game of the 
Nahuas was in many respects like the white 
man's football. It was common among all 
the nations whose cult was similar to that of 
the Toltec, and was under divine protection, 
though what its original significance was is 
uncertain. A legend of the Gallinomeros of 
Central California may, however, indicate 
what the conception underlying the apparent 

pastime was, for it represents the sun as 
originally formed of a ball of reeds. In the 
beginning there was no light, and to dispel 
the darkness the coyote, a small kind of 
wolf, gathered a heap of tules, rolled them 
into a ball, and gave it to the hawk, together 
with some pieces of flint. The hawk, 
carried it up into the sky, struck fire 
with the flints, lit the ball of reeds, and 
left it flaming and whirling along, glowing 

El pato, which was formerly played in 
the Argentine Republic, was a blood- 
stained contest between mounted men for 
a duck, or other domesticated bird, sewn 
up in a piece of hide. 

In Asia the Kirghez horsemen delight in 
a mad struggle for a decapitated sheep. 

In India 

"at Ahmadnagar the boys of two neighbouring 
villages fight 9n the bright 3rd of Baisakh (April- 
May) with slings and stones. The local belief is 
that if the fight be discontinued rain fails, or if 
rain does fall, it produces a plague of rats. W. 
Crooke, 'The Popular Folk-Lore of Northern 
India,' 1896, I. 73. Consult also II. 176, 321, 325. 

In reference to such games in India Mr. 
Crooke observes that 

"these mock combats have their parallels in 
English customs, such as the throwing of the hood 
at Haxey, the football match at Derby, the fighting 
on Lammas Day at Lothian, and the hunting of the 
ram at Eton." 

Hocktide probably represents a heathen 
spring festival. According to Tille, the 
year of Teutonic heathendom was divided 
into three periods, and began with the 
great slaughter festival, held as soon as 
wintry weather set in, and the summer 
feeding-grounds could no longer yield the 
flocks and herds a sufficiency of food. 
This high-day was soon followed, for reasons 
connected with cattle-breeding, by a lesser 
feast. The more important became Martle- 
mas after the introduction of Christianity, 
the lesser St. Andrew's Day, or far more 
frequently St. Nicholas's Day. 

Our 5th of November bonfires probably 
once belonged to the most important pagan 
festival. ' Bone-fire," which is the real 
meaning of the word, may refer to the 
burning of the bones of animals killed at 
that great slaughter-tide which gave to 
November the name of Slaughter-month. 

Some four months after the principal 
eating-bout was held, the early-summer 
(or, as we should now say, spring) festival 
took place that is, if the weather allowed, 
for Teutonic pastoral feasts, like the modern 
harvest festival, were influenced by atmo- 
spheric conditions. Then, about four 

10 8. XII. JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


months afterwards, the late-summer merry- 
making was celebrated. 

When, after a prolonged struggle with the 
heathen holidays, the purely religious feast 
of the birth of Christ drew to itself many of 
the customs of the Roman Calends of 
January, together with a share of the 
traditional practices which properly belonged 
to the Teutonic celebration of the setting-in 
of winter, Christmas at last became a real 

About the same time, as we may guess, 
St. John the Baptist's Day would absorb 
certain customs from both the summer 
feasts, while Easter, which with us and the 
Germans still bears a heathen name, would 
attract others, leaving several more to 
attach themselves to St. Mark's Eve. 

It seems likely that in some German 
kindreds only the great festival about the 
beginning of November, and a corresponding 
one about the beginning of May, were of 
capital importance in pre-Christian days. 
Agricultural and household customs some- 
times point that way. For instance, in 
Nottinghamshire, with that part of Lincoln- 
shire which lies west of the Trent, the 
traditional " flitting time " of the plough- 
lads and the girls employed in farm-houses 
is Martlemas ; while in Lincolnshire east 
of the river the change should be at " May 
Day-time," Old Style, " May -week " being 
a holiday which is eagerly anticipated. 

There is little doubt that climate, with 
its effect on the growth of grass and other 
vegetation would cause the Teutonic tribes 
of one district to follow customs differing 
from those developed by another. Tille 
shows clearly enough that the necessities of 
pastoral life settled the time at which the 
German feasts were kept. 

An afterthought suggests to me that the 
Hocktide observance may really have had 
a connexion with the slaughter of the Danes 
on St. Brice's Day, which falls on the day 
after St. Martin's. The great feast of the 
beginning of winter would necessarily be 
ruined by the ferocious passions let loose, 
but at the succeeding springtide festiva" 
men would rejoice that the grim work was 
accomplished. From that time the deec 
may have been commemorated on the day 
when it was first celebrated with gladness 
not at the season which saw the bloody 
onslaught carried out. If so, the memory 
of the Danes' death-day would become 
connected with rites which were already o 
respectable antiquity when it took place. 

M. P. 

Whether at Hexton or Hungerford, it is 
emarkable that such an ancient custom as 
' Hocking " should survive to this day. 
Dne says " Hocking " because of the proba- 
bility that the word " hock " is the Anglo- 
Saxon 7&oc=a hook. 

That the custom celebrates the deliver- 
ance of the Saxons from " the heathen 
:hieves " the Danes all accounts indicate, 
and it probably dates from the days of the 
ast Danish alien Hardicanute. Such an 
jvent as the lapsing of the power of the 
Dane was like that of a prisoner unfettered, 
and it is not surprising to find the day 
celebrating it in evidence so late as the 
twentieth century. Blount in his ' Glosso- 
graphia ' says of Hocktide : 

"A Day so remarkable in ancient Times, that I 
lave seen a Lease without Date, reserving so much 
Rent payable 'ad duos anni terminos, seil. ad le 

Hokeda, et ad Festum Sancti Mich.' And in the 

Accounts of Magdalen College in Oxford, there is 
yearly an Allowance ' pro Mulieribus Hockantibus/ 
in some Manners of theirs in Hampshire, where the 
Men hock the Women on Monday, and contra on 

Tuesday The Meaning of it is that on that Day 

the Women in Merriment stop the Ways with Ropes, 
and pull Passengers to them, desiring something to 
be laid out in pious Uses." 

But as to the word " hock," it does not 
seem that there is any other explanation at 
present than that the ropes used in securing 
bhe women during the festival were the 
hocks or hooks which gave its name to the 
commemoration. Fosbroke ( ' Ency. Antiq.' ) 
says that " on Monday and Tuesday men 
and women reciprocally hocked each other, 
i.e., stopped the way with ropes, and pulled 
the passengers towards them, desiring a 
donation." " To hock " still means, in the 
Cumberland dialect, to seize, to hook, to 

BEKGERODE (10 S. x. 407 ; xi. 218, 338, 
434, 513). I cannot find that any one has 
yet told us the pronunciation. If the ge is 
like the ge in barge, it can hardly be of 
native origin. 

Thornber's ' Blackpool,' we are told, 
derives it from burgus, a fortified place ; 
but this burgus is no source of anything, 
being merely a Latinized form of the A.-S. 
burh (burg), " a borough," which is the 
word to which Thornber would really refer 
us. But seeing that the A.-S. word is now 
borough, or in place-names sometimes Burgh, 
it is clear that this, at any rate, is not the 
real origin in this case. 

Then, again, by the " German " berg must 
be understood the A.-S. beorh (beorg)^ 
Mercian berg ; nothing can be more mis- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xir. JULY 24, 1909. 

leading as a rule than to quote cognate 
German forms, with which we have really 
no concern. But the A.-S. beorh is no\\ 
spelt barrow (see ' N. E.D.') ; and this again 
hardly helps us. The ** confusion " between 
" the German berg and burg " exists only 
in the minds of interpreters, not in fact 
I do not object to saying that I do not 
know the origin of Bergerode ; but I cannot 
believe in these bergs and burgs as illus 
trating that form. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

JOHN SLADE, DORSET (10 S. xi. 488 ; xii 
14). The parish registers of South Perrott. 
Dorset, begin in 1538. Among the entries 
are the names of the children of the Rev. 
John Slade, rector of the parish (Hutchins 
in his ' History of Dorset ' gives the dates 
during which John Slade held the rectory 
as 1561 to 1574). The marriage registers 
record that of John Slade, M.A., Rector of 
South Perrott, to Joan Owsley, daughter 
of John Owsley of Misterton, 1567. Among 
the deaths registered is that of John Slade, 
M.A., Rector, 1574. 

The Owsleys were a notable family living 
at Misterton, and members of that family 
were generous benefactors to Crewkerne 
School, which dates its foundation from 


A correspondent at 3 S. iii. 320 (18 April, 
1863) stated : 

"Among my papers I met with the following 
descent, but do not know whence it was extracted : 
John Slade, M.A., Rector of S. Perrot, co. Somer- 
set, died 1574, married in 1567 Joan, daughter of 
John Owsley, of Misterton, co. Sorn., by whom he 
had four children Samuel, born 1568; Matthew, 
bojn ? 1569 ; Martha, born 1571 ; and Elizabeth, born 

It does not seem probable, therefore, that 
John Slade the martyr was the son of John 
Slade of South Perrot. Wood does not 
mention him in his ' Athenae Oxonienses.' 

Wood in his remarks on Matthew Slade 
says he had a pedigree of the Slades (con- 
taining seventeen generations or more) sent 
over to him from Amsterdam, from some 
Slades living there in 1600. Can any reader 
give me information about these Slades, 
and state whether they were descendants 
of Matthew and Cornelius Slade, who 
resided during some part of their lives in 
Amsterdam ? G. SLADE. 

MUNRO OF NOVAR (10 S. xii. 8). There 

were several sales at Christie's of the collec- 
tions of H. A. J. Munro of Novar. His 
pictures by Old Masters were sold in 1878 

( 1 June) ; his celebrated series of Turner 
drawings in 1877 (2 June) ; and his modern 
pictures on 6 April, 1878. There were, 
I think, other sales, but the above three are 
those of which I happen to have catalogues. 
L. L. K. will find priced copies of these 
in the Art Library, South Kensington 
Museum. Redford's ' Art Sales ' may be 
consulted, and also my own book, ' Memo- 
rials of Christie's.' W. ROBERTS. 
47, Lansdowne Gardens, Clapham, S.W. 

An interesting example of Turner's work, 
his ' Venus and Adonis,' that has been in 
the Novar and other collections, and was 
exhibited at Burlington House in 1906, was 
on view with Sir Cuthbert Quilt er's other 
pictures at Christie's, and was bought in on 
9 July for 4,000 guineas. W. P. D. S. 

CAPT. MACCARTHY (10 S. xi. 448). In the 
' Memoirs of George IV.' by Robert Huish 
(ii. 303) there is a somewhat different 
account of the Prince's relations with 
McCarthy : 

" It is, however, a fact, well known in a particular 
circle, that the Prince granted some very liberal 
pensions to many of his destitute companions ; 
and we have only to mention the late Felix 
M'Carthy, a needy Irish adventurer, but a man of 
infinite wit at the same time destitute of all prin- 
ciple and honour. Still, he was received at the 
table of his Royal Highness, to whom he was intro- 
duced by Lord Moira It was, however, with such 

men as M'Carthy, Henry Bate Dudley, alias the 
Fighting Parson, George Hanger, and others of 
that grade that the Prince lost his character and 
his money. When the former of these worthies 
was a tenant of the King's Bench Piison, he was 
chiefly supported by the bounty of the Prince, who 
used to transmit his grants under an envelope, 
addressed to ' The Irish Giant, now exhibiting on 
the other side of the water.' The Prince ultimately 
granted him a pension of 200/. a year, but which was 
only paid for two years, on account of the intem- 
perate habits of Felix, which brought him pre- 
maturely to the grave." 

Henry Angelo in his ' Reminiscences ' 
Kegan Paul, 1904, ii. 62-3) relates how 
Felix M'Carthy, " a tall handsome Irish- 
man, well known by everybody," turned 
Hooper the Tinman out of Vauxhall Gardens. 
A further glimpse of M'Carthy is given in 
H. E. Lloyd's ' George IV.,' p. 123 : 

; He [i.e. Lord Moira, afterwards Marquis of 
lastings] also had a number of pensioners, most of 
whom were blood-suckers. One of these was Felix 
VTCarthy, an Irish adventurer, who once absented 
limself longer than usual from St. James's Place, 
>n which his lordship sent to know what was the 
eason : Felix returned an old pair of shoes, worn 
mt at toe and heel, asking ' whether those were fit 
or him to enter his lordship's house in ? ' It is no 
wonder that the Prince and the marquis should have 
>een constantly embarrassed." 

10 s. xir. JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The following obituary notice appeared 
in Gent. Mag., Ixxxi. pt. i. 601 : 

"May 13 [1811]. Felix McCarthy, esq., long well 
known for his eccentricity and benevolence, and 
latterly for the embarrassments brought upon him 
by both. He offered himself, a few years ago, as a 
representative for Leicester, where he conducted 
himself with the strictest honour and punctuality. 
He was the author of several pamphlets on subjects 
of temporary interest at the periods -when they were 
written. His last production was of considerable 
length and comprehension upon the question of the 
Catholic veto. His latter years exhibited alternate 
vicissitudes of generous, but extravagant and 
thoughtless hospitality, and of distress often border- 
ing on want, which could not subdue his spirit or 
destroy his cheerfulness. Mr. M'Carthy was a 
native of the county of Cork, and although he had 
been absent from his country for above thirty years, 
during the early part of which he resided on the 
Continent, he always retained a sincere and ardent 
affection for his native land. He was accordingly 
sought after by multitudes of his distressed country- 
men, with whom he never failed to share his purse 
while he had anything in it, and his heart when he 
had not. This single trait is itself a summary of 
his character ; ana if it had in it sometimes more 
of generosity than of discretion, the failing arose 
from so good a principle, that his death (which was 
probably not a little hastened by its consequences) 
will require but a little exertion of the charity 
towards human frailty which death naturally in- 
spires, to extinguish the blame that indiscretion 
may sometimes call forth from strict propriety, in 
the sympathy which his known and undeniable 
good nature must find in the kindred feelings of 
every generous heart. Leicester Journal" 

Possibly the B.M. Catalogue may contain 
a list of his publications ; and the contem- 
porary newspapers probably will give further 
particulars of his life in their obituary 

"BRING," ARCHAIC USE (10 S. xii. 7). 
Examples of the archaic usage occur in 
Shakespeare. In ' Two Gentlemen of 
Verona, ' IV. ii. 32, Julia finds the host ready 
to cope with her low spirits. " Come," 
says he cheerfully, " we '11 have you merry : 
I '11 bring you where you shall hear music 
and see the gentleman that you asked for." 
Again, in 'As You Like It,' II. iv. 72, 
Rosalind thus appeals to Corin because of 
Celia's exhaustion : 

I prithee, shepherd, if that love or gold 
Can in this desert place buy entertainment, 
Bring us where we may rest ourselves and feed. 

In my own experience I have heard the 
word used in this sense once only, and the 
circumstances were curiously akin to those 
in which Rosalind and her party found 
themselves. A little group in a strange 
town sadly needed refreshment, and the 
spokesman of the occasion asked the nearest 
policeman if he could bring him and his 1 

friends to a restaurant. It may be added 
that this leading spirit spoke Gaelic in his 
youth ; that in his maturity, and even 
after a university career, he sometimes found 
difficulty with the English idiom ; and that 
at the time of speaking he had not read a 
word of ' As You Like It.' Cf. St. John, 
Third Epistle, 6, " Bring forward on their 
journey." THOMAS BAYNE. 

From a child I have known " bring "=to 
take : "I will bring something nice with 
me," " Bring her the best you have "- 
"bring" in the sense of " take." I often 
hear " bring " thus used for " take." 


Work sop. 

NASEBY FIELD (10 S. xi. 344, 433, 514). 
Let MR. PAGE be comforted : he has not 
deprived Sir Clements R. Markham of a 
baronetcy, as a K.C.B. is the cause of his 
being " sirred." This was conferred in 
1896, long after the ' Life of the Great Lord 
Fairfax ' was written. ST. SWITHIN. 

" BOSTING" : "KEVEL" (10 S. xi. 508). 
In a building account in ' Durham Account 
Rolls ' (Surtees Society) of 1372-3, p. 210, 
we find " Et in factura murorum dicte 
capelle et Infirmarie cum bostillyng^per 
idem tempus et dealbacione, 31s. 4d." I 
never could make out what " bostillyng " 
was, but " bosting " is evidently connected 
with it. " Bostilling " is not in the ' N.E.D.' 

J. T. F; 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

" Bosting " as a masons' term is spelt 
indifferently " bosting " and " boasting." 
Webster's 'International Diet.,' 1890, has 
it thus : 

"Boast" (of uncertain etymology). To dress, 
as a stone, with a broad chisel. In sculpture, to 
shape roughly as a preparation for the finer work 
to follow ; to cut to the general form required. 

" Boaster. A stonemason's broad-faced chisel." 

" Boaster " is a general name for the tool, 
but of course it would vary locally and with 
the kind of stone to be cut. A mason would 
not boast (or bost) granite with the same 
tool that another would use for the softer 
Bath stone. ARTHUR HARSTON, F.S.I. 

In the 'N.E.D.' the following references 
occur : 

"Boaster, a broad-faced chisel used by masons in 
making the surface of a stone nearly smooth. 18 <o 

-'1^76.' Sir E. Beckett, 'Building,' 167, 'More 
trouble is taken to work the stone with small 

chisels than it would take to "boast (as they 

call it) into a fairly level surface." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 24, igu9. 

"1823. P. Nicholson, ' Pract. Build.,' 581, 
'Boasting; in stone-cutting, paring the stone 
irregularly with a broad chisel and mallet; in 
carving, the rough cutting of the outline, before the 
minuter parts.' " 

MB. RATCLIFFE'S description agrees rather 
with nidging. Under ' Nidge ' the ' N.E.D.' 
has : 

" 1842. Gwilt, ' Archit.' 519, ' In Aberdeen, where 

the stone is very hard they pick the stone until 

the surface has nearly acquired the requisite form. 
This sort of work is called nidged-work, and the 
operation nidging.' Ibid., 1008, 'Nidged Ashlar, a 
species of ashlar used in Aberdeen. It is brought to 
the square by means of a cavil or hammer with a 
sharp point.' 1850 in Ogilvie." 

The term " boasting " is seldom used by 
masons now, and is perhaps rarely heard in 
the quarries. This must also apply to 
" nidging." The dressing is probaoly and 
commonly known as " quarrying stone." 


To " bost " is an expression that implies 
to cut away rough, superfluous stone. A 
mason will " bost " a block into some sort 
of shape, prior to a sculptor taking it in 
hand to carve ; but for this purpose chisels 
and a mallet would be used. 

Upon the Isle of Portland, amongst the 
Ham Hill " badgers " and in a few other 
places, the " kevel " may be found still 
in use, but it is not an acknowledged tool 
forming part of an ordinary stonemason's 
" kit." John Smeaton in his superbly 
illustrated ' Narrative of the Building of 
the Eddystone Lighthouse' (1791) records 
his visit to the quarries at Portland in 
May, 1756, and, noticing the use of this 
peculiar axe, describes it (p. 62) as follows : 

"The quarrymen have a tool called a kevel, which 
is at one end a hammer, and at the other an axe, 
whose edge is so short and narrow that it ap- 
proaches toward the shape of a pick, and with it, 
by a succession of sturdy blows, they soon reduce 
a rough piece of stone, by the eye to a square 

In a foot-note is added : 

"The kevel is a tool curiously formed for the 
purpose ; the face of the hammer end not being flat, 
but hollowed according to the portion of the sur- 
face of a cylinder. This gives a keen edge to two of 
its opposite sides, that are parallel to the handle, 
and by this means, biting keenly upon the stone, 
brings off a spawl or large shiver. The edge of the 
pick end is about half an inch in breadth." 

Fair Park, Exeter. 


xi. 10, 73, 454). At the second reference 
I stated that I was looking for particulars 
of this gallant officer ; 1 am still doing so 

I shall be very glad of some particulars 
concerning the presentation of the sword of 
lonour by the City of London, of which 
[ find no mention in * London's Roll of 
Honour,' published in 1884. This book 
covers a period extending from the close of 
the reign of George II. to 1884. At a 
ourt of Common Council held on 26 Nov., 
1805, when it was resolved " that the 
thanks of this Court be given to Vice- 
Admiral Lord Collingwood and Rear- Admiral 
the Earl of Northesk " ; several " captains, 
officers, seamen, and royal marines " were 
included. Was Capt. Rutherfurd one of 
the officers in this group ? It would seem 
as if it might be so. Perhaps MR. BORRAJO 
can afford enlightenment. 


"DAVELLY" RAIN (10 S. xi. 509). 
Davely is duly noted in the ' Eng. Dial. 
Diet.' as a Cheshire variant of the Northern 
deavely, of which the usual sense is " lonely 5> 
or " dull." It is the same word as deaf- 
like. The Norse equivalent is daufligr, lit. 
" deaf -like," but explained by Vigfusson as 
" lonely, dull," and even '* dismal." As 
applied to rain, it may very well mean 
" dismal " or " depressing " ; i.e., a steady 
drizzle, that gives no hope of its leaving off 

[MR. HOLDEN MAcMiCHAEL also thanked for reply.] 

SHYLOCK TRACT (10 S. ix. 269 ; xi. 456). 
There is an earlier reference to Caleb 
Shilock. In the British Museum there is 

" Newes from Rome of two mightie armies 

the first of the great Sophy, the other of an Hebrew 

people from the mountaines of Caspij. [Signed* 

Signior Valesco. J Also certaine prophecies of a Jew 

called Caleb Shilock Translated out of Italian 

by W. A 7 . Printed by I. R. for H. Gosson." 
[London, 1606.] 4to. C. 32 d. 

Gosson, the publisher of this tract, was also 
the publisher of the first edition of ' Pericles." 


viii. 48). By chance, I find my query 
answered in ' The Romans of Partenay * 
(E.E.T.S.), of c. 1500-20, at 1. 980 : 

Wine of seint pur sain, and of ris hys brood. 
The editor, Prof. Skeat, gives the French 
text as 

Vins de sainct poursain, vin de Rys ; 
and explains the former as = St. Pourcain-sur- 
Allier, in the department Allier. The odd 
form at the heading dates c. 1400. 

H. P. L. 

10 s. xii. JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" CoMETHERf (10 S. x. 469 ; xi. 33, 98, 416, 
513). Surely the carter's call to his horse 
has no mystery in it. It is simply " come 
over," and is quite plainly pronounced by 
many (say Yorkshire) carters. 


Since my stay in this country I have 
been much struck by the extreme docility 
manifested by farm and draught horses in 
the hands of their masters and drivers. 
Thus, if the driver, whether on foot or from 
the dickey, wishes his team to turn to the 
right, he simply calls out, " Gee " ; if to 
the left, " Haw," and the animals instantly 
obey him, without even the need of a pull 
at the reins ; while if he wishes them to 
start of themselves, he uses the less eupho- 
nious American " Get up," instead of 
"Gee up," as in England. In fact, so 
universal are these calls throughout the 
States that one can make use of the^i with 
a farmer's horse or horses anywhere, even 
if one has never set eyes upon the beasts 
before. As to town horses I cannot express 
any certainty. 

The 'Cent. Diet.,' s.v. 'gee,' has "the 
cry wherewith carters make their horses 
turn to the left hand (Cotgrave) " ; but adds 
that in Switzerland it is to the right, as in 
the United States. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

TERMS (10 S. xi. 328, 498). " Pudding " is 
not synonymous with " puddle " (puddled 
clay), as erroneously stated at the second 
reference. When an excavation has to be 
made, over a considerable area, for the 
foundation of an enclosing wall, and to 
such a depth as to require the ground to be 
strutted to prevent it from falling in, e.g., 
as in the construction of a large ice well, 
the soil is not all removed at the same time, 
but a trench is dug around and strutted 
horizontally across ; the central earth is 
left to strut to, and is removed after the 
enclosing walls are built. This central 
portion is technically called " the pudding." 

<10 S. xi. 447; xii. 31). In Lambarde's 
* Perambulation of Kent ' one Thomas Spot, 
" sometime a monk and chronicler of St. 
Augustine at Canterbury," is quoted as 
showing that the Conqueror, after he " had 
received the Londoners to mercy," pro- 
ceeded towards Dover that he migh" bring 
Kent into subjection. He met the Kentish 
folk, however, at Swanscombe, and there 

guaranteed them their ancient liberties- 
Possibly he visited Barking on the way, 
and crossed the Thames thence on his 
journey into Kent. WALTER JERROLD. 

DUELS BETWEEN WOMEN (10 S. xii. 8). 
While the present reply does not touch MR. 
BLEACKLEY'S spacial queries, it yet bears 
on his heading. In J. G. Millingen's 'His- 
tory of Duelling,' 1841, i. 270-73, will be 
found a chapter on ' Duels between French 
Women.' And the following is taken from 
The Gentleman's Magazine for June, 1765, 
xxxv. 293 : 

"Two ladies in the dukedom of Lor rain, one of 
them wife to a member of the general assembly 
there, and the other to the commissary at war, 
having quarrelled, determined to decide the matter 
by swords, and accordingly fought, when the 
former was wounded in the arm, and the other 
dangerously in the breast." 

Boston, U.S. 

COWPER MISPRINT (10S. xi. 506). I have 
two editions of Cowper's poems, one pub- 
lished by Bohn, and the other by John 
Walker. . In both the last line of ' To the 
Immortal Memory of the Halibut' has 
" feed " printed correctly. I think the 
misprint " feel " must be quite exceptional. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

The misprint referred to by MR. LYNN 
does not occur in the original edition of 
' Cowper's Private Correspondence,' where 
the poem first appeared, as the following 
transcript will show : 

Would envy, could they know that thou wast 


To feed a bard, and to be praised in verse. 
The letter " e " is omitted in " doom'd." 

WILLIAM GUILD (10 S. xi. 470 ; xii. 34). 
In my reply I said : " During his ministry 
at King Edward the honour of Doctor in 
Divinity was conferred upon him by his 
Alma Mater." That statement was inferred 
from the following paragraph in Shirrefs's 
' Life of Dr. William Guild,' 1799, p. 29 : 

"He continued during his residence at King 

Edward to exercise his talent for composition 

Men of learning knew him to be learned, the acade- 
mical honour of Doctor in Divinity was conferred 
upon him, and he was ranked, while yet a young 
man, among the ablest divines in the Church of 
Scotland " ; 

and in consequence of Shirrefs referring to 
Guild as Dr. Guild from the publication of 
' Ignis Fatuus ' in 1625 onwards. Mr. P. J. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 24 , 

Anderson, Librarian, Aberdeen University, 
has kindly reminded me that the records of 
the Aberdeen colleges do not bear out that 
the degree was of Aberdeen, and that so 
far as he knows Dr. Guild never used the 
degree before 1635 four years after he left 
King Edward. Perhaps some reader may 
be able to give information on these points. 

28). The usual form of this motto is " Gala 
raggi whethlow." It is an old Cornish 
phrase, meaning " A straw for a tale- 
bearer " or "A straw for these tales." The 
Carminows of Fentongollan adopted it as 
their motto. Doubtless an incident in the 
history of this ancient family, whose last 
male member died after 1667, led to its 
appropriation ; but no authentic record 
remains by which it can be explained. 


St. Day, Scorrier, Cornwall. 

This motto should read " Gala raggi 
wethlow," and is the motto of the Carminow 
family of Tregarrick, Cornwall. The arms 
are a dolphin naiant or (Fairbairn). 


(1) S. xi. 389). Auguste Henri Jules La 
Fontaine was born in 1759, and died in 1831. 
His ' Tableaux de la Vie d'une Famille ' 
were begun in 1 " 97, and continued to appear 
at intervals until 1804 ; see Meyer's ' Kon- 
versations-Lexikon ' and Larousse's ' Dic- 
tionnaire universel.* N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

"TUDOR" SPELT "TIDDER" (10 S. xi. 
347, 453). Among a long series of Court 
Rolls in the custody of Mr. Charles Green- 
wood, Registrar of the Manorial Society, 
1, Mitre Court Buildings, Temple, is a Court 
Roll of the old manor of Paris Garden in 
the parish of St. Saviour, South wark. Under 
1646 occurs the item : 

" Anne Tudor alias Tedder, widow, a customary 
tenant, surrendered her customary cottages to 
Adam Brush." 


GIRDLESTONE (10 S. xi. 448). See ' A 
Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames,' 
by C. W. Bardsley, 1901, wherein the com- 
piler derives the name from a place Gridle- 

A village in Hertfordshire on the borders 
of Essex was named Gedleston, corrupted 
in the seventeenth century to Gilston. 


xi. 141, 210 ; xii. 33). Surely the joke 
half hinted at in Thackeray's ' Roundabout 
Paper ' is so obvious that it requires no 
explanation; It is evident that Hood 
would say, " Perhaps Mr. Cuff has got it 
up his sleeve," alluding to the mislaid 
snuff-box ; Mr. Cuff being the landlord of 
" The Freemason's Tavern," where the 
dinner was being held FRANK KID SON. 

MR. HEBB'S anecdote has appeared in 
print. It is in ' The Serious Poems of 
Thomas Hood,' Moxon, n.d. (c. 1880). 


HERRICK ON THE YEW (10 S. xii. 7). In 
order to obtain the sense of crisped as 
applied to the yew, it should be noted that 
the poet in the same verse uses the epithet 
youthful in regard to box. The train of 
thought is consistent in describing the 
quality or condition of the tree or shrub 
rather than any peculiar formation of the 
leaf. Therefore the term crisped rightly 
characterizes the yew as being hale and 
crisp, fresh and firm, as if it would last for 
ever. TOM JONES. 

WATER (10 S. xii. 9). In the seventeenth 
century none but the very poor drank water, 
and that only of necessity. In 1641 it is 
recorded that Sevenoaks "is a place con- 
sistinge of many poore Inhabitants, whoe 
through theire poverty are constrained to 
drincke water instead of beere " (' Pro- 
ceedings in Kent,' Camd. Soc., p. 184). 

W. C. B. 

ABBOTS OF EVESHAM (10 S. xii. 28). 
Kynach is entered in the c Monasticon/ 
vol. ii. p. 2 (ed. 1846), as the fifteenth Abbot 
of Evesham, and a reference is made to a 
MS. formerly in the collection of Sir Simonds 
Dewes and transcribed by Dugdale. From 
a note at the bottom of the page we gather 
that it is now in the British Museum/ Har- 
leian MS. 299. N. M. & A. 

The fifteenth abbot was Kinath, and the 
seventeenth another Kinath ; the nineteenth 
was Alchelm, 941. See the ' Chronicon Abb. 
de Evesham,' Rolls Series, 1863, p. 77. 

W. C. B. 

Tindal's ' History of the Abbey and 
Borough of Evesham * (1794), chap. ii.> 
gives a list of abbots, with notes of many. 

Gloucester Public Library. 

10 s. xii. JULY 24, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ANTS (10 S. xii. 7). Our old friend " Philip 
Quarll " was one of R. C.'s earliest children, 
born in 1727, or perhaps a year or two before. 
See, e.g., 4 S. xii. 193. W. C. B. 


The Annals of Tacitus, Books XI. -XVI. An 

English Translation, with Introduction, Notes, 

and Maps, by George Gilbert Ramsay, Litt.D. 

(John Murray.) 

THE late Professor of Humanity at Glasgow has 
given us in this well-printed volume an introduction 
of seventy pages, which deals in the most able and 
interesting way with the difficulties of translation 
in general, and of a rendering of Tacitus in par- 
ticular. He explains with the insight born of long 
scholarship those features of Tacitean style which 
make a translator despair, and wonder if even the 
contemporary Roman grasped readily all the mean- 
ing intended. We think he must have sometimes 
muttered to himself : " Brevis esse laboro obscurus 

The times and crimes of Nero afford a great 
chance for incisive writing, and in the books before 
us Tacitus rises to the highest point in his extant 
writings, making by his biting brevity incessant 
demands which our own tongue can hardly satisfy. 
It seems to us that French by its superior neatness 
and brevity is nearer to the master's Latin, and 
many of 'his epigrams have passed into that 

A rendering in English which would satisfy -at 
once the scholar and the stylist we believe, in spite 
of all that is said, to be past hope. But Dr. Ramsay 
niaintams a high level of language throughout, and 
is not devoid of vigour. At the same time we wish 
that he had used a little more freedom in re-form- 
ing, and sometimes separating, sentences which 
are connected in the Latin. Here and there we 
detect a touch of formal English which seems un- 
called for, but the dignity of the historian isalwavs 
admirably given, and Dr. Ramsay is particularly 
successful in rendering passages of oratio obliqua: 
In some cases the emphasis of the Latin seems to 
have been reduced for no particular reason. Thus 
after the death of Britannicus (Book xiii. 16), the 
whole circumstances of which are well given by the 
translator, Tacitus adds : 

" At Agrippinae is pavor, ea consternatio mentis, 
quamvis vultu premeretur, emicuit ut perinde 
ignaram fuisse atque Octaviam sororem Britannici 

This is rendered : 

" Agrippina's consternation, in spite of her com- 
mand of countenance, showed plainly that she 
knew no more than the lad's own sister Octavia.'' 

Her consternation is much more emphatic than 
this in the Latin text. The striking "emicuit" is 
watered down to a colourless word. 

On the whole, we are well satisfied with the 
results of a task the difficulties of which we 
know from attempts of our own. The translation 
has the advantage of notes at the bottom of the 
liatre. which are always informing, and generally 
judicious in disputed matters. 

The First Printed Translation into English of the 
Great Foreign Classics: a Supplement to Text- 
books of English Literature. By William J. Harris. 
(Routledge & Sons.) 

MR. HARRIS has filled a distinct gap with this useful 
little volume, which supplies an alphabetical index 
of authors and English translations. He casts his 
net wide, and goes much beyond his title. We 
could not, for instance, apply the title of " classic,' 
much less "great classic," to the works of the first 
writer on the list, Edmond About. In the first 
few pages we find 'Achilles Tatius,' '^Elfric 5 ' 
'^sop,' 'Alexander,' 'Alfieri,' 'Ancren Riwle, 
'Hans Andersen,' and several "Anglo-Saxon" 
headings. Brief notes are added to a large number 
of the entries, but we cannot say that many of the 
scraps of criticism given are of value. We doubt, 
for instance, if " the comedies of Aristophanes bear 
a close resemblance to the work of our comic plav- 
writers to-day.' There is danger in taking such 
remarks at second hand, and some of those quoted 
are distinctly feeble, if not incorrect. Under 
'Arabian Nights' Entertainment' we find the first 
English rendering of Galland's version, i.e., the 
translation of a translation. This is undoubtedly 
the popular source of the book, but Lane, working 
from the original, gave much more of it. Two of 
the best-known stories mentioned in the note 
following have little Arabic authority, and may 
have been due to Galland himself. 

The account of Balzac is incomplete, excluding, 
for instance, such important stories as 'La Cousine 
Bette ' and ' La Mai son du Chat qui Pelote. ' ' Cesar 
Bittoreau' is an obvious misprint. The volume a" a 
whole, however, is well printed in view of the mass 
of names and details it contains. It would have 
been an advantage to know in each case whether 
the translation was in prose or verse, also to have 
the title of the original in brackets. One might 
easily imagine, for instance, that the two separate 
titles under ' Apuleius ' and ' Marcus Aurelius ' re- 
ferred to different books, which is not the case. 
"Ovidus' should be Ovidius. Longus is called " a 
Greek sophist " ; and Longinus, whose importance 
is attested two pages earlier, is not included. We 
should have been better pleased with the book if it 
had confined itself to bibliography and not indulged; 
in snippets of information, apparently for examinees; 
These short cuts to knowledge, ancient and modern, 
often lead to pretentious sciolism. 

Sir Walter Scott. Tales of a Grandfather: being 
the History of Scotland from the Earliest Period' 
to the Battle of Flodden in 1513. Edited, with. 
Introduction and Notes, by P. Giles. (Cam- 
bridge, University Press.) 
William Cobbett. Rural Rides. Selected ani 

edited by J. H. Lobban. (Same publishers.)' 
THESE two books are some of the first volumes 
in a series of " English Literature for Schools," 
and both are admirably chosen for their purpose, 
having a secure reputation with men of letters, 
but perhaps hardly that circulation among the 
young, or, indeed, the mature readers of the 
present incurious generation which they deserve. 

Dr. Giles is an admirable Scotch scholar, 
and adds all that is needed to supplement Scott's 
delightful narrative in the way of later research. 

Cobbett's ' Rural Rides ' are full of verve and 
good, plain English, and thoroughly auoreciatei 
by Mr. Lobban in his Introduction. The notes 
are brief, but sufficient. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 24, im. 


MR. P. M. BARNARD'S Tunbridge Wells Catalogue 
30 includes a few manuscripts of, or relating to, the 
Tudor period. Among books we note Cranmer's 
' Defence of the Sacrament,' 1550, from the Gott 
Library, morocco gilt, 8?. 8s. ; DarrelFs ' Strange 
and Greyous Vexation by the Devil of 7 Persons in 
Lancashire,' 1600, 4?. 5s. ; and the first English 
edition of Erasmus's 'Enchiridion Militis Chris- 
tiani,' green morocco, 1533, 251. There is a first 
edition of Heliodorus, Englished by Thomas Under- 
downe, no date (circa 1569), 26?. 5*. of this edition 
only one other copy appears to be known that in 
the Bodleian. Other important entries include 
Leland's 'Itinerary,' second edition,' 1744-5, 4?. 15s.; 
&n absolutely complete copy of the works of Sir 
Thomas More, except for the blank leaf after the 
table, 1577, 18?., and Raleigh's ' Discovery of Guiana,' 
small 4to, 1596, 28?. Ripley's ' Compound of Alchy- 
niy,' 4to, 1591, is 51. 5s. The " indifferent Reader" 
is asked to note any fault and " send it unto me, or 
the house of Peter Bales in the Olde Bayly, to bee 
corrected vppn." Pity this writer was born three 
.hundred years before contributors to 'N. & Q.' 
could have helped him. There is a copy of the first 
edition of Sidney's ' Arcadia,' wanting title, but 
apart from a few other defects desirable, 45?. 
We may here mention that Mr. Barnard evidently 
igoes over his books with care, as he states all defects 
;he finds. Under Thucydides is Nicolls's transla- 
tion, folio, 1550, 11. 7*'. This translation was the 
only English one till Hobbes's, which appeared in 

Mr. L, C. Braun's Catalogue 60 contains a large 
number of fine-art and illustrated books. We note 
Audsley and Bowes's ' Keramic Art of Japan,' 
2 vols., folio, half-morocco, 4?. 10s. ; Colling's 
'Gothic Ornaments,' 41. ; Humbert's ' Japon Illus- 
tre, I/.; Hoffbauer's 'Paris,' 3 vols., large folio, 
half-morocco, 51. 5s. ; Holcroft's views of Paris, 
1803, 21. ; Loriq net's ' Tapisseries de la Cathedrale 
de Reims,' half-morocco, 3?. 10s. ; and Horace 
Vernet's ' Album lithographique,' 26 large illustra- 
tions, oblong folio, half-russia, 21. 15s. General 
literature includes Macaulay's Works, 10 vols., 
1850-76, 21. 2s. ; and Mark Pattison's ' Essays,' 16s. ; 
1 Percy Anecdotes,' 20 vols., 12mo, 1826, is II. 10s. 
A note states that the work was compiled by 
"Thomas Byerley, of Mont Benger, in Scotland, 
editor of the Star newspaper of that period, and 
Joseph Clinton Robertson, and that 260,000 parts 
were sold during the early years of the publication. 
'The first edition of R. L. Stevenson's ' Virginibus 
Puerisque,' 1881, is II. 15s. There are good lists 
under Foreign Literature and Topography, the 
jatter including much of interest under London. 

Mr. Francis Edwards's Catalogue 301 is full of 
interest. We have under George Meredith 'The 
Ordeal of Richard Feverel,' 1878, a presentation 
copy, with some corrections by him, also a charac- 
teristic letter of four pages, dated February 21, 
1908 : " Your mention of ' Palgrave, grave pal of 
mine, the pall, the grave, do suit thy sombre hue, 
the bounding wave thy temoerament, and thoudost 
aye recall the eternal youth, therewith the grave, 
the pall' flatters me with the belief that I did 
some good portraiture in my time," &c., 12?. 10s. 
There is also a presentation copy of ' Vittoria,' with 
letter to the same friend, 10?. 10s. Other presenta- 
tion books with autographs are from Harry Furniss, 

Toole, Mrs. Linton, Farjeon, Hollingshead, &c. 
There is a remarkable series of autograph letters 
from Mrs. Piozzi to the Rev. Edward Mangin of 
Bath, 1816-20, 501. In 1833 Mr. Mangin made use of 
many of these letters for his ' Piozziana ' ; on the 
other hand, several of them are unknown, while 
others were printed with important omissions for 
the sake of the feelings of living persons. The 
letters are bound in one volume, and Mr. Edwards 
calls attention to two items of special interest : one 
a pedigree in which Mrs. Piozzi traces her ancestry 
back to Owen Tudor and Charles VI. of France, and 
the other a list of the Streatham portraits. This 
list, in Mrs. Piozzi's handwriting, gives the prices 
and purchasers. Under Swinburne are the rare first 
edition of ' Poems and Ballads,' original cloth, 91. ; 
'ChastelarrJ,' 11. 10s.; and others. A very choice 
item is a Medici Book of Hours, the work of a 
French artist and scribe, 350?. A list is given of the 
miniatures. Among purchases from the Polwarth 
Collection is the rare first edition of Drake's ' The 
W T orld Encompassed,' 1628, 35?. No copy of this 
has been offered in London sale-rooms for many 
years. There are also collections of rare tracts. 
'Under Shakespeare is a fine large-paper copy of the 
first 8vo edition, 7 vols., contemporary calf, 1709-10, 
34?. Under India is a collection of 250 large coloured 
etchings of the manners, customs, dress, and reli- 
gious ceremonies of the Hindoos by Solvyns, 1799, 
45?. This is the artist's presentation copy to Lord 
Mornington. Under Cruikshank is a complete set of 
Kenrick's ' British Stage,' including the unfinished 
sixth volume, 50?. Under Canada are a number of 
scarce tracts, including a collection relating to the 
Red River country, 1816-19, 21?. ; and another relat- 
ing to Canada in 1788-97, 151. Under Folk Lore 
Society is a complete set, 1878-1906, 30?. Under 
Alken is a collection of 10 original pencil drawings 
in perfect condition (some unpublished), mounted 
to 4to size, and bound in green morocco, 1843, 30?. ; 
a set of the Baskeryille Classics, 7 vols., 4to, 1757-73, 
is 25?. ; and there is a large collection of separate 
plates of Turner's 'Liber Studiorum.' 

[Notices of several other Catalogues are held over. ] 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

G. DE C. F. ("Dickens's Knife-Box"). Antici- 
pated by PROF. BENSLY, 10 S. xi. 116. 

F. PRITCHARD (' The Letters of Runnymede '). 
Ihese letters, written by Benjamin Disraeli, 
appeared originally in The Times, and were printed 
in a volume in 1836. They were republished in 
1885, with an introduction and notes by Francis 

H. E. NEWMAN. Forwarded. 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 55, col. 2, 1. 1, for " Bon- 
ningham " read Birmingham. 


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10 s. xii. JULY 31, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.-No. 292. 

NOTES: "Plains," Timber-denuded Lands, 81 Oxford 
Civil War Leaders, 82 Illustrations of Shakespeare, 84 
Dr. Johnson and Strahan's ' Virgil,' 85 Happisburgh or 
Haisborough " Aviation "Robin's Alive Macaulay on 
Olive Trees, 86 Monuments to American Indians 
Carlyle on the Peneus " Dynamometer," 87. 

QUERIES :" Pyrrhic victory " Farnese Arms "Bier- 
Right": Ordeal by Touch, 87 T. L. Peacock: George 
Meredith Bridgewater Borough" Coherer " ' The Oera 
Linda Book' Goethe on "Ignorance in Motion" 
Hollow Loaf foretelling Death Authors of Quotations 
Wanted Poem on a Boy and his Curls Black Notley 
Parish Register Kendal House, Isleworth, 88 Dor- 
chester: Birrell's Engraving Hotel Moras or Biron 
Morlais Castle-Noah Hickey of Dublin 'The Black- 
heathen 'Slip of the Tongue a Bad Omen Walking in 
Two Parishes, 89 Chaucer : " Strothir " Portrait by 
Lawrence Essex fatal to Women Charles II. 's Mock 
Marriage Pigott's ' Jockey Club 'Pilgrim Fathers, 90. 

REPLIES : Walt Whitman on Alamo, 90 Infanta Maria 
of Spain Bacon on Tasting Paul Braddon Butter- 
worth, 91 Pig Grass Holt Castle Beezely, 92 
" Rollick " " All the world and his wife" "What the 
Devil said to Noah "Thimbles Eel-Pie Shop Welsh 
Judges Gainsborough, Architect, 93 "Seecatchie" 
"I had three sisters "Hannah Lightfoot " Hen and 
Chickens" J. Isaacson John Hus Col. Pestall, 94 
"Matthew, Mark," &c. Nuns as Chaplains DeQuincey, 
95 Births and Deaths Mechanical Road Carriages 
tfhoreditch Family Arms of Married Women Sneezing 
Superstition, 97 Suffragan Bishops Hamlet Healen 
Penny Clarionett, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lord Broughton's Recollections 
' The Faerie Queen ' 4 The Inns ofCourt.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


ON the outskirts of Nottingham partly 
within, but mainly without, the present 
city boundaries is an ancient road travers- 
ing a narrow ridge of hill-top land, three 
or four miles in length, once a part of Sher- 
wood Forest. This is called the Plains 
Road, and the adjacent land on either side 
is called the Plains otherwise Mapperley 
Plains, from a suburb at the Nottingham 
end. The road, however, limits several 
parishes, the villages whereof lie in flanking 
valleys, whence arose the names Arnold 
Plains, Sneinton Plains, Gedling Plains, 
and Nottingham Plains. The strange thing 
is that this narrow hill-top tract scarcely 
approachable by vehicular traffic before 
modern improvements differs totally from 
the orthodox conception of what " plains " 
should be, and has consequently often given 
rise to puzzled inquiries that nobody could 

From the limited historical evidence 
available, while compiling a history of 
Mapperley in 1902, I directed some attention 

to the question of the signification of these 
particular "plains," the earliest known 
allusions to which are little more than 
three centuries old. Historical evidence 
shows that, in mediaeval times, the same 
tracts of land were occupied by ancient 
parochial woodlands, and that the term 
" plains " only arose when and where the 
woodlands were cleared. Hence there 
seemed no escape from the conclusion that 
"plain," in this case at least, signified land 
that was "plain." in the sense of being 
bared of timber. I did not find this obsolete 
sense noted in any dictionary then accessible 
to me, and could only regret that the 
' N.E.D.' had not in 1902 progressed so far 
as P never doubting that the latter work 
would, in due time, fully illustrate the point. 
The greater, then, was my disappointment, 
on a recent examination, to find that this 
old-time signification of " plain " had not 
been recognized by the editors. This 
incidental reference, however, occurs : 1375, 
Barbour, 'Bruce,' vii. 613, "Thai in full 
gret hy agane out of the woud ran to the 
plane." Moreover, illustrative extracts of 
the nineteenth century go to show that, 
in Colonial and U.S. use, " plains " chiefly 
plural is a term " applied to level treeless 
tracts of country," which looks like a 

However, since 1902 I have found ample 
confirmation of the view then adopted, viz., 
that " plain " was a term once used in con- 
tradistinction from " woodland " ; and hence 
it may fairly be presumed that the question 
whether the land agreed with the modern 
sense, or whether it was hilly, was im- 
material. No doubt further illustrations 
could readily be found, but the following, 
taken (with one exception) from Notts lite- 
rature, will probably suffice. 

William Peveril's foundation charter to 
Lenton Priory, 1103-8, grants "the towns 
of Radford, Morton, and Keighton, with all 
their appurtenances, and whatsoever he 
had in Newthorpe and Papplewick, in wood, 
plain," &c. 

By a later charter William Peveril the 
younger granted to Lenton Priory " the 
town of Linby, and whatsoever he held in it, 
viz., lands tilled and untilled, in wood and in 
plain," &c. 

A similar passage occurs in the foundation 
charter of Rufford Abbey, as also in one of 
the early Osberton charters (vide * Dukery 
Records,' 1904). I have not access to the 
original text in connexion with these 
passages, but the continued recurrence of 
the phrase leaves little room for doubt. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 31, im 

Manwood, a great authority on ' Forest 
Laws/ 1615, says : "To assart is to destroy 
any covert by the rooting up of the same, 
to make it to continue a plaine." 

That this sense was recognized little more 
than a century ago is shown by Lowe's 
' Agricultural Survey of Notts,' 1794, wherein 
following a list of Gedling " coppices," is 
added a separate reference to 53 acres odd 
of " Plains." Furthermore, a contemporary 
survey of the royal hays of Birkland and 
Bilhagh, Sherwood Forest, records the 
varying extents of " wood " and " plain " 
in each of the several subdivisions. More- 
over, an accompanying plan proves that 
these terms were applied respectively to 
woodland and to treeless land. 


39, Burford Road, Nottingham. 


(Concluded from p. 22.) 

To New College belong William Fiennes, 
second Baron and first Viscount Save and 
Sele, " Old Subtlety," and his second son 
Nathaniel Fiennes, Parliamentary Governor 
of Bristol, which he surrendered to Prince 
Rupert. Saye and Sele was High Steward 
of his University 1641-3 and 1646-60. The 
Fiennes family enjoyed various privileges 
as founder's kin at Winchester and New 
Colleges ; and it is probably owing to their 
mythical connexion with Wykeham that 
his twin foundations came off as well as 
they did under the rule of the Puritans. 
Philip Herbert, fourth Earl of Pembroke 
and first of Montgomery, was of this house. 
Succeeding Laud as Chancellor of his 
University, he superintended the visitation 
of the Colleges and ejection of Royalists. 
He was patron of Van Dyck, and the 
vounger of " the incomparable pair of 
brethren " to whom the first folio of Shake- 
speare's works was inscribed in 1623. 

New College educated the following 
Puritan divines : William Twisse, Prolo- 
cutor of the Westminster Assembly, whose 
remains were cast out of the Abbey after 
the Restoration ; John White, " the 
patriarch of Dorchester " ; John Harris, 
Regius Professor of Greek and Warden of 
Winchester ; and Hugh Robinson, Head 
Master of Winchester and Archdeacon of 
Gloucester, who lost his appointments, but 
eventually took the Covenant. Stephen 
Charnock of Emmanuel, Cambridge, was an 
intruded Fellow. 

Trinity College numbers among her 
worthies Cromwell's son-in-law Henry Ireton, 
soldier and regicide ; Edmund Ludlow, 
soldier, author, and regicide ; Sir Richard 
Newdigate, Bt., Judge ; William Laurence, 
lawyer and M.P. ; James Harrington, who, 
although he faithfully attended Charles I. 
in his imprisonment, was theoretically a. 
democrat and author of ' Oceana ' ; William 
Hook, chaplain to Cromwell ; Gaspar Hickes, 
a member of the Westminster Assembly ; 
John Packer, M.P., friend of Eliot, secretary 
to Buckingham, and one of the Parliamentary 
Visitors to the University ; and Zouch Tate, 
M.P., proposer of the famous " self-denying 
ordinance" in 1644, and an other of the Parlia- 
mentary Visitors. Robert Harris, the in- 
truded President of Trinity, was an active 

Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex and 
general of the Parliamentary Army, was at 
Merton College-; so also was the celebrated 
Puritan divine Francis Cheynell, intruded 
President of St. John's, Lady Margaret 
Professor of Divinity, and the violent 
adversary of Chillingworth. Like his oppo- 
nent, Cheynell was a native of Oxford ; and 
the city was more inclined to Puritanism 
than was the University. Sir Nathaniel 
Brent, Warden of Merton, was President of 
the Parliamentary Commission for Visita- 
tion of the Universities. Edward Reynolds 
(Warden after the Restoration and Bishop 
of Norwich), as a moderate Anglican who 
was ready to accept an accommodation, was 
Dean of Christ Church and Vice-Chancellor 
under the Puritan regime. 

Hart Hall (now Hertford College) claims 
John Selden as her son. His studies in the 
Inner Temple procured him the title of 
" the great dictator of learning of the 
English nation." He sat in the Long 
Parliament as burgess for the University ; 
but for a man of learning he was very slightly 
indebted to his Alma Mater. To this Hall 
also belong Sir John Glynne, the judge who 
made a long address to the Protector in 
favour of Cromwell' s assumption of the 
crown, which he printed on the Restoration 
as evidence that ho had always been at 
heart a monarchist ; and Adrian Scrope the 

To University College belong the notorious 
Henry Marten, soldier, politician, and 
regicide, but " as far from a Puritan as light is 
from darknesse" ; William Gay the regicide ; 
Ezreel Tongue, divine and ally of Titus 
Oates ; John Flavel, Presbyterian divine ; 
and Rowland Stedman, Nonconformist divine 
and intruded scholar. 

io s. xii. JULY si, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Thomas Mytton, Parliamentary Com- 
mander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral in North 
Wales, was of Balliol College ; so were 
Alexander Popham of Littlecote, one of 
Cromwell's lords ; and John Wilde, Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer. 

Among Oriel College worthies of the 
period were William Prynne, the celebrated 
Puritan pamphleteer ; Sir Robert Harley of 
Brampton Bryan Castle, Master of the Mint ; 
and Calybute Downing, chaplain to Lord 
Robartes's regiment, " a reputed weather- 

Queen's College gives us Sir Thomas 
Myddelton, Parliamentary Sergeant-Major- 
General for North Wales ; and John Owen 
the theologian, Dean of Christ Church, 
Vice-Chancellor, and chaplain to Cromwell 
in Ireland and Scotland. 

All Souls College, which in the sequel was 
to owe much to the unwelcome action of 
the Parliamentary Visitors, produced the 
notorious journalist Marchamont Needham, 
who had been originally a quirister of that 
house. He was an usher at Merchant 
Taylors' School, member of Gray's Inn, 
and student of medicine before discovering 
his true vocation. He then became chief 
author of Mercurius Britannicus, changed 
sides, and published in the King's defence 
Mercurius Pragmaticus, but, on being 
committed to Newgate, again changed his 
party, and published a new weekly paper, 
Mercurius Politicus, in support of Cromwell; 
and, later, edited the official journal, the 
Public Intelligencer. Having obtained his 
pardon after the Restoration, he was 
employed by the Government to attack 
Shaftesbury and the Opposition. 

Sir William Petty, political economist, 
was appointed by the Commissioners of the 
Commonwealth a Fellow of Brasenose, and, 
later, Professor of Anatomy. 

Of Corpus Christi College were Edward 
Pococke, the celebrated Oriental scholar, 
who was appointed Hebrew Professor by the 
Parliamentary Visitors, and reappointed at 
the Restoration ; and Daniel Featley or 
Fairclough, controversialist, one of the 
translators of the Bible, and as a moderate 
Anglican a member of the Westminster 

To Christ Church belong Thomas Case, 
the celebrated Presbyterian divine ; and 
Henry Stubbe or Stubbs, physician and 

Laud's College, St. John the Baptist, claims 
Sir Benjamin Rudyerd, politician and poet ; 
and Bulstrode Whitelocke, Keeper of the 
Great Seal. 

To Jesus College belongs John White,. 
Parliamentarian, commonly called Century 

William Lenthall, Speaker of the House- 
of Commons, was of St. Alban Hall (now 
absorbed by Merton) ; so too was Robert 
Blake, the famous admiral and general at 
sea, but he soon migrated to Wadham 
College. To Wadham also belong Nicholas 
Love the regicide ; and John Wilkins, 
originally of Magdalen Hall, who became 
successively Warden of Wadham, Master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Bishop of 
Chester. He was centre of the group which 
formed the Royal Society ; and married 
Cromwell's sister Robina. 

The ancient Hall of Broadgates (now 
Pembroke College) claims John Pym, " the- 
greatest member of Parliament who ever 
lived." His signature is preserved at Pem- 
broke, affixed to a donation of 44s. to th& 
enlargement of the dining-hall (now the- 
library). It is dated 27 April, 1623 (the 
year before Broadgates became Pembroke), 
and he is described as " quondam Aulae- 
Lateportensis Commensalis." In 1630, when 
subscriptions were made for the chapel of 
Gloucester Hall (now Worcester College),, 
Pym gave 205. ; and a like sum was given 
by his elder son Alexander, whom he had 
sent there to be under his own old tutor at 
Broadgates, Degory Wheare, first Camden 
Professor of History at Oxford and Principal 
of Gloucester Hall. Of Broadgates also 
was Francis Rous, Provost of Eton, Speaker 
of the Little or Barebones Parliament, and 
member of the Protector's Council of State.. 
His father, Sir Anthony Rous, remarried 
with Pym's mother. The Eton Scholarship 
at Pembroke is of Rous's foundation ; and 
his portrait is to be seen in the dining-hall. 
Clement Walker, Presbyterian leader and 
historian of Independency, is attributed 
to Broadgates by Wood ; and Sir Thomas- 
Wroth, Parliamentarian and author, appears 
to have been at both Gloucester and Broad- 
gates Hall. Among Pembroke divines may 
be mentioned Peter Smart, " the Puritan 
proto-martyr," and opponent of Bishop 
Cosin ; Edmund Hall, who fought for 
Parliament and attacked Cromwell ; Thomas 
Hall, who wrote against unlicensed preachers, 
indiscriminate baptism, Fifth Monarchy 
Men, and Cavalier customs ; Henry Langley, 
the intruded Master ; Thomas Rosewell ; 
and William Sedgwick, nicknamed " Dooms- 
day Sedgwick " and " Apostle of the Isle of 

Gloucester Hall (now Worcester College) 
claims John Carew the regicide, "a Repub- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XH. JULY 31, im 

lican without guile and without reproach," 
and John Godolphin, a Puritan judge of 
the Admiralty Court. 

To the above names may be added the 
f ollowing : Roger Boyle, Baron Broghill 
and first Earl of Orrery, statesman, soldier, 
and dramatist, who, according to Wood, 
" received some of his academical education 
in Oxon " ; Sir John Danvers the regicide, 
stepfather of George Herbert the poet, who 
sat for the University in the Short Parliament ; 
John Hewson, regicide, soldier, and some- 
time shoemaker, who was created M.A. in 
1649 ; John Okey, regicide and colonel of 
dragoons at Naseby, created M.A. the same 
year ; and Sir Thomas Widdrington, Speaker 
of the House of Commons in 1656 and Com- 
missioner of the Great Seal, who, thinks 
Wood, studied at both Universities. 

We have apcounted for three of the five 
members impeached by Charles I. at the 
beginning of 1642 to wit, " King Pym," 
Hampden, and Strode. The other two 
Denzil Holies, first Baron Holies of Ifield, 
and Sir Arthur Hesilrige; appear to have 
TDeen at neither University. But a member 
of the Upper House impeached at the same 
time, Edward Montagu, second Earl of 
Manchester, was of Sidney Sussex College, 
'Cambridge, and ultimately Chancellor of 
his University. Manchester, who the next 
year became Major-General of the Associated 
Counties, was at the time of his impeach- 
ment generally known by the courtesy 
title of Viscount Mandeville, although he 
Jiad been created Baron Montagu, of Kim- 
bolton. Oliver Cromwell himself, to whom 
Manchester, in his military capacity, was 
especially obnoxious, came of the same 
College ; and in 1651 was elected Chancellor 
of Oxford, holding that office until July, 
1657, when he was succeeded by his son 
Richard. Oliver appointed John Owen 
his Vice-Chancellor, under whose efficient 
rule the elder University prospered greatly. 

To Trinity, Cambridge, belongs the fiery 
Independent divine Hugh Peters, who 
perished on the scaffold after the Restora- 
tion as an abettor of the execution of 
Charles I. 

St. John the Evangelist's College claims 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, third Baron Fairfax 
of Cameron, the celebrated Commander-in- 
Chief ; Sir Algernon Percy, tenth Earl of 
Northumberland, "the proudest man alive" ; 
.and Sir Simonds D'Ewes, Bt., Puritan and 

Emmanuel counts among her worthies 
Sir Robert Rich, second Earl of Warwick, 
who succeeded Northumberland as Lord 

High Admiral, and whose grandson married 
the Protector's daughter ; Basil Feilding, 
second Earl of Denbigh, the general ; Sir 
Harbottle Grirnston, Bt., judge and Speaker 
of the Convention Parliament of 1660 ; and 
Stephen Marshall, the celebrated Presby- 
terian divine, whose sermons, especially 
the funeral sermon for Pym, helped to guide 
the course of events. 

To Queens' belong Oliver St. John, Chief 
Justice of Common Pleas ; Sir Philip Staple- 
ton the soldier ; and John Goodwin, re- 
publican divine and author. Thomas Good- 
win, Independent divine, was of Christ's 
and Catherine Hall, and in 1650 President of 
Magdalen, Oxon. 

Peterhouse claims John Hutchinson the 
regicide, whose wife wrote his life. 

Magdalene numbers among her worthies Sir 
Edward Dering, Bt., antiquary and politician, 
who suffered at the hands of both parties. 

Sir Edmond Prideaux, Bt., lawyer and 
politician, was M.A. of Cambridge, and 
incorporated M.A. at Oxford ; Sir Hugh 
Cholmley, who fought half-heartedly for 
Parliament and then turned Royalist, was 
at Jesus, Cambridge ; Thomas Scott the 
regicide was educated at Cambridge ; and 
so, according to Clarendon, was Sir John 
Wildman, politician. A. R. BAYLEY. 

(Continued from 10 S. vi. 423.) 

' Macbeth,' IV. i. 52. Macbeth bids the witches 
" untie the winds and let them fight against the 

Richard Perrot, in ' Jacob's Vow,' 1627, says : If 
there be any wind stirring it is felt most near the 

Dickens, ' Christmas Carol,' Stave I. " A, breezy 
spot say St. Paul's Churchyard, for instance." 

A legend, current among the Florentines, 
relates how one day the Devil and the Wind 
had to pass through the Piazza del Duomo. 
The Devil, telling the Wind to wait for him 
outside, entered the sacristy. The Wind, 
however, beheld him no more, and still 
waits for him in the Piazza (Rivista Fioren- 
tina, Nov., 1908, pp. 72-81). 

A windy part of the Close at Lincoln is 
known there as " Kill-Canon Corner." 

' Antony and Cleopatra,' IV. xii. ' Hamlet,' III. 
ii. Cloud-shapes. (See 10 S. vi. 423.) 

Swift, * Tale of a Tub,' 1704, Ep. Ded. " A large 

cloud in the form of a bear, another with the 

head of an ass, a third with claws likeadragon." 

' King Henry VI.,' Part III., V. ii. 25. Warwick 
at the point of death exclaims : " Of all my lands is 
nothing left me but my body's length." 

Meredith Hanmer, 'Ecclesiastical History,' 1585, 



ed. 5, 1650, ii. 62." All the earth a man can have 
is his grave." 
John Kinge, ' Lectvres vpon lonas,' 1597, p. 676. 

"I will tell you where your lande lieth so 

much measure of ground, to the length and breadth 

of your bodies, as maie serue to burie them in 

more than this we cannot claime." And much more 
to the same effect. 

' King John,' V. ii. 140." To crouch in litter of 
your stable planks." 

Thomas de Gray, in his 'Compleat Horseman,' 
1639, p. 11, treating of the stable, says : "Let the 

flore be pitched with flint, and not planked you 

may perad venture startle at paying, rather than 

planking your flore for that it is a new thing, 

little practised, and seldome heard." 

' Merchant of Venice,' V. i " The man that hath 

no music in himself dark as Erebus : let no such 

man be trusted." 

H. Peacham, 'Compleat Gentleman,' 1622, p. 96. 

"The Italian prouerbe 'Whom God loues 

not, that man loues not Musicke.'" 

'King Richard III.,' III. iv. "Like a drunken 
sailor on a mast." 

Z. Bogan, ' Mirth of Christian Life,' 1653, p. 347. 
" The man that sleeps on the top of a mast." 

'King Henry IV.,' Part II., V. i. " Any pretty 
little tiny kickshaws." 

E. Hickeringill, ' Gregory, Father-Greybeard,' 
1673, p. 3. "Indeed it is a quelque-chose, here and 
there a little tart sometimes." 

Sir W. Waller, 'Divine Meditations,' 1680(1839, 

p 86)." To furnish a table with nothing with 

quelque choses and apparitions of meat." 

' Othello,' III. i. Clown (to the musicians with 
wind instruments) : '* Put up your pipes in your 

Compare yAwcro-oKo/xov in John xiii. 29, " the 
bag," a case for mouthpieces. 

'Hamlet,' III. iv. "Thou wretched, rash, in- 
truding fool take thy fortune." 

The passage in ' As You Like It/ II. vii. 
has already been noted ; see the quotations 
at 10 S. ii. 365, 491, " Fools have the fortune." 

' Hamlet,' III. ii. " Let the galled jade wince, our 
withers are unwrung." 

Tho. de Gray, ' Compleat Horseman,' 1639, p. 352. 

-" A horse that is wrung or hurt in the withers 

also any swellings by spur-gaules or navell-gaules." 

' Hamlet,' I. v. " The time is out of joint." 
Tho. de Gray, ' Compleat Horseman,' 1639. P. 53. 

"Horses are often brought out of ioynt and 

temper, by reason of the assidual warfare of the 
never-ceasing-iarring elements." Pp. 333-4. "He 
will be out of ioynt, that is, out of good temper 
throughout every part and member of his body." 

'Hamlet,' V. ii." Rough-hew." (See 10 S. vi' 

H. Peacham, 'Compleat Gentleman,' 1622, p. 91, 
says of George Buchanan : "In his person, 
behauiour and fashion, he was rough hewen. 

'Hamlet,' V. ii. "This fell sergeant, death, is 
strict in his arrest." (See 10 S. vi. 423.) 

F. Quarles, 'Emblems,' 1635 (1845, p. 114). "If 
that pale-fac'd sergeant [deathl make arrest/' 

'Winter's Tale,' V. ii. "Thou art a tall fellow 
of thy hands." 

'Hist, of Prince Arthur' (1816, i. 41). "They 
be marvellous good men of their hands." 

' Love's Labour Lost/ V. ii. " Dick the shepherd 
blows his nail." 

'Hist, of Prince Arthur ' (1816, iii. 337). "They 
have hunger and cold, and blow on their nails." 

'Comedy of Errors,' II. ii. "Thou art an elm, 
my husband ; I, a vine." 

F. Quarles, ' Emblems,' 1635 (1845, p. 259)." He 's 
my supporting elm ; and I his vine." 

' Cymbeline/ III. iii. Belarius's account 
of the noble qualities of the two royal sons, 
Guiderius and Arviragus, brought up in 
ignorance of their true birth, as sons of a 
countryman : " How hard it is to hide 
the sparks of nature ! " &c. 

A similar case, where the son of King 
Pellinore is brought up as the son of a cow- 
herd, " but always will be shooting, glad 
to see battles and to behold knights," &c., in 
* Hist, of Prince Arthur ' (1816, i. 113). 

* Hamlet,' III. iv. Hamlet's interview 
with his mother. 

A similar case, Sir Ewaine's interview with 
his mother Morgan le Fay, in ' Hist, of 
Prince Arthur ' (1816, i. 157). 

'Love's Labour Lost,' V. ii. "Judas was hang'd 
on an elder." 

Often mentioned in Bishop John King's 
' Lectures on Jonas/ 1597, pp. 190, 260, 353. 

'Taming of the Shrew/ V. ii. " My banquet is 
to close our stomachs up, after our great good 

Scott, ' The Antiquary,' vol. iii. chap. vi. (1818, 
p. 137). ' A broiled bone, or a smoked haddock, or 

an oyster, or a slice of bacon or something or 

other of that sort, to close the orifice of the stomach 
before going to bed." Again in 'Woodstock/ 
chaps, xx., xxviii. 

' Love's Labour Lost,' IV. ii. Sir Nathaniel the 
curate describes Dull the constable : " His intellect 
is not replenished ; he is only an animal, only 
sensible in the duller parts," &c. 

Dickens, 'Barnaby Rudge,' chap, xi., Old 
Willet's account of Hugh. "His faculties was 

never drawed out of him when he was a boy has 

no imagination can 'tread nor write. has never 

lived in any way but like the animals is a 

animal," &c. 

W. C. B. 

William Goodhugh, a London bookseller, 
who published in 1827 * The English Gentle- 
man's Library Manual/ writes : 

"The late Lord Buchan was not an admirer of 
Jphnson, especially from the manner in which 
Johnson speaks of Thomson in his 'Lives of the 
Poets.' His Lordship, in a letter addressed to me, 
denies the assertion ot Johnson relative to Thomson 
that his first want on coming to London was a pair 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 31, im 

of shoes. His Lordship says : ' The trifling story 
about his losing his bundle on his way from Wapping 
to Mallet's house in London, and the want of shoes, 
is in the peculiar style of malevolence which stains 
the work of Johnson as a biographer. The only 
occasion that I had the mischance to meet Johnson 
was at old Strahan's, the translator of the first six 
books of the " ^Eneid," in Suffolk Street, London, 
where I found him and Mallet preparing that 
work for publication, after having censured Gavin 
Douglas, Dryden, and the other predecessors of 
poor Strahan, in the translation of Virgil.'" 'Eng- 
lish Gentleman's Library Manual,' p. 142. 

Goodhugh in another part of his book 
{p. 31) has indulged in an acknowledged 
quotation from Boswell, but this statement 
which connects Johnson with the publica- 
tion of Strahan's ' Virgil ' appears to be 
unknown. The name of Alexander Strahan 
does not occur in the elaborate index to 
Dr. Birkbeck Hill's edition of Boswell. 

The passage is not without difficulty. 
Apparently the person intended by " the 
late Lord Buchan " is the eleventh Earl, 
but he did not die until 1829, two years 
later than the date of Goodhugh's book. 
His father, the tenth Earl, died in 1767, 
whilst Goodhugh was not born until 1 792. 

Strahan's version of the first book appeared 
in 1739. In the edition of the whole of the 
x ^Eneid ' which appeared in 1767 Strahan 
reprints the preface to that of 1753, which 
contained only the first six books, with an 
addition in which he acknowledges Mallet's 
aid : 

"My good friend, the late Mr*. Mallet, was so 
obliging as to revise with me the translation 
throughout, and compare it carefully with the 
original, except the fifth and sixth books, which 
his death prevented, and by that accident they will 
appear less perfect than they otherwise would have 
been ; however, I have given them a very careful 
revision. The tenth and twelfth books were trans- 
lated by the late reverend Mr. [William] Dobson 
(the translator of Milton's 'Paradise Lost' into 
Latin verse), the same who is mentioned in Mr. 
Layng's verses, which were likewise carefully 

It would seem from this that Strahan was 
not unwilling to acknowledge indebtedness, 
but he makes no reference to Johnson. 


nouncing the running-down on the 14th 
inst. of a submarine by the steamer Eddy- 
stone the daily papers stated that it occurred 
" off Haisborough Light, near Cromer." 
I do not remember seeing this orthography 
before. Commonly it is Happisburgh, 
which is used* officially by the Great Eastern 
Railway. Haisborough is phonetic, and 
represents the local pronunciation, which 

I have often heard. The * Railway and 
Commercial Gazetteer ' admits neither of the 
above, but gives two other forms, Happis- 
borough and Hasborough. The latter is 
not to be recommended, as it suggests that 
the a is short, whereas it is long. 

JAS. PL ATT, Jun. 

" AVIATION." This word, which is very 
much to the fore at present, cannot be found 
in the ' N.E.D.' (1888) nor in Littre (1863), 
but Larousse's ' Grand Dictionnaire ' (1866) 
already has it. There is no doubt that it 
was invented or first used by M. G. de la 
Landelle, the author of ' L' Aviation ; ou, 
Navigation aerienne sans Ballon' (1863). 
The Revue des Deux Mondes (September, 
1865), when reviewing that book, states : 

"Nous adoptons les mots d'aviation [and 

others] qui sont maintenant entre"s dans 1'usage 

. 3> T> OOO 

commun." P. 322. 

L. L. K. 

[See also. 10 S. x. 186,250.] 

ROBIN'S ALIVE, A GAME. This game is 
mentioned by Thomas Jefferson in a letter 
to Dr. Thomas Cooper, dated at Monticello, 
16 Jan., 1814 t 

"Everything predicted by the enemies of banks, 
in the beginning, is now coming to pass. We are to 
be ruined now by the deluge of bank paper, as we 

were formerly by the old Continental paper 

Prudent men must be on their guard in this game 
of Robin's alive, and take care that the spark does 
not extinguish in their hands." 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

ASIA. Under the date of 1 Jan., 1839, 
Macaulay wrote : 

" Since I have been in Italy, I have often thought 
it very strange that the English have never intro- 
duced the olive into any of those vast regions 
which they have colonized. I do not believe that 
there is an olive tree in all the United States, or in 
South Africa, or in Australasia." Trevelyari's 
' Life and Letters,' p. 368, one-vol. ed., 1881. 

Macaulay was mistaken in his belief. 
Whatever the truth may have been about 
Africa or America, the olive had undoubtedly 
been introduced into Australia before this 
year. W. C. Wentworth, for example, in 
' A Statistical Account of the British 
Settlements in Australasia ' (3rd ed., 1824), 
says of New South Wales : 

" The olive plants taken out a few years since by 
Mr. M'Arthur, have been preserved and multiplied, 
and it is expected will in time prove a valuable 
article of culture in the colony." -Vol. ii. p. 300. 

This passage had attracted Southey's atten- 
tion. See his ' Commonplace Book,' Third 
Series (1850), p. 580. EDWARD BENSLY. 

10 s. XIL JULY 31, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


A movement is on foot in the United States to 
erect, near New York Harbour, a memorial 
to the honour of the aboriginal races of 
America. A writer in The Reporter (Chicago) 
for June of this year points out that, in 
different parts of the United States, no 
fewer than nineteen public monuments 
have been reared, from time to time, to as 
many prominent members of the original 
inhabitants of that great continent. He 
furnishes the following list : 

Sakajaweaj "the mother of Oregon," at Portland. 

Pocahontas, Jamestown Island. 

Mahaska, recently erected in Iowa. 

Red Jacket in Buffalo. 

Miantonomah in Boston. 

Sleepy Eye at Sleepy Eye, Minn. 

Shabonee at Morris, 111. 

Osceola at Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S.C. 

Tomochichi in Savannah. 

Uncas at Norwich, Conn. 

Pushmataha in Washington, D.C. 

Corn planter in Pennsylvania. 

Cornstalk at Point Pleasant, W. Va. 

Logan at Auburn, N.Y. 

Keokuk at Keokuk, la. 

Attucks in Boston Common. 

Waban at Newton, Mass. 

Leatherlips, Franklin county, Ohio. 

Brant (Thayendanegea) at Brantford, Ontario. 

The last named, who assumed the name 
of Joseph Brant, was the chief of the Six 
Nations. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

volume of Carlyle's * French Revolution,' 
chapter entitled ' Usher Maillard,' occurs 
this : 

"Menads storm behind. If such hewed off the 
melodious head of Orpheus, and hurled it into 
the Peneus waters, what may they not make of 
thee, thee rhythm'ic merely, with no music but 
a sheepskin drum ? " 

It was not the Peneus river at all, but the 
Hebrus, that Carlyle meant. No critic 
seems to have noted this curious confusion 
of the Peneus river with Pentheus, King of 
Thebes. Carlyle probably knew by heart 
the lines from ' Lycidas ' : 
What could the Muse herself that Orpheus bore, 
The Muse herself for her enchanting son, 
Whom universal nature did lament, 
When by the rout that made the hideous roar, 
His gory visage down the stream was sent, - 
Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore ? 

123, South Elliot Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

" DYNAMOMETER." The ' N.E.D.' cites 
The Quarterly, Aug., 1810, with reference 
to " a new instrument, invented by Regnier, 
which he calls a dynamometer, for the 

purpose of ascertaining the comparative 
strength which individuals are capable 
of exerting." This instrument is men- 
tioned 6 Jan., 1808, in a letter written by 
Thomas Jefferson to John Taylor, concern- 
ing the trial of ploughs and drills "by a 
dynamometer." The * Ency. Brit.' names 
other contrivances of a similar nature, but 
without giving what an inquirer naturally 
looks for the order of their invention, with 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" PYRRHIC VICTORY." We shall be glad of 
one or two early examples of this phrase ; 
indeed, of any good ones before 1885. I 
remember its being explained to me when at 
school. J. A. H. MURRAY. 


FARNESE ARMS. What were the arms 
borne by Cardinal Farnese ? Were they 
a cross gules surmounting five fleurs-de-lis 


It is not a little extraordinary that the 
" bier-right," or " law of the bier," or 
" ordeal of the bier," or " ordeal by touch," 
as it is variously called, has attracted no 
attention in ' N. & Q.' As I am preparing a 
paper on the custom as practised in this 
country, I am anxious to obtain all the infor- 
mation I can in regard to the custom in the 
British Isles. Cases in England or Scotland 
dated 1611, 1628, 1644, 1661, 1676, 1683, 
and 1688 are recorded in Pitcairn's ' Criminal 
Trials in Scotland,' Lea's ' Superstition and 
Force,' or elsewhere ; but the fact that 
there were cases in this country so recently 
as 1869 makes it pretty evident that my 
British cases do not indicate when the 
custom ceased in the British Isles. This 
inference is strengthened by a question 
asked in The Gentleman's Magazine for 
August, 1796 (Ixvi. 636): "What grounds 
are there to imagine that the wounds of a 
murdered person will bleed on being touched 
by the murderer ? " I shall be greatly 
indebted to any correspondent who can 
give me exact references to cases in the 
British Isles, more particularly after 1700. 

Boston, U.S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 31, im 

In J. A. Hammerton's * George Meredith in 
Anecdote and Criticism ' it is said (p. 7) that 
the Merediths were " within easy reach of 
Peacock's home at Chertsey. For forty 
years Peacock lived in the pretty little 
Surrey town, and Meredith also remained 
true to the county." During what period 
did Peacock live at Chertsey ? Did he 
not live at Halliford in Midldesex ? 

J. J. F. 


to know whether there exists a copy or 
translation of William Briwerre's founda- 
tion charter, preceding John's charter of 
26 June, 1200 (' Rot. Chart.,' 1837, i. 73). 


" COHERER." The spread of wireless 
telegraphy has made us familiar with the 
electric apparatus called a " coherer," fitted 
for the perception of electric waves in the 
air, and the corresponding " anti-coherer " 
(or " receiver "), erected at the opposite 
terminus station. It would be interesting 
to ascertain the date when the new scientific 
term " coherer," which is not yet recorded 
in the ' Historical English Dictionary,' but 
will claim its entry in the Supplement, first 
occurred, and was used with this special 
signification. INQUIRER. 

' THE OERA LINDA BOOK.' In the preface 
to the very curious Frisian chronicle called 
'The Oera Linda Book,' which was pub- 
lished in London in 1876 with a translation 
by W. R. Sandbach, it is stated that there 
had been much controversy as to its genuine- 
ness, and that at that time no certain con- 
clusion had been arrived at. Has this point 
been decided since then ? 

Thornhill, Dumfr esshire. 

Goethe observed, " ' Ignorance in motion ' 
is dangerous to the welfare of a nation." 
Where can this observation be found ? 


Recently a woman in this neighbourhood 
(in West Cornwall) cut a loaf of bread, and 
found it to be hollow. She remarked that 
there would soon be a death in the family. 
Curiously enough, within a week two of her 
relatives died. Does this superstition obtain 
in other districts ? P. JENNINGS. 

St. Day. 

I heard the late Bishop of London quote the 
following lines, as the peroration of his 
address on opening an elementary school 
at Willesden, but have never been able to 
trace the author : 

sweeter shall the roses blow 

In those far years, those happy years, 
And children weep when we lie low 
Far fewer tears, far happier tears. 


I want the source of the following quota- 
tions : 

1. If lusty Love should go in search of beauty r 
where would he find it fairer than in Blanche ? 

2. The lovely young Lavinia once had friends. 


I shall be grateful if any of your readers 
can tell me where I can find a sonnet, the 
last lines of which are : 

They called him Opportunity. 
He never came again. 

J. F. W. 

to learn the name of the author of a short 
poem on a " baby boy," whose golden curls 
were a cause of delight to his mother, but 
to himself of much teasing by his playfellows. 
Eventually he dies of fever, his mother 
cutting off the curls before laying him in his 
coffin. E. C. GARSTIN. 

Beau Site, Sea View, Isle of Wight. 

register of this Essex parish for the years 
1671 to 1735 has been missing since before 
1813. Is there any chance of its recovery 
or of any clue ? This register should 
contain the record of the burial of John 
Ray the naturalist. 

W. WARREN, Rector. 

as an eighteenth-century pleasure resort, 
has not found a page in Mr. Warwick Wroth' s 
excellent volume, although it was of suffi- 
cient importance and not too far from 
London. Here is one of its advertisements, 
dated September, 1754 : 

"Kendal House, Isleworth, which is so happily 
situated both for the Sweets of Retirement and for 
the Diversions of Hunting, Shooting, and Fishing, 
is and will be continued to be kept open all the 
Winter, here being pleasant warm Lodging Rooms 
and the best and Cheapest Entertainment that is 
to be had anywhere within so short a Ride from 
London, either for private company or for Parties 
of Pleasure, with a fine Ball or Banqueting Room, 
for the Celebration of Weddings, Birth-Days, or 
any other Festivity ; and for the better accommo- 

10 s. XIL JULY 31, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


dation of his Guests, Mr. Graham has furnish'd his 
Canals, &c., with fine Carp, Tench, and Perch. Any 
Gentlemen, &c., who have Ponds of Fish to dispose 
of, that are handy for Water-Carriage. Mr. Graham 
will be a Purchaser. An accomplish d Cook-maid 
is wanted." 

The other announcements before me do 
not add much to this, except to say that 
"'tis much the genteelest Public House 
and Garden in England," and that " Boats 
and Barges may land within a little Way of 
the House." 

Lysons quotes an advertisement from 
The Daily Advertiser, 4 April, 1750 ; and 
Thorne also deals at some length with its 
history. Does the place still exist ? 


On 5 June there was a review in The Athe- 
nceum of ' The Municipal Records of Dor- 
chester, Dorset,' in which it is stated that the 
Town Hall (1798) was engraved in a nice 
little plate by Birrell after Nash, which 
shows the High Street with many old houses 
since demolished. Could any of your readers 
inform me where this engraving can be seen ? 


Staunton, Briar Walk, Putney, S.W. 

Who was the architect of the Hotel Moras, 
Paris, the residence of the Due de Biron 
between 1753 and 1788, and until recently 
occupied by the Community of the Sacred 
Heart ? 

Jacques Franois Blondel illustrated the 
building in ' L' Architecture Fran9aise ' (pp. 
205-9), and attributed the design to the 
elder Gabriel, architect to the King ; but in 
an article in ' The Dictionary of Architecture,' 
in which I think I trace the hand of that 
indefatigable antiquary the late Mr. Wyatt 
Papworth, the Curator of the Soane Museum, 
Blondel's statement is controverted, with- 
out, however, a precise indication to whom 
the design of the H6tel is due. 


MORLAIS CASTLE (now a ruin), near 
Merthyr Tydfil, is said to have been built 
by Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, in the time 
of Edward I., as a border fortress to protect 
his estates, which were constantly being 
invaded by the tenants of the lords of 
Brecknock. As these properties were not 
well denned, the building of the castle 
gave rise to contention between the Earl of 
Gloucester and Humphrey de Bohun, Earl 
of Hereford and lord of Brecknock, resulting 
in the intervention of the king. In the 
dispatches and Parliamentary records of 1290 

no name is given to the fortress more than 
a " certain castle." Hence it seems quite 
probable that the edifice was not called 
Morlais when it was erected, or that there 
may have been some motive for not alluding 
to it by that name. Can any one throw 
some light upon this obscure point ? There 
is reason, from the disposition of the 
rubbish, to infer that the walls and towers 
were regularly pulled down from the top, 
and not, as usual in later days, blown up ; 
so that the castle was undoubtedly deserted 
and dismantled at an early period. 

Merthyr Tydfil. 

give me information as to the parentage 
of Noah Hickey of Capel Street, Dublin, 
who died in 1766 ? Any light on the 
subject would be gratefully received. 


49, West Hill, S.W. 

'THE BLACKHEATHEN.' What was the 
full issue of The Blackheathen, a publication 
of the Blackheath Proprietary School over 
forty years ago ? I have No. 2, May, 1865, 
and No. 4, May, 1866, each of 24 small 
quarto "pages. Some of the contents are 
by no means devoid of merit, and I should 
be glad of information as to how long the 
periodical continued and the writers who 
contributed to it. W. B. H. 

the * Orkneyinga Saga,' chap, xviii., we 
read : 

"Then the Earl made a slip of the tongue in 
speaking, and said : ' We shall be old enough when 
these fires are burnt out,' but he intended to have 
said that they would be warm enough ; and when 
he noticed his blunder he said : ' I made a slip of 
the tongue in speaking just now ; I do not remember 
that I ever did so before, and now I recollect what 
my foster-father King Olaf said at Stiklastad when 
I noticed a slip of the tongue which he made 
namely, that if it ever so happened that I should 
make a slip in my speech, I should not expect to 
live long after it.' " 

Can any one quote parallels ? 



DAY. Here, in North Devon, where many 
superstitions linger, I have lately been told 
the following. A woman of the peasant 
class, aged about seventy, came to the 
doctor for advice. Her indisposition turned 
out to be quite trifling, and in reply to the 
doctor's questions as to any indiscretion 
she might tax herself with having com- 



rnitted, she replied, quite seriously : " Well, 
sir, I can think of nothing except that a 
few days since I walked into two different 
parishes on the same day." 

Is anything known of this curious belief 
in harm arising from so simple, frequent, 
and often necessary an act ? T. M. W. 

REEVE'S TALE.' Mr. Thomas Wright, in 
his edition of ' The Canterbury Tales,' 
has the following note on the word 
" Strothir " (in ' The Reeve's Tale ') : 

"This was the valley of Langstroth, or Lang 
strpthdale, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, as 
pointed out by I)r. Whitaker, ' Hist, of Craven,' 
p. 493. I am informed that the dialect of this 
district may be recognised in the phraseology of 
Chaucer's ' scoleres tuo.' " 

From Murray's ' Yorkshire Handbook,' 
p. 429 (1874 ed.), I learn that 
" Whitaker first suggested what Mr. Garnett has 
confirmed that this 'tqun' was really Lang- 
strother. The dialect which Chaucer employs in 
this story is still, to a great extent, that of this 
little-visited corner of Craven ; and he copied, in 
all probability, the language he had himself heard 
spoken in ' Solere Hall ' by some Langstrothdale 
student. It may be added that Mr. Garnett 
( ' Philological Essays,' 1859) has printed a portion 
of the poem from a MS. which retains the pecu- 
liarities of dialect more exactly than any whicl 
has been collated by editors of Chaucer." 

I should be glad to know (1) from which 
MS. Mr. Garnett printed ; (2) on wha 
" peculiarities of dialect " he based his 
judgment ; (3) if any one can furnish me 
with a copy of the " portion of the poem ' 
which he printed ; and (4) on what grounds 
Dr. Whitaker came to his decision. 


An old aunt of mine possesses a portrai 
believed to be by Lawrence (it is now to be 
seen at the gallery of Messrs. Shepherc 
Brothers, 27, King Street, St. James's) 
It was given to her by a Mr. Elliot in Jersej 
many years ago, with some MSS. relating 
to the siege of Gibraltar, which she un 
fortunately destroyed. He said the portrai 
was of his father. Can any one throw 
light upon it ? It is vigorous. 



that some parts of Essex were so unhealthy 
for women that it was not unusual to fin* 
men there who had been married a doze: 
times. Is there reference to this in an; 
book? ALLEN HART. 

Copthall Avenue, E.C. 


ook is contained the story of Charles II.'s 

lleged mock marriage with Louise de 

Querouaille ? It is said to have taken 

lace at Euston. T. M. W. 

/Vho was Sir F k E n, Bt., of whom 

here is an account in Part I. of this abusive 
atire ? Is there any modern history of the 



Artemus Ward say " the Pilgrim Fathers 

jailed from a land where they wore perse- 

uted to a land where they might perse- 

ute " ? M. N. 

(10 S. xi. 510.) 

To answer MR. BRESLAR'S inquiry clearly 
a little summary of a part of Texan history 
is needful, which I make as brief as possible. 
In the late seventeenth century the first 
settlements were made in the present State 
of Texas by the French expedition under 
La Salle, shortly afterwards murdered by 
his followers. In passing, it may be said 
that Texas formed part of the territory con- 
veyed by Napoleon I. to the United States 
in 1803, in what is known as the " Louisiana 
Purchase." But soon after these early 
attempts at settlement Texas became one 
of the States of the Mexican Confederation. 
Other towns were founded, and Spanish 
missions established, one of these towns 
being San Antonio de Bexar, and the Alamo 
the mission church built there. 

The Mexicans invited American citizens 
to enter Texas, and many settled there, 
especially in the central and eastern portions, 
their numbers increasing from year to year. 

After President Santa Anna overthrew the 
federal system, Texas revolted from the 
Mexican Government and declared itself 
independent. The resulting struggle, in 
which General Sam Houston was a chief 
Texan leader, was a strenuous one for 
several years. In 1836, the mission building 
of the Alamo, which was surrounded by a 
strong wall, and had been used as a fort for 
some time, was occupied by 157 revolu- 
tionists under Col. W. B. Travis, who were 
there attacked by 4,000 Mexicans under 
Santa Anna ; but they held out from 23 
February to 6 March. All but seven of the 
garrison had perished, and of these, six 

10 s. xii. JULY si, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


were murdered, only one man escaping to 
report the slaughter. The dead were thrown 
into heaps and burnt, among the slain being 
the celebrated David Crockett and Col. 
James Bowie, whose name is associated with 
the noted "bowie-knife," once in high 
favour with ruffians. But the Texan War 
of Independence went on under the " Lone- 
Star flag," the recollection of the massacre 
serving as an incentive to the Texans in 
further encounters, while " Remember the 
Alamo ! " became their war-cry in the 
struggle for freedom. England, Holland, 
and Belgium acknowledged the independence 
of Texas in 1840, the United States and 
France having each done so earlier. Texas 
remained independent until 1845, when it 
became one of the United States, its admis- 
sion to the Union being one of the chief 
causes of the Mexican War of 1846-7, 
Mexico persisting in her claim to the country. 

It will be noted that Whitman's figures 
are largely in excess of the historical number 
of the Alamo's defenders, but to these he 
has doubtless added the 330 men from 
another garrison, who had surrendered 
upon promise of safety, but were shot by 
Santa Anna three weeks later (27 March) at 
Goliad, a town south-east from San Antonio. 

M. C. L. 

New York. 

MB. BBESLAB will find the information he 
seeks in the ' Century Cyclopedia of Names,' 
p. 27. 

As Englishmen unfamiliar with American 
history seem to be at a loss to know where 
to go for information, may I suggest two 
useful works of reference ? One is Dr. J. F. 
Jameson's ' Dictionary of United States 
History,' the other * Harper's Encyclo- 
paedia of United States History,' in ten 
volumes. For a real history which, as its 
title indicates, covers the entire American 
continent, the ' Narrative and Critical 
History of America,' in eight volumes, 
edited by the late Justin Winsor, should 
be consulted. It is written on the co- 
operative plan, and is particularly valuable 
for its wealth of bibliographical and carto- 
graphical information. 


Boston, U.S. 

See 'The Life and Adventures of Davy 
Crockett ' in ' The Story of the Filibusters,' 
by James Jeffrey Roche (T. Fisher Unwin, 
1891). Mr. Roche has also told the story 
in some spirited verses contributed to 
Harper's Magazine in 1888 or 1889. 

C. L. S. 

Information on this subject may be 
obtained from a history of San Antonio 
drawn up by one of my brothers. 

48, The Rope walk, Nottingham. 

[M. N. G. also thanked for reply.] 

47), third daughter of the " Catholic Kings," 
was born in Cordoba in 1482. Her elder 
sister Isabel, married to Dom Manoel, " the 
Fortunate," King of Portugal, died in 1498, 
and was shortly afterwards followed to the 
grave by her only child the infant Miguel. 
King Manoel married Dona Maria, his 
former wife's sister, in 1500, and by her had 
six sons, as well as daughters one of the 
latter, Dona Isabel, being the wife of the 
Emperor Charles V. Dona Maria died in 
childbed in 1517, and her enterprising 
widower married her niece Dona Leonora of 
Austria, sister of Charles V. Dona Maria is 
buried by the side of her husband in the 
church of Belem, near Lisbon. 


xii. 7). i have sought in vain in Bacon's 
' Sylva Sylvarum : a Natural History in 
Ten Centuries,' and in his ' History, Natural 
and Experimental, of Life and Death,' for 
anything answering exactly to the reference 
in The Spectator quoted by your corre- 
spondent. The passage I find most like it 
in sense is this, from the first-named work : 
" And (generally) it is a Rule, that whatso- 
ever is somewhat Ingrate at first, is made 
Gratefull by Custome, But whatsoever is 
too r pleasing at first, groweth quickly to 
Satiate." Bacon mentions coffee more than 
once, but not, apparently, in this connexion. 

C. C. B. 

PAUL BBADDON (10 S. viii. 489 ; x. 417). 

I think MB. CANN HUGHES has misread 

the name on the drawing he refers to. I 
have just seen two water-colour pictures by 
an artist named Paul Brandon in the 
Public Library, Kensington. They are of 
W. M. Thackeray's houses, one of which he 
designed himself and left to his daughters. 
Brandon's style in these paintings is bold 
and free, and tallies with the description 
of the work of " Braddon." R- T. 


x ii. 9). Many questions would be far 
easier to answer if querists would only 
refrain from making comments. In this 
case, for example, the way is blocked with 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [10 s. xn. JULY 31, im 

seven impediments, which have to be 
removed before one can begin to explain. 

1. Botterwort is ^iven as "an ancient 
spelling." Yes ; but it is a Norman spelling, 
and has to be set aside. The Norman 
scribes wrote a French t for an English th. 

2. We are told it was formerly Botwerth 
and Botesworth. The final -werth has e 
miswritten for o, as often. Hence Botwerth 
must be set aside. It is further obvious 
that the slight curl, so common for er, has 
been disregarded. Hence the form really 
meant is Boterworth, which is quite right. 
So also Botesworth is an error for Boteres- 
wdrth, which is also quite right. 

3. Next we have the statement that 
buthor is Norse for " bittern." But " bittern " 
is mere French, and the " Norse " form was 
borrowed from it, and is worse than value- 
less. Neither is Butterworth connected with 
bittern in any way. 

4. Next comes the assertion that worth is 
the same word as garth ! 

5. Next we come to the Norse Christian 
name Buthar. But Butter- is English ; 
and I suspect that this " Norse " name 
is merely an English name done into Norse. 

6. Next, " it was often spelt Bot- or Bed- 
worth " ; and *' in Cheshire it was Bud " ! 
And originally it was " Bodder, meaning a 
messenger." But the d is merely a voiced 
form of the older t ; and one would like to 
know in what language this precious bodder 
occurs. The A.-S. for " messenger " was 
boda (with no -er} ; and it is totally irrele- 

7. Then we are referred to an obsolete 
book by Ferguson, the value of which can 
be seen by his quoting " Bod, Bud," as " an 
envoy " ; but the A.-S. was boda, and never 
buda at all. 

And now let us get back to common sense, 
and drop, all misleading guesses. 

We have Derbyshire Butterley ; Wilts 
(as well as Cumb.) Buttermere ; and Line. 
Butterwick. The Wilts name is much more 
likely to be English than Norse. One of the 
Line. Butterwicks (near Boston) is inland ; 
so that the -wick is the English wick, not the 
Norse one. And -worth is English. So 
there is no reason why all the names 
should not be English. After all, England 
is a likely place in which to find English 

In the Inquisitiones post Mortem, which 
often supply better spellings than the 
Anglo-French forms in Domesday Book, I 
find Boterley, &oterwike, Boterwyk, Buter- 
wike ; also Butterley, But termer, Butter- 
wike, Butterworthe. 

The riddle is not difficult. Searle's 
' Onomasticon * tells us that Buterus is a 
(Latinized) personal name in List B in 
Ellis's ' Introduction ' to Domesday Book ; 
and that Boterus (Latinized form of Bot- 
here) occurs in List C in the same. 

Hence the sense is simply " Bot-here's 
farm." I have already explained worth 
three times. See my ' Place-Names ' of 
Cambs, of Herts, and of Hunts. 

Bot is mod. E. boot, profit. Here is the 
A.-S. here, an army. The former appears 
again in Bot-wine, B5t-wulf, &c. ; and the 
latter in Wulf-here, Here-weard, &c. 

Bot becomes " But " in popular pronun- 
ciation. Botulph Lane, Cambridge (from 
Bot-wulf), is called Buttle Lane. 

The -es in the genitive is often preserved, 
but was sometimes dropped, as I have 
shown already. Cf. Botefesworth above. 

49). See the * N.E.D.,' vol. iv. p. 237, 
col. 3, under " fiorin," where the first 
quotation is from W. Richardson, 1809. 
For an account of him and his introduction 
of the grass see ' D.N.B.,' xlviii. 253. 

W. C. B. 

See Britten and Holland, ' Plant Names/ 
1886, p. 183 : 

seedsmen under this name. Prior, p. 78.' 

For pig or swine's grass see pp. 224 and 
229. S. L. PETTY. 

FAMILY (10 S. xi. 308, 395, 490; xii. 56). 
Will TERTIUS kindly say where the history 
of Holt Castle under the Beauchamps, 
which he writes that he is now aware of, 
is to be found ? I should be glad to have 
details of the family beyond those pieced 
together in my communication at the 
penultimate reference. 


BEEZELY (10 S. ix. 269, 338 ; xi. 475 ; 
xii. 57). Probably the explanation of the 
discrepancies is to be found in the following. 

Stephen Whatley's ' England's Gazetteer ' 
was published over 150 years ago (1751). 

I find in the map of Southampton (i.e., 
Hampshire) in Samuel Lewis's ' Topogra- 
phical Dictionary of England,' 1835, vol. iv., 
that there was, when that map was drawn, 
a detached part of Hampshire within the 
borders of Sussex, about 8 miles long from 
north to south, varying in breadth from 

10 s. xii. JULY si, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


about 1 to mile. It is distant from 
Petersfield about 10 miles, and from the 
border of Hampshire proper about 8 miles. 
It is east of the road from Chichester to 
Midhurst and Haslemere. The only place 
which appears in it is South Ambersham, 
which in vol. i. is described thus : 

" A ty thing, in the parish of Steep, hundred of 
East Meon, Alton (South) division of the county 
of Southampton, though locally in the hundred of 
Easebourne, rape of Chichester, county of Sussex, 
2 miles (E. by N.) from Midhurst, containing 
183 inhabitants/' 

The description of ISTorth Ambersham 
(not in the map) is the same, with the 
substitution of E.N.E. for E. by N., and 
121 for 183. 

Lewis's map of Sussex also shows this 
detached piece of Hampshire. I presume 
that it is now nominally as well as actually 
a part of Sussex, as it appears to be accord- 
ing to the Ordnance Survey. 

I regret that in my reply (10 S. xi. 475) 
I misquoted the Times Atlas. After refer- 
ring to the Ordnance Survey, I find that I 
mistook the dot of West Meon for that of 
Petersfield. The Sussex border is, as F. K. P. 
says, about 2 miles east of Petersfield. If 
the explanation which I suggest is the true 
one, then Whatley understated the distance 
of Beesely from Petersfield by about 5 

" ROLLICK " (10 S. xi. 490). The ' E.D.D.' 
gives the word as the equivalent substan- 
tivally of " frolic " (of which it would, 
indeed, appear to be a slight abbreviation), 
and peculiar, so far as instances are cited, 
to the West Yorkshire dialect : " Well, 
well, there 's no sich rollicks now " (Sutcliffe, 
'Moor and Fell,' 1899, 331). Other in- 
stances will be found in the ' H.E.D.' 


xi. 490 ; xii. 13)." All the world and 
Bingham " was used in South Lincolnshire 
as an equivalent, e.g., " * All the world and 
Bingham ' will come to the flower-show." 
I do not think I have ever heard the phrase 
in the sense of everywhere and Bingham. 


xii. 10). This appears to be a variant of 
an old West Riding story. Noah offered a 
passage to a Pudsey man, who declined it 
because the fare was too high. His words 
were : "Thee and thy ark may go to 

, for it's bahn to tak oop." This means 
that the weather would improve. J. J. F. 

THIMBLES (10 S. xi. 66, 116). At the 
atter reference MR. APPERSON says that 
no proof has been given of the existence of 
John Lofting ; but he is mistaken. Lofting 
took out a patent for making thimbles on 
4 April, 1693 (No. 319), and he established a 
manufactory in Great Marlow, where he 
was buried 17 June, 1742, as shown by 
;he parish register. There is a notice of 
lim in the * Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy ' by R. B. P. 

THE EEL-PIE SHOP (10 S. xii. 26). I can 
ust recollect a shop known as a " pie shop " 
still a confectioner's in this town ; but 
.he " pieman " has not wholly disappeared. 
There is only one left now, but he is appa- 
rently doing a good trade, and his cry of 
' Pie-ot ! Pie-ot ! " is very much to be 
leard on market days. His portable oven 
is a smart affair of tin, kept very bright, 
with a copper handle and a bit of green 
:>aize over the top. It has a small charcoal 
crazier, and the gravy is carried in a special 
receptacle. The pies look and smell quite 
appetizing. E. E. STREET. 


WELSH JUDGES (10 S. xii. 28). There is, 
I believe, no printed biographical list of the 
old Welsh judges after the manner of 
Foss's ' Judges of England.' In ' The Book 
of Dignities ' by Haydn, continued up to 
1890, p. 386, there is a list of the Chief 
Justices and of the second or Puisne Justices. 
They are described as " Judges of the Court 
of Session of the County Palatine of Chester, 
&c. From the accession of King James I. 
to the abolition of the Courts in 1830 under 
1 Wm. IV., cap. 70." The &c. means " and 
the Judges of the Courts of Great Sessions 
in the Principality of Wales." See section 
14 of that Act. 

I expect I am stating what SENEX already 
knows. HARRY B. POLAND. 

Inner Temple. 

xi. 449 ; xii. 18). The ' Lincoln Pocket 
Guide,' by Sir Charles Anderson, third 
edition, edited after his death by the Rev. 
A. R. Maddison, Priest -Vicar of Lincoln 
Cathedral (London, Stanford, 1892), has the 
following : 

" About 1290 Richard de Stow, Cementarius, was 

employed to build he is probably the same 

Richard de Gainsborough whose grave is in the 
cloisters." P. 119. . 

"The magnificent sculptures in the choir oi 
angels appear to have been the work of Richard de 
Stow or de Gainsborough, and a band of sculptors, 
whose names have been rescued from oblivion by 
the late Mr. Joseph Hunter." P. 120. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io:s. xn. JULY 31, im 

" The floors [of the cloisters] abound in incised 
gravestones, but they have been terribly smashed 
by timber, &c., which used to be laid there. The 
incised figure and inscription to Richard de Gayns- 
borough, the sculptor, might be easily renewed 
from what still remains." Jr. 151. 

W. B. H. 

xii. 48). In a glossary appended to Mr. 
Henry W. Elliott's monumental Report on 
the Seal Life and Industry of the Prybilov 
Islands, published by the United States 
Government in 1881, and perhaps one of 
the most interesting papers ever issued, 
these terms are applied to the male fur seal 
and sea lion full grown, and to the bachelor 
seals who are herded by themselves, respec- 
tively. They are of Russian origin. The 
last-named category are slaughtered for 


(10 S. xii. 28). One full version of this 
nursery rime will be found in ' Mother 
Goose's Nursery Rhymes ' (Blackie, 1909). 
There are, if I remember rightly, several 
slightly varying versions. The one I gave 
in that collection begins : 

I have four sisters beyond the sea, 

Para-mara, dictum, domine, 
And they did send four presents to me ; 

Partum, quartum, paradise, tempum, 

Para-mara, dictum, domine ! 


This is a variant of the version conserved 
in Halliwell's ' Nursery Rhymes of England,' 
pp. 201, 202. It begins : 

My true love lives far from me, 

Perrie, Merrie, Dixie, Domine. 
Many a rich present he sends to me, 
Petrum, Partum, Paradise, Temporie, 
Perrie, Merrie, Dixie, Domine. 

He sent me a goose, without a bone ; 
He sent me a cherry, without a stone. 
Petrum, &c. 


[Several versions have been forwarded to MB. 

(10 S. viii. 321, 402, 483 ; ix. 24, 122, 264 ; xi. 
472). I am informed by LADY RUSSELL 
that under the will of Robert Pearn of 
Isleworth, 26 Jan., 1757, an annuity of 40Z. 
was given to Mrs. " Hannah Axford, for- 
merly Lightfoot, niece to the late Mr. 
John Jeff ryes, watchmaker in Holborn." 

I shall be obliged to any one who can 
give some particulars of Robert Pearne or 
John Jeffryes. , HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

28). The authors of ' The History of Sign- 
boards ' seem to have thought that this was 
a development of the " Pelican's Nest," in 
which a hen and her brood were generally 
obvious ; and they did suggest that the 

Prevalence of the sign might " be accounted 
Dr by the kindred love for the barleycorn in 
the human and gallinaceous tribes " (p. 178). 


JAMES ISAACSON, M.P. (10 S. xi. 387 ; 
xii. 18). The exact date of his election as 
M.P. for Banbury was 23 July, 1698. After 
his expulsion from the House Sir John Cope, 
Bart., was elected in his place 23 Feb., 
1698-9. See Part I. ' Parliaments of Eng- 
land, 1213-1702' (Blue-book), p. 582. 


CONSTANCE (10 S. xii. 28). In the Council 
Chamber of the Staromestska Radnice (Old 
Town Hall) of Prague there is a famous 
picture by Wenceslaus Brozik representing 
this event, with a companion one of the 
election of King George of Podebrad. 
Brozik, a pupil of Piloty, studied at Prague, 
Dresden, and Paris. Among other works of 
this historical student are ' Embassy of King 
Ladislas to the Court of Charles VII.,' 
* Milton reading " Paradise Lost," ' Prin- 
cess Polyxena of Lobkowitz tending the 
Wounded,' ' Tu felix Austria nube,' &c. M. 
Henri Hantich ( ' Art Tcheque,' p. 10) writes : 
" Brozik ne se preoccupait guere que d'6b- 
louir par la magnificence de decor, 1' extra- 
ordinaire profusion de couleurs eclatantes, 
et les effets de lumiere." 


Streatham Common. 

The original famous painting which was 
engraved some forty years ago is most 
probably the work of Karl Friedrich Lessing, 
' Hus vor dem Konzil,' finished in 1842, and 
preserved at the Stadel Museum, Frankfurt- 
a.-M. I have myself a copy of this fine 
steel engraving. H. KREBS. 

[MR. WALTER JERROLD refers to Brozik's picture.] 

COL. PESTALL (10 S. xii. 29). Col. Pestel 
not Pestall was not an Englishman, but 
a Russian, though of German extraction. 
His father was Governor-General of Siberia. 
He was educated at Dresden, entered the 
Russian army, and took part in wars against 
Napoleon, but afterwards imbibed revolu- 
tionary views, and was hanged in 1826 for 
attempted insurrection. 

I well remember the song alluded to by 
your correspondent ; it was very popular 

iu s. XIL JULY 31, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


about 1849 to 1853, after the suppression of 
the Hungarian insurrection ; but to the 
best of my recollection the name was 
always spelt Pestel. 

38, North Road, Highgate, N. 

An account of Col. Festal and the song 
has been given at 8 S. x. 360. I can remem- 
ber the song being very popular fifty years 
ago. W. C. B. 

[ DIEGO and MR. F. P. MABCHANT also thanked 
for replies.] 

(10 S. xii. 47). Surely Miss HICKEY has 
omitted a couplet : 

Four corners to my bed, 
Four angels guard my head. 

" Guard the bed " in the second line should 
be " bless the bed." 

I have heard both the versions which 
Miss HICKEY gives of the last line, and I 
agree with her in believing that " two 
[angels] to kesp the devil away " is the 
older. G. W. E. R. 

These lines were looked upon as one of 
the little prayers which children should use 
before getting into bed, and in some families 
they were told to children at any rate 
sixty years ago. All my companions, boys 
and girls, said them as follows : 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 

Bless the bed that I lie on : 

Two to watch me and to pray, 

Two to carry my soul away, 

If I should die whilst in my sleep. 

It was upon our minds that Matthew and 
Mark did the watching and praying, Luke and 
John especially John carrying the soul 
away. As I never saw the last line printed 
with the verse, I should say that it might 
be an addition by older heads than ours ; 
yet it was certain to us that without death 
" whilst in my sleep " Luke and John 
would not have a soul to carry away. I am 
just recording some child impressions. 

There is another reading with which I was 
equally familiar, and it is, I think, well 
known everywhere, varying but little in 
the wording : 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 

Bless the bed that I lie on ; 

Four corners to my bed, 

Four angels round my head ; 

One to sing, and one to pray, 

And two to carry my soul away. 

A picture in a child's book of that day 
impressed some of us, I remember, greatly. 
It represented four angels bearing a baby 
away, the uppermost figure carrying the 

baby closely pressed to the breast : this we 
said was John ; the others were Matthew, 
Mark, and Luke. Those were simple days, 
and the equally simple little books of that 
time are treasured memories. 

In romping about we often shouted : 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 

Get a stick an' lay hard on ! 


NUNS AS CHAPLAINS (10 S. xii. 49). I 
dare say PROF. SKEAT will answer MB. 
McGovEBN's question as to Tyrwhitt ; but 
to spare the learned editor of Chaucer's 
works the painful and inaccurate conviction 
that nobody gives heed to the result of his 
labour, I should like to quote his note on 

Another Nonne with hir hadde she 

That was hir chapeleyne, 

as it tends to confirm the views of Dr. 
Jessopp and of Eckenstein : 

' It was not common for Prioresses to have 
female chaplains ; but Littre gives chapelaine, fern., 
as an old title of dignity in a nunnery. Moreover, 
it is an office still held in most Benedictine con- 
vents, as is fully explained in a letter written by 
a modern Nun-Chaplain, and printed in Anglia, 
iv. 238. See also ' N. & Q.,' 7 S. vi. 485; The 
Academy, Aug. 23, 1890, p. 152." 


Dr. Richard Morris, commenting on 11. 
163-4 of Chaucer's 'Prologue,' says: "It 
was not u^ual for Prioresses to have female 
chaplains ; chapeleyne, however, is the 
reading of all the MSS. Did Chaucer write 
chamberleyne ? " 

Dr. H. Frank Heath in ' Social England ' 
(1902), ii. 294, for the nun-chaplaincy 
refers the reader to Sussex Archseol. Soc., 
ix. 15, 'An Episcopal Injunction to the 
Prioress of Easeburn in 1478 ' ; and Dugdale, 
' Mon.,' iii. 415, in a report on Elstow 
Nunnery. A. R. BAYLEY. 

SIONS (10 S. xi. 388, 438). 4. MB. T. 
BAYNE'S allusion to the wooden door-bars 
prompts me to say that Scott refers to these 
fastenings in chaps, iii. and xvi. of ' Wood- 
stock.' At the first reference it is stated 
that the Ranger's apartments at the Royal 
Lodge, Woodstock, 

"opened by a short passage from the hall, secured 
at time of need by two oaken doors, which could be 
fastened by large bars of the same, that were drawn 
out of the wall, and entered into square holes con- 
trived for their reception on the other side of the 

Such or bar as is here described was 
nightly drawn across the back door of my 



father's house at West Haddon, Northamp- 
tonshire, when I was a boy. It was some 
four inches square and about five or six feet 
in length. I recall the fact that one of my 
childish delights was to pull this beam out 
to its full length, and then suddenly shoot 
it back home with all the strength I could 
muster. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

REGISTRATION (10 S. xi. 348). Some kind 
of answer can be got from a consultation of 
A. Jal's great work the ' Dictionnaire 
critique de Biographie,' &c., 1872. He 
copies or quotes hundreds of French certifi- 
cates, which are fuller than the very deficient 
English certificates. The form of the English 
ones must have been settled by a person who 
had no notion of a biographer's require- 
ments. The official part is more than 
ample. However, they are better than 
the old certificates of baptism : officialism 
certainly did not run riot in them. 

Death certificates record the date and 
place of burial ; and if a body is exhumed, 
a note to that effect should be added, just 
as is done if the amount of a probate is 

The most extraordinary thing is the large 
number of deaths of Englishmen that never 
get recorded at all. There are numerous 
instances in Boase's ' Modern English Bio- 
graphy ' : thus in vol. iv. col. 817, under 
Frederick Cruickshank, we read that he first 
exhibited in 1822, and is not in the ' London 
Directory ' after 1860, and never exhibited 
after 1860, but that his death is not regis- 
tered at Somerset House 1858-62. No 
will of his had been proved in England up 
to last year. 

Sir G. E. Campbell, Bt. (Boase, ' M.E.B.,' 
iv. 591), after serving his country in the 
Crimea and other places, eventually died 
in 1899 ; but Mr. Boase tells us his death is 
not recorded at the General Register Office, 
Somerset House. 

Here are two more instances taken from 
' M.E.B.,' vol. v. (not yet published) : 

J. Watson Dalby (b. 1790), of whom there 
is a portrait in The Bibliograph in April, 
1879. Death not registered at Somerset 
House 1879-83. 

Thomas Dalmaine, music publisher, 
b. 1783; d. 1866. Death not, &c., 1864-8. 

The Daily Telegraph had an article 
(29 April, 1907, p. 8, col. 6 ; see also 
30 April, p. 9, col. 1) on unregistered births 
(a very much more inconvenient thing), with 
several curious instances of the trouble 

caused by this omission. In the present 
day few people enter these events in any 
family book, as was so frequently done in 
the last century. I know one case where 
the father not only took the precaution to 
have his son's birth duly registered, but also 
had him christened and vaccinated in case 
he might want to go into the Navy. The 
Royal Navy is certificate mad ! Some 
R.N. ships were at a port in New Zealand, 
and wanted stokers. Plenty of hands 
applied ; but when they were asked to 
produce a certificate of their birth, they 
went away laughing. As the commander 
insisted on this requirement, the ship had 
to depart without the stokers. 


BURSTALL (10 S. xi. 305, 374, 431, 498 ; 
xii. 31). In The Sketch of 23 Oct., 1895, is 
an article headed ' Carriages without Horses.' 
Besides pictures of modern inventions it has 
the following prints : 

1 Squire and Maceroni's Steam-Carriage.' (It was 
apparently built at Squire's factory, Paddington 
Green, in 1833.) 

'Gurney's Steam - Carriage.' (There are two 
similar carriages given, offering side and back views. ) 

Portrait of 'Sir Gouldsworthy Gurney.' ("In 
July, 1829, Gurney made a notable journey with his 
steam-engine from London to Bath, at the rate of 
fifteen miles an hour on the highway.") 

' Gurney's Steam-Carriage approaching Highgate 
Tunnel, 1828.' 

' Gurney's Steam - Carriage as it appeared at 
Hounslow, with a Barouche containing the Duke of 

At the end of the article mention is made 
of an exhibition " now [October, 1895] open 
in Chicago," and "an elaborate portfolio 
illustrating the origin and evolution of the 
methods of transportation of all countries," 
containing about fifteen hundred engravings, 
issued by Mr. Marshall Kirkrnan of Chicago. 

In my reply on p. 31 for " Barstall " read 
Burstall. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Don caster. 

SHOREDITCH FAMILY (10 S. x. 369, 455 ; 
xi. 35). To the references already given 
add the following : ' History of Shoreditch,' 
by Ellis; Visitations of Norfolk 1563 and 
1613, printed by the Harleian Society ; 
and Visitation of Norfolk, printed by the 
Norfolk Arch. Soc., vol. i. 

Your correspondent should also see the 
many references to the Shoreditch family 
of Ickenham in part iii. vol. i. of List of 
Middlesex Deeds, &c., offered for sale by 
Mr. F. Marcham, successor to the late Jas. 

10 s. XIL JULY si, i9oa] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Coleman of Tottenham. Part vi. p. 90 also 
refers to a deed of 1612 relating to land in 
Hoxton in the occupation of Edmond 
Shorediche and others. 

I have frequently noticed the name in 
the Calendars of the P.C.C. 


xi. 296). The use of two shields where the 
husband is knight of an order is probably not 
much older than Edmondson's book (1780). 
In the 1724 edition of Guillim there is no 
allusion to it. In a short treatise on heraldry 
appended to ' The British Compendium, 
or Rudiments of Honour,' 1723, I find it 
suggested, on the authority of Sandford, 
that in the case of Knights of the Garter, 
if the shield shows the wife's arms impaled, 
the Garter should not surround, as usual, 
the whole shield, but only the husband's 
dexter half (see p. 539) : " The husband 
may give the equal share of the Escutcheon 
and hereditary Honour, yet cannot share his 
temporary order of Knighthood with her." 

According to Edmondson, the second 
shield bore the lady's arms alone. In this 
he was followed by Hugh Clark, whose 
manual was first published in 1810. A 
nineteenth edition was issued so late as 1891, 
edited by J. R. Planche, the well-known 
member of the Heralds' College, and gives 
the same rule. Boutell, however, says the 
second shield should bear the conjoint 
arms of husband and wife. Mr. Fox- 
Davies, whose 'Art of Heraldry' (1905) 
is the most recent and comprehensive 
work on the subject, says the same. Their 
view seems more in accordance with the 
general principle that a married lady, unless 
a peeress, cannot bear a shield (or lozenge), 
but can only show her arms on her husband's 
shield or the second of his two shields. MR. 
UDAL would infer that if she has an order, 
she, bj- parity of reasoning, may bear a 
separate shield with her own arms only, 
surrounded by the insignia of her order, 
and that this shield, or perhaps lozenge, 
may even precede the shield showing the 
conjoint arms. 

1 see no parity of reasoning between the 
case of a peeress and a lady with a merely 
personal distinction ; even the peeress is 
not entitled to precedence for her lozenge. 
It is borne after the husband's shield, or 
the two shields if he is a knight. Again, 
there are no insignia to surround her shield. 
Neither the Victoria and Albert Order nor 
the Crown of India has a collar, nor can they 

have a circlet, for the knight's circlet with 
motto is derived from the roundel of his 
star and badge. 

Married ladies who are not peeresses in 
their own right or peeresses married to 
commoners cannot display their badges 
on a lozenge during their husbands' lifetime. 
As a matter of practice I find Mr. Fox- 
Davies at p. 317 gives the arms of the 
Marquis of Dufferin. There the dexter 
shield shows his collars and badges ; the 
sinister, in a laurel wreath with his wife's 
arms impaled, shows her badges. But at 

E. 380 we ? find the arms of Sir Richard 
trachey, 'with the two shields accole. 
There the second shield does not show the 
badge of the Crown of India, to which Lady 
Strachey was entitled. The arms of the 
Duke and Duchess of Fife (p. 115) show the 
V.A. badge on the second shield, but not on 
the lozenge. These both bear her arms 
alone, royal arms not being impaled by an 
inferior in rank. The royal achievement 
(pi. xxvi.) shows the Queen's badges both 
on her shield and her lozenge. 

Mr. G. W. Eve in his ' Decorative Heraldry ' 
says the practice varies. Probably it does 
artistically, if not according to strict rule. 

J. W. MUIR. 
Moorlynch, Bournemouth. 

173). In this part there prevails an old 
saying which tells us : " One sneeze betokens 
somebody praising you ; two sneezes signify 
somebody spiting you ; three sneezes mean 
you are being loved by some one unknown ; 
but four sneezes point out that you have 
just caught a deadly cold." Compare with 
this the following : 

"In Herman's 'Vulgaria,' 1519, we read: 'Two 
or three neses be holsom ; one is a shrewd token.' 
Howell records a proverb : * He has sneezed thrice ; 
turn him out of the hospital.'" Hazlitt, 'Faiths 
and Folk-lore,' 1905, vol. ii. p. 554. 

In his ' Kiyu Shdran,' written c. 1800, 
ed. Tokyo, 1882, torn. viii. fol. 11, Kitamura 
Shinsetsu argues that both the Japanese 
and the Chinese primordially regarded 
sneezing as a sign that some one is affection- 
ately calling the sneezer to mind ; but the 
people of India found in it an evil prognostic 
even as early as in the Buddha's lifetime. 
That later the Chinese viewed sneezing as 
sometimes auspicious, sometimes ominous, 
is to be gathered from the ' Bibliography of 
the Han Dynasty ' (the dynasty continued 
from 202 B.C. to 7 A.D.), wherein mention 
is made of the sixteen ' Books of Fortune- 
telling from Sneezing, Tingling in the Ear, 
&c.,' all now lost. The ' Ti-kuig-king-wuh- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 31, im 

lio,' 1635, says that one is sure to have a 
disease should he happen to sneeze in bed 
very early on New Year's morning, and 
instantly to spring out of bed is the only 

Further, quoting a poem from an anthology 
compiled in 905 A.D., Kitamura proves that 
the Japanese about that period used to put 
off starting on a journey when one happened 
to hear even a neighbour sneeze. This 
reminds us of the Tongans, who hold a 
sneeze on the setting out of an expedition 
a most evil presage (Mariner, ap. Tylor, 
'^Primitive Culture,' 3rd American ed., 
vol. i. p. 99) ; and of the various indigenous 
tribes of Formosa, who stop a while, or alter 
their direction, or even desist from the enter- 
prise, whenever sneezing occurs on their 
march in hunting, &c. (Y. In6, ' Sneezing 
Superstitions of the Formosan Aborigines,' 
The Journal of the Anthropological Society 
of Tokyo, No. 270, p. 465, Sept., 1908). 
According to Sei Shonagon (fl. c. 1000 A.D.), a 
Court lady celebrated for her wit, the 
Japanese of her time believed sneezing early 
on New Year's morning to be an unfailing 
indication of longevity, which is diametrically 
opposed to the Chinese opinion mentioned 
above. In the fourteenth and subsequent 
centuries it became an established custom 
with the Japanese nurse to utter " Kusame " 
every time the child she was suckling 
sneezed, calling this act " to harmonize 
the noses " the word " Kusame " being 
apparently a contraction of a charm, 
" Kusoku mammei ! " ("Rest in peace for 
a myriad generations ! ") Also, every child 
of high birth had its protecting sword 
adorned with the so-called " nose-cord," 
a blue cord, about thirteen inches long, in 
which a knot had to be quietly tied by the 
attendant on every occasion of its sneezing 
evidently to avoid disturbing the little 
one by the noises of " harmonizing the 
noses." Even nowadays Japan does not 
entirely lack old-fashioned folks who, after 
every sternutation, pronounce the formula 
" Toku Manzai ! " (" Live a myriad years ! ") 


Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

xi. 109, 193). MR. FINNY will see from the 
late Rev. Dr. Woodward's ' Ecclesiastical 
Heraldry' (1894), p. 197, that suffragan 
bishops (or chorepiscopi) appointed under 
the Acts 26 l^Eenry VIII. and 1 Elizabeth 
are entitled to use only their paternal arms, 
enshrined with the mitre. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W.I. 

4, 155, 237, 329, 418, 436). Since con- 
tributing my former reply on this subject 
(viii. 156) I have met with two other London 
references to the name which may be deemed 
worthy of mention in these pages. Both are 
contemporary with Shakespeare. 

My earliest reference is of date 1571, 
and refers to a workman who figures in a 
bill for bricklaying operations then per- 
formed for the parish of SS. Anne and Agnes. 
This man bore the singularly feminine- 
sounding name of Hamleta Deane (not 
" Hamlet-a-Deane," apparently, as might 
be supposed). 

My second reference is from a Vicar- 
General's faculty of 1608 referring to the 
parish church of St. Sepulchre, the curate 
whereof was then named Hamlett Marshall. 

HEALEN PENNY (10 S. xi. 507). This 
was probably " healing gold," i.e., gold given 
by the King collectively, in the ceremony 
of touching for the evil. The individual 
coin with a hole in it for suspending round 
the neck would no doubt be known as a 
healing penny (see Pegge's ' Anecdotes of 
Old Times,' iii. 163). 

Halliwell-Phillipps alludes to " Privy-purse 
healing gold, 500Z.," mentioned in a Treasury 
Warrant dated 17 Nov., 1683, in his own 
possession (' Archaic Words '). 


MR. PETER may like to compare his items 
with the following note from the church- 
wardens' accounts of St. Michael's, Worcester, 
transcribed by Mr. Richard Murray, but 
not yet printed : 

1684. "Feb. 16 for the King's proclamation 

about the healing, the K s Heill, and the Arch- 
bishop's directions about the feast of St. Mathias." 

In the churchwardens' accounts of the 
parish of Northfield, Worcestershire, which 
have been very instructively edited by 
Mr. Frank S. Pearson (see Transactions of 
Birmingham Archceological Society for 1908, 
vol. xxxiv.), there occurs the item : 

1683. "Paid to the Parriter about the King's 
Evill, Is. Id." 


One William Clargenet was a Yorkshire 
Catholic priest in prison in 1588 (Cath. Rec, 
Soc. v. 155, 157, 161), and banished in 
1606 (Challoner's 'Missionary Priests,' ii 
29). I suppose this is the same name. 


10 s. XIL JULY si, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Recollections of a Long Life. By Lord Broughton 
(John Cam Hobhouse). With Additional Ex- 
tracts from his Private Diaries. Edited by his 
Daughter, Lady Dorchester. 2 vols. With 
Portraits. (John Murray.) 

A * NOTE BY THE PUBLISHER' begins this book, 
explaining that Lord Broughton printed in the 
sixties, but did not publish, his ' Recollections of a 
Long Life,' in five volumes, and that he also left a 
large number of diaries and MSS., as well as various 
published volumes, of which the 'Letters from 
Paris during the Last Reign of Napoleon' (1816) 
is the best known. Lady Dorchester, Mr. Murray 
explains, " taking the early part of the five volumes 
as a basis, has, with much labour, consideration, 
and research, incorporated therewith portions of 
the Diaries and a few extracts from the above- 
named published works. These various sources are 
indicated throughout, and it is hoped that the 
Reminiscences as they now stand may prove of 
value and interest to the public." 

The two resultant volumes are certainly the most 
interesting contribution to history and biography 
that we have seen this year, and the Preface by 
Lord Rosebery sufficiently indicates what sort of 
man Hobhouse was a hero- worshipper who was 
strongly attracted by two great men, Byron and 

But one interesting question raised by the account 
of Hobhouse in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy ' is not settled here. His ' Diaries, Corre- 
spondence and Memoranda, &c.,' deposited in the 
British Museum, were, it is said, first opened, in 
accordance with the bequest, in 1900. Have these 
latest sources been used or not ? Perhaps they are 
to be utilized for a further volume, as those before 
us go down only to 1822. As for the editing, para- 
graphs headed ' Book ' interposed in matter from 
diaries do not explain in many cases what book of 
Hobhouse's is meant ; there is some repetition of 
facts e.g., concerning Erskine which might have 
been avoided ; and the notes on persons, accurate 
as far as they go, might well have been improved 
by an expert student of the period. 

There is a great deal of detail included concern- 
ing politics and ministers whose actions have been 
discussed in many books of memoirs. We should 
have been inclined to reduce the volumes by large 
omissions of such matter, though there are inte- 
resting glimpses of men like Fox and Sheridan not 
attainable elsewhere. 

We are willing to read some dull pages for the 
sake of the many striking things which the volumes 
contain. Hobhouse had a keen ear for other people's 
notable sayings, and his frankness concerning his 
own merits and position is decidedly entertaining. 
As Lord Rosebery points out, he invented the 
phrase "His Majesty's Opposition"; he lived "a 
busy, strenuous life"; and he never lacked enter- 
prise and courage when the interests of his friends 
and constituents were at stake. 

The daily papers have already given much of the 
appreciation of famous men which these well- 
printed volumes offer, but we propose to mention 
tor one reason or another a few notable comments 
or passages which have struck us in the course of a 
careful reading. 

In his early years, Hobhouse was sent to a school 
at Bristol, which, he adds, " became the residence 
of men afterwards much celebrated I allude to 
Coleridge, and Southey, and Lamb." Surely .the 
last name involves an error. Was Elia ever resident 
at Bristol, or any of the Lamb family which gave 
the world of politics and politeness Lord Mel- 
bourne ? 

Many references to Byron show enthusiasm, and 
it was not confined to his chief worshipper, the 
diarist of these pages. In 1810 under March 11 is 
recorded : 

" Mrs. Werry actually cut off a lock of Byron's 
hair on parting from him to-day, and shed a good 
many tears. Pretty well for fifty-six years at least." 

In 1812 Hobhouse met a son of Bozzy, James 
Boswell, who agreed that " Ellenborough was like 
Johnson in his way of poking out his sentences at 
the corner of his forehead," a picturesque, but 
rather odd expression. 

There is much criticism of Sheridan, whose jests 
and stories do not seem to us very exhilarating. 
Here is an oddity, however, which is at least ben 
trovato : 

"Mr. Sheridan tolcl us of Mr. Richard Cavendish, 
who had a trick of swinging his arm round when 
talking, that, walking up Bond Street with a friend, 
he found, on stopping, that he had drawn seven 
hackney coaches to him." 

Sheridan also heard Burke say of the North 
American Indians, "They enjoy the highest boon 
of Heaven, supreme and perpetual indolence." 

The second volume opens with 1816. Hobhouse 
travels with Byron and others. At Malines W. 
said that a piece of sculpture was " nullse magiiaa 
quassationes." At Chamouni Byron defaced with 
great care Shelley's addition to his own name, in a 
travellers' book, of atheist and philanthropist in 
Greek. He thought to do Shelley a service by this,. 
and his action was distorted by literary gossipers. 
A visit to Madame de Stae'l introduced Bonstetten, 
an inmate of her house. He was in vigorous old 
age, and proud of his earlier connexion with Gray. 
We find the comment : 

" He said to Polidori and Lord Byron : ' I believe 
that Gray had been killed by Johnson's criticism ' 
that is, by a criticism which recorded his death ! " 

This is not clear to us. It seems probable that 
Bonstetten meant that Gray's reputation as a poet, 
had been killed by Johnson's unfavourable criticism 
in the ' Lives of the Poets,' which, Boswell tells us, 
raised a clamour. Bonstetten, it may be noted, is. 
described on this same page as "not talking 
English, but apparently understanding it." So 
Hobhouse may have misunderstood what he said. 

In 1819 Hobhouse was committed to Newgate by 
the House of Commons for writing a pamphlet 
which was a libel and a breach of privilege, and in 
1820 he took his seat in the House, and "continued 
a member of that assembly, with the exception of a 
year and a quarter, for thirty years " 

Of classical quotation in the'House we read : 

" When I first came into Parliament Latin quota- 
tions were very common, and Horace especially 
was most unmercifully brought into play. A very 
respectable county member actually hazarded the- 
justum et tenacem propositi virum, and no one even 
smiled, much less laughed. Such small erudition 
would now be received with shouts of laughter. Of 
course, with dexterity, a well-known phrase may 
be introduced, but even this requires more than 


NOTES AND QUERIES, rio s. xn. JULY 31, im 

common prudence. Lord Chatham began one of 
his sentences, 'Your Lordships have all read 
Thucydides,' and then proceeded to quote in a 
translation the passage he wanted. I much 
doubt whether Lord Chatham himself had ever 
read the original historian ; but the House of Lords 
seldom laughs." 

Hobhouse himself shows ample signs of that 
knowledge of the classics which used to be the hall- 
mark of a gentleman. 

Pages 191 to 366 are occupied with a long account 
of the separation of Lord and Lady Byron, a subject 
we do not care to reopen. 

We have left to the reader the large store of 
remarks and criticism concerning Napoleon. All 
is of high interest, but the warning should be added 
that Hobhouse's authorities have been sifted, and 
in some cases discredited, by modern scientific 
research concerning the hero ot Elba, the Hundred 
Days, and St. Helena. 

The volumes are printed in admirable type. 
There are a few odaities in spelling here and 
there which may be purposely retained. " Ginic 
du Christianisme" by Chateaubriand (ii. 28) seems 
certainly wrong. Reproductions of four portraits 
are given ; and there is a good index. 

The Faerie Queen. By Edmund Spenser. 2 vols. 

(Cambridge University Press.) 

No poem has better right to tine apparel than ' The 
Faerie Queen ' : a luxurious page is apt to encourage 
that dignified and leisurely state of mind in which 
great epics and romances can be best enjoyed ; the 
sumptuousness of the two volumes prepared by the 
Camoridge University Press implies, therefore, a 
sound appreciation of their contents. Assuredly 
all parsimonious thoughts have been banished from 
the minds of the publishers, nor is it money only 
that has been lavished on the fine quartos before 
us. The editing appears to be excellent, which is 
more than can be said for many of the reprints that 
have come from the same press. The first six 
books follow the 1596 quarto, the fragment of the 
seventh is from the 1609 folio ; in both cases the 
texts have been scrupulously respected, though 
misprints have been corrected with judicious zeal. 

The present reviewer has but two objections to 
raise : in the first place, the volumes are ponderous ; 
had the work been divided into four or even six 
slim quartos it would certainly have been more 
manageable, and therefore, we believe, more accept- 
able ; in the second place, the reviewer must vent 
a long-standing grievance against the types selected 
by the University Press. In this case it is too 
black and heavy, and tends to diminish the spacious 
aspect of the page ; the conformation of the letters 
is somewhat archaic, yet lacks the lineal beauty of 
Elizabethan print ; while, occasionally, we seem to 
detect the faint influence of Kelmscott extrava- 
gances : the foot margins should have been wider. 
In fact, both in printing and form the work leaves 
room for improvement, and might have been 
bettered had the editors paid closer attention to 
the beautiful, though double-columned edition of 

Nevertheless, those who propose to read or re- 
read ' The Faerie Queen ' may be advised to provide 
themselves with' these handsome, yet workmanlike 
volumes. Only they must provide themselves with 
some sort of book-rest also, for Spenser is essen- 
tially a poet to be perused from a comfortable 

' The Inns of Court. Painted by Gordon Home. 

Described by Cecil Headlam. (A. & C. Black.) 
THE illustrations are presumably the chief reason 
for the publication of this volume. Mr. Gordon 

j Home has done justice to a fascinating subject, 
though he sometimes invests ancient buildings with 

j a spick-and-span appearance that they have long 
since ceased to wear, and places them under a 
Venetian rather than a London sky. He is par- 
ticularly happy with his interiors, notably that of 
Middle Temple Hall ; and by judiciously choosing 
the hour of twilight he has even treated the hideous 
library of that Inn with the touch of romance. 

Mr. Cecil Headlam's letterpress does not help out 
Mr. Gordon Home's paintings in an altogether 
satisfactory manner. It lays claim to no originality 
of material, and a meagre list of authorities fails 
to include 'The Lives of the Norths,' the book that 
gives by far the most vivid idea of the Bar after 
the Restoration. Still, Mr. Headlam's text would 
have served its purpose, if only it had been purged 
of sundry errors. Thus, though there are more 
ways than one of spelling the name of the 
Duchess of Portsmouth, the favourite of Charles II.. 
she was certainly not " Louise Ren^ede Perrincourt 
de Queronaille." Lord Mansfield's house, which the 
Gordon rioters sacked, was in Bloomsbury Square, 
not in Lincoln's Inn Fields ; and in 1870, Lord 
Hatherley, not Lord Westbury, was Lord Chan- 
cellor. The account of the Inns of Chancery is 
scrappy and incomplete. Mr. Headlam omits any 
mention of a certain "mad Shallow" in connexion 
with Clement's Inn, and of Mr. William Weir, whose 
throat "they cut from ear to ear," in the few lines 
he devotes to Lyon's Inn. Of that dingy establish- 
ment we read, not a little to our surprise, that it 
disappeared "in the course of the recent Strand 
improvements." As a matter of fact Lyon's Inn 
was demolished early in the sixties, and the Globe 
Theatre rose on part of the site. 

t0 (ffomspontonts. 

We. must call special attention to the following 
notices . 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

J. A. GREENWOOD ("Ram Jam Inn"). See 
58. iii. 246; 6 S. i. 414; ii. 49, 116; 7 S. vi. 427; 
vii. 92, 243. 

10 s. xii. JULY si, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


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Author of 'John Francis and The Athenceum' 


His father and mother His education His first poem" King of the College "Joins Edward Hewitt 
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Lament' List of his contributions to the 'Dictionary of National Biography' Writes Life of 
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T. FISHER UN WIN: London, Adelphi Terrace ; Leipsic, Inselstiasse 20, 

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Edited by Sir JAMES MURRAY. Published July 1. Vol. VIII. Double Section, S SAUCE, by Dr. BRADLEY. 

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CONTENTS.-No. 293. 

NOTES : ' Horae Subsecivae,' 1620, 101 Bibliographical 
Terms, 103 Inscriptions from Kingston, Jamaica, 105 
Balloons and Flying Machines Historiographers Royal 
Latin Poem of Robert Burton, 106 'Taxatio Eccle- 
siastica Nicholai IV.' George Selwyn's Fondness for 
Executions Gilt Gingerbread, 107. 

QUERIES : Words and Phrases in Old American News- 
papers, 107 Louis XVIII.'s Queen and Westminster 
Abbey High Wycombe Van Dyck Edmund, Baron de 
Harold Bullingdon Club Belcher Family Neil and 
Natt Gow W. H. Coffin in Abyssinia, 108 Windows 
from Church at Trier Authors Wanted ' British Con- 
troversialist' John Parr, Embroiderer Company 
Spoons " If two and two make four," 109 " Googlie " 
Barton Grammar School Constitution Hill : Parliament 
Hill Lady Ursula Epitaph, 110. 

REPLIES : Nimbus, 110" Coffee," 111 The Parker Con- 
secration Baughan : Boffin March etti Collection of 
Drawings. 112 The Storm Ship" Bosting "Miss La 
Roche Mysterious Naval Foe,113 Statues and Memorials 
in the British Isles London : the Name Eliza Fenning's 
Execution Schopenhauer in English "Te Igitur" 
Engraving by J. G. Will, 115 Authors of Quotations 
Wanted Hengler's Circus "The" prefixed to Place- 
Names " Between you and I," 116 "The Evils," Field- 
Name "Tudor" spelt "Tydder" "Chops of the 
Channel "Polly Kennedy, 117" One shoe off and one 
shoe on " " The Scomer upon the Hope" Flint Pebbles 
at Brighton Thackeray Arab Sheikh Nefzaoni - Jews 
in Fiction Glamorgan " Taff y-on-a-Stick " Paine's 
Remains Saints' Satisfaction, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Westminster Abbey Muniments- 
Mrs. Gaskell's ' North and South.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

SUBSECIV^E,' 1620. 

IN the year 1620 a small octavo volume 
of anonymous essays appeared in London. 
The title-page reads as follows: 

Horae Subsecivse 



Printed for Edward Blount, and are to 

be sold at his shop in Pauls Churchyard 

at the signe of the Black Beare. 


This little book bears no external mark 
of its authorship, yet I think that a careful 
reading of its contents clearly reveals the 
creator whose identity is masked. A short 
address to the reader by Edward Blount, 
the publisher, follows the title-page, but 
gives no clue other than a denial by Blount 
of any share in the work. "I take not 
upon mee," he says, 

"to write either in the praise, or discommenda- 
tion of this Booke ; it belongs not unto me ; 
but now it is abroad, must wholly bee sub- 

mitted to your judgment and censure The 

Author of the Booke I know not ; but by chance 
hearing that a friend of mine had some such 
papers in his hand, and having heard them 
commended, I was curious to see and reade 
them over ; and in my opinion (which was also 
confirmed by others, judicious and learned) 
supposed if I could get the Copie, they would 
be welcome abroad. My friends courtesie 
bestowed it freely upon me, and my endevour to 
give you contentment caused mee to put it in 

So much for Blount's denial that he wrote 
the book. He goes on to say : " The 
Booke, you see, is of mixt matter, by the 
way of observations, or Essays, and Dis- 
courses." Here we have a use of the word 
" essays " which was previously only to be 
found in Bacon and Montaigne. Bacon and 
this anonymous writer, then, are the only 
men of their time to use this word in the 
sense of brief dissertations on some theme 
of manners or morals. 

The book consists of twelve ' Observa- 
tions,' or essays, and four ' Discourses.' 
The titles of the twelve essays suggest 
those of another contemporary writer. 
Thus we have essays here ' Of Arrogance,' 
' Of Ambition,' ' Of Affectation,' ' Of De- 
traction,' ' Of Selfe-will,' ' Of Masters and 
Servants,' ' Of Expences,' ' Of Visitations,' 
' Of Death,' ' Of a Country Life,' ' Of 
Religion,' and * Of Reading History.' Several 
of these titles are found in the Essays of 
Bacon, while all of these subjects are treated 
by him, there or elsewhere, in more or less 

It may be worth recalling the dates of 
publication of Bacon's Essays. The editio 
princeps appeared in 1597, and was reissued 
in the following year. This edition con- 
tained ten essays, including papers entitled 
' Of Followers and Friends,' ' Of Expense,' 
and ' Of Honour and Reputation.' A 
fresh edition appeared in 1612, and con- 
tained thirty new essays, including papers 
entitled ' Of Seeming Wise,' ' Of Ambition,' 
' Of Death,' and ' Of Religion.' At last, in 
1625, the final English text appeared with 
eighteen new essays. ' Horae Subsecivae ' 
was published, as I have said, in 1620, eight 
years after the first revision of Bacon's 
Essays, and five years before the second. 
It is well that this order should be kept in 

* Horse Subsecivae ' opens with an essay 
' Of Arrogance.' " Arrogance," the author 

" is the assuming to a man's selfe, the Titles of 
Virtue, Learning, Honour, Riches, or the like, 
without the possession, or (if with the possession; 
without the evidence." 



The author quotes inaccurately from the 
Latin, much as Bacon does, and then pro- 
ceeds to translate his quotations. He 
illustrates his argument with many historical 
allusions, as, for instance, to Cincinnatus 
called to be dictator. He recalls a fable, 
and puts his own fanciful construction on 
it, much as Bacon does. He is fond of 
aphorisms, and they sound to us like those 
of the Lord Chancellor. Listen to this, for 
example : 

" Such a nature can hardly hold friendship, 
that admitteth not the Filler thereof, which is 
Parity, but thinks himself superior to all, if not 
in Fortune (at which he therefore grudges, 
taunts her with her blindnesse, and rayles at 
her with Apothegmes), yet hi all other worth and 

Bacon realizes the principle of parity, and 
tells how princes craving friendship had 
found it necessary to elevate a subject 
nearly to their own estate. 

Our parallel between Bacon and this 
unknown author becomes most striking 
when we come to the essay ' Of Ambition,' 
for here we have a similar essay by Bacon 
with which we may compare it. Here 
again we find many aphorisms, astonishing 
us with their pregnant meaning, and pointing 
unmistakingly to the name of their author. 
We find a fondness for curious simile, a 
love of balance, inaccurate quotation of 
Scripture, and many other Baconian cha- 
racteristics. Let me quote two or three 
passages : 

" Phauorinus, speaking of these kind men, 
said they were eyther ridiculous, or hatefull, or 
miserable. Aspiring ambitiously to places beyond 
their worth makes them scorned : obtaining, 
hated : and missing of their hopes, wretched." 

" If the current of their Ambition bee once 
stopped, like an impetuous torrent, it beates and 
breakes the banks, growes dangerous, and many 
times causes inundations. Therefore, Princes 
respects, if they be fixed upon such natures, are 
tyed, not only to a continuation, but service. 
So that these dispositions should bee avoyded, if 
discovered, sequestred from employment, as 
pernicious and incendiary." 

Does not this sound very much like the 
way in which Bacon talks to King James 
in his essays about certain obnoxious 
Buckinghams and Somersets ? So the Lord 
Chancellor writes : 

" Ambition, if it be stopped, cannot have his 
way, becometh adust, and thereby malign and 
venomous. So ambitious men, if they finde the 
way open for their rising, and still get forward, 
they are rather busy than dangerous ; but if 
they be check*t in their desires, they become 
secretly discontent, and looke upon Men and 
matters with an Evill Eye ; and are best pleased 
when things goe backward, which is the worst 

propertie in a Servant of a Prince or State. 
Therefore, it is good for princes, if they use* 
ambitious men, to handle it so, as they be still 
retrograde ; which because it cannot be without 
Inconvenience, it is good not to use such natures 
at all." 

The following sentence has, I think, the 
Baconian ring : 

"It is a strange insinuating affection, for 
whosoever is once therewith possessed, neither 
Reason, nor Impediment, nor Impossibility, can 
stay his mad desires." 

Our author proceeds to draw illustrations 
of this from Nebuchadnezzar, Sylla and 
Marius, Pompey and Caesar. All this is very 
characteristic of Bacon. 

Here is a paragraph which shows a fond- 
ness for antithesis as great as Bacon's : 

" It [Ambition] is in a kinde the ape or imitater 
of Charity, said a Father ; for Charity endures all 
things for Eternall, Ambition for Transitory 
happinesse. That is liberall to the poore, this to 
the rich. The one suffers for Verity, the other 
for Vanity. So they both believe all things, and 
hope for all things, but in a different kinde." 

Is not a book which contains such gems as- 
this worthy of being reprinted ? Yet no- 
edition of it has been issued for three cen- 

The unknown author abhors selfishness- 
and conceit : 

"It is a dangerous thing for men to love too- 
much, or think too well of themselves. The 
Self -lover is the Arch- flatterer." 

This is intensely characteristic of Bacon. 
No one would call him an ardent lover who- 
read his essay ' Of Love,' and his words on 
self-love echo those of our anonymous 
philosopher. Thus Bacon writes in the 
essay ' Of Praise ' : 

" If he be a cunning Flatterer, he will follow 
the Arch- flatterer, which is a Man's selfe." 

And again : 

" There is no such flatterer as a man's self." 
And once in the essay ' Of Love ' : 

" The Arch-flatterer with whom all the petty 
flatterers have intelligence is a man's self." 

Two more quotations from the essay 
must suffice us : 

" If a man seeke or labour to attain favour,, 
and preferment, with this onely intention, that 
by that way, he may have better meanes to doe 
good, to reduce ill Custome to the most ancient 
and commendable formes, and to amend breaches,, 
or intrusions, or decayes, with particular respect 
to this, without the least tincture of vaineglory,. 
or any other self e -desire, this kind of Ambition I 
admit as a Vertue, and in this case, I allow it 
to be generous." 

Was not this the way in which Bacon ever 
sought to justify his own ambition ? His 
aim was ever to attain power that he might 
use it for the reform of politics and the 

10 s. XIL AUG. 7, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


advancement of learning. And this is th 
thought uppermost in the mind of our 
essayist, for the essay closes with the 
following paragraph : 

" To conclude, men that have good aymes anc 
ends in aspiring are not so expressly Votaries tc 
the Publique, as that they be secluded (bj 
honest and just wayes, free from scandall, impor 
tunitie, vexation, and tax), even by the meanes 
of the present favour, and place they enjoy, to 
raise or encrease their Fortunes, to honor anc 
advance their Posteritie, so it bee done wit! 
moderation, and modes tie." 

In the essay ' Of Detraction ' we find 
more than one passage of such nobility as 
the following : 

" They [detractors] are the very moths, that 
corrupt and canker in every Commonwealth ; 
how they worke, and weare, and eate into every 
man's good name, experience witnesseth. They 
bee of a poysonous quality, and devourers of 
men's reputations, and, therefore, aptly described 
by the Psalmist, Their throate is an open Sepul- 
cher, with their tongues have they deceived, the 
poyson of Asps is under their lips. A sepulchre, 
indeede : for men's fames and good reports are 
in a manner buried in those graves, their deceit- 
full tongues are the instruments, and the poyson 
under their lips are materialls, by which so much 
mischief e is wrought." 

There are many Baconian echoes in the 
essay ' Of Masters and Servants.' Witness, 
for example, such a sentence as the follow- 
ing : 

" In dispatch numbers ever breed confusion, 
where affaires bee alike, and equally distributed." 
And again : 

"In this domination that Masters have over 
their Servants, two extremes are to be avoided, 
Severitie and Facilitie. One makes them to feare, 
the other to presume too much. The first brings 
them too neere the nature of Bondmen ; the 
second, of Fellowes. This breeds hate, that 
contempt. But observe the golden mediocritie, 
both to command, and not to be feared, to be 
familiar and not scorned." 

When we come to the essay ' Of Expences,' 
it is again easy to institute a parallel with 
Bacon's essay on the same topic. The very 
opening of the essay not only imitates 
Bacon's style, but also repeats a division 
of expenses which he has made. " Ex- 
pences," says our author, 
" doe naturally divide themselves into actions 

E Honour, Charity, and Necessitie : the first 
requires a Great man : the second a Good man : 
the third is common to both. Honourable ex- 
pences bee commendable : Charitable, religious : 
and JNecessarie, forced. The first addes respects : 
the second, love : and the last, shewes our human 
frailty. Inaptitude to the former, shewes a man 
to be of a poore and ignoble spirit : backward - 
nesse in the next, expresseth an Atheisticall and 
heathenish nature : and not promptnesse to the 
third, argues a most perverse and covetous 

Bacon's essay opens with this declara- 
tion : 

" Riches are for spending ; and spending for 
honour and good actions." 

Here we have two of the three divisions above 
Honour and Charity and the third divi- 
sion, Necessity, is treated soon after under 
the name of Ordinary Expenses. Listen, 
now, to the opening of Bacon's essav ' Of 
Studies ' : 

" Studies serve for delight, for ornament and 
for ability. Their chiefe use, for delight, is in 
privatenesse and retiring ; for ornament, is in 
discourse ; and for ability, is in the judgment 
and disposition of businesse." 

And soon after : 

" To spend too much time in studies is sloth ; 
to use them too much for ornament is affectation ; 
to make judgment wholly by their rules is the 
humour of a scholler." 

And so on. Both writers, then, if there are 
two, are fond of this same threefold con- 
struction, which adds such force and com- 
pactness to an aphorism. The subject of 
Bacon's essay is well summed up in the 
following sentence from the ' Horae Sub- 
secivse ' : 

" Expences should ever be limited according; 
to the occasion, and our own ability." 

116, Charles Street, Boston, Mass. 

(To be concluded.) 


(See 10 S. x. 81, 484; xi. 82, 184.) 
Palindrome. A name, verse, or sentence 
that reads the same when the letters com- 
posing it are taken in the reverse order : 
that reads the same backwards or forwards, 
see the ' O.E.D.,' the first instance in which 
is dated 1629. It seems clear that no one 
could make an ananym out of a palindrome, 
as, for example, out of the name Hannah. 
A pseudonym might be made of it, as Nahnah 
or Hanhan. Ogilvie's dictionary represents 
Adam politely introducing himself to Eve 
in a palindrome, thus : " Madam, I 'm 
Adam.'' Wanted, Eve's reply in a palin- 

Pharmaconym. The name of a substance 
>r material taken as a proper name, as 
Silverpen [Miss Meteyard], H. p. 120. 

Trognon de chou [Barre, dessinateur de 
^ille]. "Trognon de chou" (stump or 
(talk of a cabbage) is called a pseudonym 
)y Querard, but Pierquin gives it as an 
ns ance of a pharmaconym. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. no s. xu. AUG. 7, 1909. 

Phraseonym. A phrase used instead of 
a proper name, as A member of the Estab- 
lished Church [Sir John Bayley, Bt.] : 
H. p. 12. 

Videbemus (i.e. we shall see), Joannes 
{J. A. S. Collin de Plancy]. 

Phrenodemonym (see demonym). A 
pseudonym that means something, with 
qualification added. 

Phrenogeonym (see geonym). Pseudo- 
nym that means something with the country 

Example : An English opium-eater [T. De 
Quincey] : H. p. 15. 

Phrenonym. Any word or phrase that 
means or expresses something ; moral 
quality taken for a proper name. 

Examples : ' The Corporation Register 
and Civic- and Parochial Reporter,' by Edward 
Search [W. H. Ashurst : b. 1792, d. 1855]. 
This periodical, advocating reforms in the 
-city of London, has no date, but was pub- 
lished in 1832 in 8vo. No. 2, pp. 17 to 32, 
only is preserved in the National Library. 
In the Handbook 1 put "John" Search, 
which of course misled the plagiarists of 
that work. Some years afterwards I became, 
acquainted with the author's son (then 
solicitor to the Post Office), who gave me 
the right pseudonym. 

John Search [Archbishop Whately, 1833]. 
H. p. 117. 

John Search [Thomas Binney. See 
4 M.E.B.']. 

Alethinos. H. p. 10. 

Caveat Emptor. H. p. 47 and pp. 184, 
185, and other instances. 

Rigoleur (Jean) [L. F. J. Van den Zande]. 

My small French dictionary explains 
rigoler as "to make trenches " ; but the 
equivalent of Jean in English would be 
Jack, and of Rigoleur, Makemerry. 

Polyonym. Work by several authors or 
several names or pseudonyms to one book. 
The ' O.E.D.' says " a book by several 
(specifically more than three) authors." 
In the H. I used it for more than two. 

By some oversight (?) Querard uses this 
word without the second o up to " une 
Societe litteraire de jolies femmes " (vol. iv. 
383). When the word next occurs (on 
p. 642), it is for " les vrais catholiques 
francais," which he calls a polyonyme. 
As he says it is by Louis d' Orleans, I should 
have thought he would have called it a 
pseudonym^ or phraseonym. In his list 
Pierquin has polynym, and I followed him, 
-and all my copyists follow me ! It is all 
i-he'more curious that Querard should have 

made such a slip, because in 1845 he issued 
his ' Dictionnaire des ouvrages polyonymes 
et anonymes.' 

Examples : ' The Bouquet,' &c., by 
Bluebell [Lady Hester Georgiana Browne, 
daughter of 2nd Marquess of Sligo], King- 
cups [Misses Knatchbull], and Mignonette 
[Miss Hume MiddlemassJ, arranged by 
Thistle [Mr. Hume Middlemass] : H. p. 25. 
For a polyonym initialism see H. p. 35. 

Prenonym. Forename only. 

Examples : Charlotte Elizabeth [Phelan, 
see H. p. 30]. Harriet [White, see H. p. 57]. 
Isa [Craig, see H. p. 63]. Theophile [Viaud, 
poete francais 1626], 

English writers do not seem fond of a fore- 
name only as a name for authorship. I 
imagined that there would be numbers who 
had written as Jack or John ; but though 
there are pages in the National Library 
Catalogue at the British Museum under 
these names, there are no instances of Jack 
or John being used as pseudonyms or 
prenonyms, though we find ' The House 
that Jack Built,' and ' Jack and Jill,' and 
' Jack the Giant-killer.' 

Pseudandry. Woman signing a man's 

Examples : George Eliot [Mary Ann 
Evans, see H. p. 47]. 

' The Long and the Short of It,' revealed 
by Stephanos Outatelbows Lacerates [Mrs. 
Emilie Ashurst Venturi, granddaughter of 
W. H. Ashurst mentioned under phrenonym], 
edited by Parker Stevens [pseudonym]. 

George Sand [Madame A. A. L. Dudevant, 
H. p. 111]. 

Daniel Stern [Madame la Comtesse 

Pseudoapoconym (see apoconym). 

Example : T. . . Vallier [Louis Tolmer]. 

Used by Querard, ' S.L.D.,' vol. iv. p. 540. 

Pseudoaristonym (see aristonym). 

Example : de Vouziers [D. J. Moithey, 
de Vouziers in the Ardennes] : ' S.L.D.,' 
iv. 634. 

Pseudogeonym (see geonym). 

Examples : ' The Complete Grazier .... 
by a Lincolnshire Grazier,' 1805. By the 
Rev. T. H. Home, who was a Londoner 
bred and born, and knew nothing about 
grazing, and was most probably never in 
Lincolnshire : H. p. 10. 

Suedois (un) [le Baron J. F. de Bourgoing]. 

Pseudogyn. Man signing a woman's 

Example : M. Pelham [Sir B. Phillips : 
see H. p. 98]. The British Museum Library 

10 s. xii. AUG. 7, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Catalogue now ascribes the pseudonym of 
"Mary Pelham" to Dorothy Kilner (who 
was she ?). Unfortunately, the Museum 
has not sufficient editions to enable me to 
investigate the question as to whether 
" Mary " is the same as " M." Pelham 
(see 3 S. xii. 394). I have looked at ' The 
Parents' and Tutors' First Catechism,' by 
M. Pelham, author of ' The London Primer,' 
London, printed for Richard Phillips [1800?]. 
On the title the initial M. only is given. I 
cannot find ' The London Primer ' in the 
National Library Catalogue. 

Other examples of pseudogyns are : 
* Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister,' by 
Sarah Search, 1855 [i.e. Frederick Nolan 
(1784-1864), author of ' An Introduction to 
Chaldee Grammar,' 1821 : see H. p. 117, 
and 'M.E.B.']. Talabot (la Vicomtesse 
Eugenie de) [Alexis Eymery]. Clara Gazul 
[Prosper Merimee]. 

Pseudoinitialism. False initials, or not 
the initials of the author's name. 

Examples : Z. [J. Mar. Deschamps]. 
Z. [Hannah More]. See also Major A***** 
under pseudotitlonym. 

Pseudonym. A false or assumed name. 
G. Peignot (' Dictionnaire,' i. 136) says that 
sometimes pseudonyms are distinguished 
into allonyms or heteronyms and even 
cryptonyms. All these qualifications come 
to much about the same thing. But we can 
see by each word the difference there is 
between them. 

Pseudoprenonym. Example : Theophile 
[M. P. Dutoit Membrini], 1764. Theophile is 
not one of the author's forenames. 

Pseudotitlonym (see titlonym). False 
quality or title. 

Examples : ' The Citizen of the World, 
or Letters from a Chinese Philosopher,' 1762 
[Oliver Goldsmith : H. p. 3]. 

' Letters on the History of England,' 
from a nobleman [Oliver Goldsmith] to his 
son, 1764. 

Major A*****, intended to designate 
Major Aubrey, a great whist player, but 
used by C. B. Coles : see H. p. 1, and Boase, 
' M.E.B.,' vol. iv. col. 712. 

'Tales of the Genii,' by Sir Charles 
Morrell [by Rev. James Ridley, see H. p. 59 : 
see also Lord Dundreary, H. p. 45]. 

' The Life of Hannah More,' by the Rev. 
Sir Archibald Macsarcasm, 1802 [W. Shaw, 
Rector of Chelvy, died 1831 : see H. p.*86].3 
Un vieux soldat [A. Desjobet]. 


(To be concluded.) 


THE following abstract of monumental' 

inscriptions in one of the oldest Jewish. 

burial-grounds in Kingston, Jamaica, may 

be of sufficient interest for insertion in 

N. & Q.' 

The inscriptions were collected by me- 
before the great earthquake of 14 Jan., 
1907, and possibly some of the monuments 
in the cemetery, which is situated at the 
south-east corner of North and Church 
Streets, may have been destroyed on that 
day. I cannot be certain of this, as I have. 
not since visited the cemetery. 


1. Isaac Nunes Vaz, died 18 Oct., 1844, aged 27, 

2. Jacob, son of Jacob Mendez Furtado, died 
21 Dec., 1754, aged 2 years and 3 months. 

3. Abraham, son of late Mordecay and Rebecca 
Lopez, born 24 Nov., 1753 ; died 18 Dec., 1758. 

4. Isaac, son of Daniel and Rebecca Alveranga,. 
died 24 Jan., 1763. 

5. Mr. Abraham Henri ques Quixano, died IT 
Sept., 1753, aged 32 years. 

6. Mrs. Sarah Henriques Quixano, widow, died 
27 Sept., 1777, aged 55 years. 

7. Mr. Moses Waag, died 17 April, 1746, aged 
33 years. 

8. Mr. Isaac Mendes Feurtado, of the parish of 
Kingston, merchant, died 3 April, 1778, aged 84 

9. Mrs. Esther Mendes Feurtado, wife of Mr. 
Isaac Mendes Feurtado, died 26 April, 1742, aged 
38 years. 

10. Hazan Gabriel Moreno (reader), died 1738, 

11. Abraham Pereira D'Azevedo, of Kingston,. 
merchant, died 15 Dec., 1721. 

12. Rev. Samuell Gomez Silva, late reader of 
the Sinnagogue (sic) of Kingston, died 20 March,. 
1762, aged 51 years. 

13. Isaac Rodriques Nunes, died 1763, aged 37 

14.' Abraham de Cordova, died 3 April, 1766. 

15. Mr. Solomon Martins, late of Spanish Town, 
died 17 Oct., 1778, aged 55 years. 

16. Ester de Isaac de Sollas, died Oct., 1778,. 
aged 62 years. 

17. Rebecca N. Dacosta, died 1 April, 1861> 
aged 49 years. 

18. Isaac Nunes Dacosta, died 18 Feb., 1845. 

19. Judith, daughter of David and Rebecca 
Pereira Mendez, died 21 Dec., 1799, aged 4 years 
and 6 months. 

20. David de Abraham Rodriques Dacosta, 
died April, 1752, aged 46 years. 

21. Jacob Pereira, died 18 June, 1754, aged 50- 

S ' David, son of Jahacob y Abigail Furtado,. 
died 2 March, 1722/3. 

23. Isaac Lopez Laguna, died 1722, aged 22 

7 24.' Isaac, son of Abraham Ledesura, died 28 
May, 1731, aged 6 months. 

25. Rachael, daughter of Abraham Atias feel- 
veira, died 30 May, 1745, aged 3 years. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 7, im 

26. Sarah Lopez DePass, died 24 Oct., 1769, 
aged 98 years. 

27. Moses Rodriques DaCosta, died 12 Feb., 

28. Jacob Mendes Pereira, died 2 Dec., 1778, 
aged 50 years. 

29. Rebecca, late widow of Jacob Mendes 
Pereira, died 1 Aug., 1782, aged 59 years. 

30. Philip Phillips, died 11 Jan., 1777, aged 37 

31. Sarah Levy, wife of Henry Levy and sister 
to Philip Phillips, died 14 Nov., 1772, aged 25 

32. Mrs. Esther Rodriques Lopez, wife of Rev. 
Rodriques Lopez, reader of the congregation of 
Spanish Town, died 29 April, 1773, aged 28 years. 

33. Isaac Lopez, died 3 April, 1773, aged 45 

34. Deborah, late wife of Aaron Silvera, died 
21 Dec., 1773, aged 32 years. 

35. Jacob, son of Isaac Nunes, died 26 Nov., 
1773, aged 24 years. 

36. David Tavares, died 7 July, 1776, aged 61 

37. Jacob Rodriques Brandon, died 23 May, 
1773, aged 36 years. 

38. Abraham Cardoza, died 19 June, 1745/6. 

39. David, son of Benjamin Pereira, died 27 
Oct., 1746. 

Kingston, Jamaica. 

[For lists of inscriptions in cemeteries in various 
countries see 10 S. i. 361, 442, 482 ; ii. 155 ; 
iii. 361, 433 ; v. 381 ; vi. 4, 124, 195, 302, 406, 
446 ; vii. 165 ; viii. 62, 161, 242, 362, 423 ; ix. 
224, 344, 443 ; x. 24, 223, 324, 463 ; xi. 25, 163, 

every one is talking about aviation, the fol- 
lowing verses from ' The Musical Miscellany,' 
published at Newcastle in 1790, pp. 23-4, may 
deserve a corner in ' N. & Q.' : 


Ye high and low flyers of all ranks, attend, 
And council receive from an Aeronaut friend ; 
Your coaches and chariots henceforth lay aside, 
Prepare in balloons through the skies all to ride. 
With dust of vile roads be choaked or be blind, 
When, like witches on brooms, you may post on 

the wind. 
O'er valleys, high hills, and wide seas you may 


And into the moon, your own sphere, take a peep. 
The^belle, who for title in vain heaves a sigh, 
Can't fail of a star there's enough in the sky ; 
In moons made of honey fond husbands at peace, 
Shall ne'er know when horns do beginner increase. 
Whilst the poet who starv'd here all his life, 
A fortune shall get in the clouds with a wife ; 
And fed with pure Achor, Camelon's light fate [?], 
Our bard shall possess a fine castle in air. 

The holder of stock too, when up he ascends, 
In the bull and the bear shall find alley [?] friends ; 
Physicians also, to the skies should they rove, 
Shall meet many friends they themselves sent 
above ; 

And fee'd by Old Nick, to untune all the spheres, 
The lawyer might set sun and moon by the ears ; 
But, in pitty to earth, would England's Queen fly, 
She'd bring down Astrea once more from the sky. 


323.) According to Anthony a Wood 
('Ath. Oxon.,' iii. 745): 

" James Howell. . . .after the King's return in 
1660 we never heard of his restoration to his 
place of clerk of the council. . . .only that he was 
made the King's historiographer, being the first 
in England that bore that title." 

The last statement is certainly erroneous. 
In Devon's ' Issues of the Exchequer,' p. 180, 
is printed this entry : 

" Thomas Dempster. 25th of January, By 
order, dated 20th of January, 1615. To Thomas 
Dempster, his Majesty's historiographer, the sum 
of 200Z. of his Majesty's free gift. By writ, dated 
19th day of February, 1615. . . .200Z/' 

Who was the first Historiographer Royal 
for Scotland ? David Crawford on the 
title-page of his edition (1706) of 'Memoirs 
of the Affairs of Scotland ' styles himself 
" Her Majesty's Historiographer for the 
Kingdom of Scotland " ; and Chalmers in 
his ' Biog. Diet.' states that he was appointed 
by Queen Anne, " and it was at that time 
thought that no man ever deserved that 
place better." This seems to point to 
previous occupants of the post. 

I know of no complete list of later His- 
toriographers for Scotland. The title is 
not given in Haydn's ' Book of Dignities.' 
The succession seems to have been : 

? to 1726 
1726 to 1748 
1748 to 1763] 
1763 to 1793 

David Crawford 
George Crawfurd 
[In abeyance 
William Robertson 
John Gillies . . 
George Brodie 
John Hill Burton 
William Forbes Skene 
David Mather Masson 
Peter Hume Brown . . 

1793 to 1836 
1836 to 1867 
1867 to 1881 
1881 to 1892 
1893 to 1907 

University Library, Aberdeen. 

' Poemata adhuc Sparsim edita, nunc in 
unum collecta,' printed at the end of the 
Rev. W. E. Buckley's Roxburghe Club 
edition of Burton's Latin comedy ' Philo- 
sophaster ' (Hertford, 1862 ; 65 copies), are 
not a complete collection of Burton's pub- 
lished Latin verses. He is the author of 
some elegiacs addressed to Francis Holy- 
oake ( ' Ad Franciscum de Sacra-quercu ' ), 
given at the beginning of the latter's edition 
of Rider's ' Dictionarie ' (1617). 


io s. xii. AUG. 7, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In the ' D.N.B.' article on Samuel Ays- 
cough it is stated that he " does not seem 
to have been concerned " in the printing 
of this work (1802). Going through some 
old letters, I have come across a passage 
suggesting that he may have been re- 
sponsible. Writing to Thomas Astle (from 
whose copy the ' Taxatio ' was printed), 
Charles Abbot (afterwards Speaker of the 
House of Commons and Baron Colchester) 
said, referring to the form in which the 
Records Commission publications were to 
be issued : 

"And for like reasons I should wish Pope 
Nicholas's Taxation to be printed of the same 
sized folio whatever may be the peculiar form 
required for the several pages. If you see the 
matter in the same light, I will beg you to impress 
these ideas upon Mr. Ayscough and Mr. Strahan." 

This is not conclusive, for earlier references 
had been made to Ayscough having under- 
taken the editing of the Patent Rolls. 
Strahan was the King's Printer. Other 
letters of the same series refer to the diffi- 
culty of finding an editor for the ' Taxatio ' 
Astle himself, from age, ill-health, and 
occupation, not feeling equal to the task 
and to Ayscough's work on the Patent Rolls. 

Hampton-on- Thames. 

CUTIONS. There are innumerable references 
in the familiar ' Letters ' and ' Memoirs ' 
of the eighteenth century which show that 
Selwyn's alleged partiality for witnessing 
a public execution was a favourite joke 
among his friends. The jest, moreover, 
became public property, and the newspapers 
often mentioned the morbid predilections 
of the famous wit. Yet it is by no means 
certain that the charge was true. On the 
only occasion upon which we know that 
Selwyn himself referred to it, when it was 
suggested by the author of ' The Diaboliad ' 
that he was fond of these spectacles, he 
denied the imputation. See his letter to 
Lord Carlisle, quoted ante, p. 14. To judge 
from the many descriptions with which he 
was supplied by his correspondents, it seems 
probable that he liked to receive a report of 
the execution of a famous criminal, being 
perhaps a student of criminology ; but he 
does not appear to have often been present 
at such scenes himself. Except in the case 
of Lord Lovat and of Damiens, those who 
tell us of his morbid tastes do not give any 
particular instances. Until there is satisfac- 
tory proof that Selwyn was a spectator at 
more than two public executions, the 

autious man should not regard Horace 

Valpole's jocular remarks too seriously. I 
lave never come across any evidence of 

lis presence at Tyburn in contemporary 
newspapers ; and in the cause celebre in 
which he appears to have been most inter- 

sted (that of the brothers Kennedy) he 
actually used all his influence to save the 

ives of the criminals. 


lishes only a modern instance ; but the 
article was certainly made in the time of 
Elizabeth and James I., and probably 
much earlier. See Ben Jonson's ' Bartho- 
omew Fair,' Act II. sc. i. : " Buy any- 
gingerbread, gilt gingerbread." The anti- 
quity of gingerbread fairs was somewhat 
discussed in the Ninth Series. 


36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

NEWSPAPERS. I continue from 10 S. xi. 
469 my list of points on which I desire 
information : 

Franklin (1867). Mr. Lowell, in ' Fitz-adam's 
Story,' says that 

bushed asparagus in faded green 
Added its shiver to the franklin clean. 
What is this ? 

Frickle (1842, Michigan). A man of some kind. 

Grammet (1850). To make a grammet at a 
person. A grimace ? 

Grubstake. I wish for dated examples ot this 
word, as noun or verb, before 1885. I have leen 
assured, orally, that it is half a century old. 

Hair trigger. ' N.E.D.' 1830, But rifles with 
hair triggers were made by Ketland & Co. hi 
1806. Was this an English firm ? 

Harpooners (1802). The Harpooners, Burrs, 
or Brutuses are mentioned in Letters to Alexander 

Hide-and-coop (1850).' A variant of hide-and- 
seek. Is there another instance of this phrase ? 

Hog (1813). To rise archwise. The earliest 
' N.E.D.' example is dated 1818 ; but I think 
the use of the word originated in England. 

Hogo (1800). A drink of the intoxicating kind. 

Horrors, give one the (1794). Goldsmith has 
" the horrors " (1768). Is not the full phrase of 

ziuisc VL awv^L colour (1798). The { N.E.D;' 
cites Trollope (1867). But surely this is not 
originally American ? 

Huffed (1800).' N.E.D.' (in passive) 1825. 

Hum-hum (1820). A thin cottony material, j 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 7, im 

Huntingdon root (1788). The mangel wurzel. 
Whence did it get this name ? 

Ice cream (1796). A tavern-keeper in Philadel- 
phia is ready to supply ice creams, &c. The 
word occurs (1769) in ' The English Housekeeper ' 
(' N.E.D.'). Mrs. Alexander Hamilton is said to 
have told a friend that she was the first person 
in the U.S. for whom this dish was made, the 
invention being attributed to a French cook. 

Inangonizer (1775). Term applied by Bernard 
Romans to European factors. 

Iron- weed (1819). No doubt English, though 
the earliest * N.E.D.' citation is 1827. 

Islandist for Islander (1795). 

Jack-case (1797). Part 'of a house immediately 
under the eaves. 

Japanning (1796). Used in the sense of jesting 
or making fun. 

Joke (1833). An object thrown at in a fair. 

Jubator (1800). An animal that feeds on ants. 
Is the name in any work on natural history ? 

Kentucky bite. Apparently a term used in 

King-ball (ab. 1750). A dance which was 
popular among the French settlers on the 

" Know-ye " gentry (1789). Rhode Islanders, 
who were unwilling to enter the Union. 

Knuck (1850). Something boiled and eaten. 

Liberty Pole or Tree (1766). Was the Boston 
one the first of its kind ? 

Lob bob chair (1800). What was this ? 

Lurky (1842). " Each lurky cheek." The 
meaning ? 


36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

ABBEY. It is usually stated that the Queen 
of Louis XVIII. of France was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, 13 Nov., 1810. But 
Capt. Smyth, the author of ' ^Edes Hart- 
wellianse,' says that this was but a tem- 
porary burial, as the Queen's remains were 
later forwarded to Sardinia, " where I 
afterwards saw the coffin in the splendid 
crypt of Cagliari Cathedral." Is the latter 
statement as to the removal from West- 
minster Abbey generally accepted ? 


Council Chamber of High Wycombe is a 
so-called Van Dyck entitled ' Philip, fourth 
Lord Wharton, his Wife, and their Fourth 
Son.' It is so poor a piece, of painting that 
I imagine it to be a bad copy of a Van Dyck 
by some very inferior painter. Where is 
the original ? CLEMENT SHORTER. 

thing known of this Irishman, who died in 
1808 a general in the Bavarian service ? In 
the article on Robert Clarke (or Graine) in 
the ' D.N.B.' it is mentioned that De 

Harold's translation of Clarke's ' Christiados y 
was in the possession of his nephew in 1855. 
Among some letters which I recently acquired 
are several from De Harold, including 
about 350 lines of his translation of the 
' Christiad,' about 250 lines of his transla- 
tion of Massenius's ' Sarcotis, or Paradise 
L os t ' to one or both of which the trans- 
lator declares Milton to have been indebted 
and the fifth Book (about 500 lines) of an 
epic poem (in eleven books !) on the French 
Revolution. The author proposed pub- 
lishing his epic if 200 subscribers could be 
found ; but I am not aware that any of his 
essays in verse, original or translated, were 
ever published. The 'D.N.B.' says that 
Clarke's * Christiados ' was " completed in 
1650 " ; De Harold says that the poem was 
" written by the learned Rt. Clarke (alias 
Greine), a native of London, and Carthusian 
monk, at Nieuport in Flanders, in the year 


BULLINGDON CLUB. I shall be glad to 
learn when this club was founded at Oxford, 
who were the original members, and any 
other details regarding its early history. 

J O. 

Belcher, private secretary to Bishop Pococke 
of Meath, married a Miss Yates in Berk- 
shire about 1755. I am anxious to find 
in what parish this marriage is recorded, 
and to discover any details of his ancestry. 
His motto was " Loyall au mort," but 
on the shield of a Belchier, date about 1750, 
I find " Loyal jusqu'a la mort." Which is 
right ? and if the former, what exactly 
does it mean ? C. F. BELCHER. 

74, Argyle Road, West Baling, W. 

MUSICIANS. Were they pipers or fiddlers, 
and at what period did they live ? Were 
they brothers ? I have known of Neil 
Gow, but only found in an old manuscript 
music book a strathspey by Natt Gow. 

(Miss) H. GALWEY. 

St. Columb's Court, Londonderry. 

who accompanied Viscount Valentia on his 
voyage to the East (1802-6), went with Henry 
Salt to Abyssinia in 1810, and remained in 
that country till 1826, when he returned 
to England, charged with a mission from 
Sabegadis, Ras of Tigre. Dr. R. R. 
Madden in his ' Travels in Turkey, Egypt,. 
Nubia, and Palestine,' 1829, i. 330-32, 
writing under date 1 June, 1826, says that 

10 s. xii. AUG. 7, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Coffin had then just arrived at Cairo. J. J. 
Halls, 'Life of Henry Salt,' 1834, i. 482; 
ii. 220, 270, gives the date of his leaving 
Abyssinia as 1827 ; and Dr. Beke, ' British 
Captives in Abyssinia,' 1867, p. 10, pvits it 
in 1828, and says he was sent to Bombay 
and Egypt, and afterwards to England. 
Sir Clements R. Markham in Macmillaris 
Magazine, xviii. 1868, pp. 90-91, and in 
his 'History of the Abyssinian Expedition,' 
1869, p. 55, also gives the date as 1828. In 
any case, Coffin does not seem to have re- 
turned to Abyssinia till 1832 (after Sabe- 
gadis had been captured and put to death 
by his rival Has Ubi6), taking with him a 
supply of muskets. The Rev. Samuel 
(afterwards Bishop) Gobat found him at 
Massowa in December, 1832 (Gobat, ' Journal 
of a Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia,' 
1834, p. 333) ; and the Rev. Joseph Wolff 
also met him there in 1834 (Wolff, ' Journals,' 
1861, ii. 243). In 1839 Coffin was put in 
irons by Ras Ubie until he delivered what 
remained at Massowa of the guns sent to 
Sabegadis (Arnauld d'Abbadie, ' Douze 
Ans dans la Haute-Ethiopie,' vol. i. 1868, 
p. 554). And in 1841 Ras Ubie sent him 
with a letter to England (Beke, '[British 
Captives,' p. 18). 

Nathaniel Pearce, who also lived in 
Abyssinia from 1810 to 1818, frequently 
refers to Coffin in his ' Life and Adventures,' 
2 vols., 1831 ; and gives Coffin's account of 
his visit to Gondar in 1814. Is anything 
more known of Coffin's life and doings in 
Abyssinia ? He is not mentioned in the 
' Diet. Nat. Biog.' FREDK. A. EDWARDS. 

39, Agate Road, Hammersmith. 

is stated at p. 222 of a book entitled ' Edgar, 
oder, Vom Atheismus zur vollen Wahrheit,' 
by Father Ludwig von Hammerstein, S.J. 
(Druck und Verlag der Paulinus-Druckerei, 
Trier, 1898), that, about the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, the ancient painted 
windows of the church of Our Lady and St. 
Lawrence at Trier (Treves) on the Moselle 
were taken from their settings, and, as 
Father von Hammerstein had heard, were 
acquired by an Englishman, and by him 
removed to England. Can any one enable 
me to trace the present whereabouts of 
these windows ? 

It was, I think, no uncommon thing in 
those days for Englishmen on their travels 
to buy old glass from the clergy of Conti- 
nental churches, and insert it in the windows 
of their own parish churches in England. 
An instance occurs to me in the case of the 

parish church of Lambourne in Essex, 
where there are five small pieces of seven- 
teenth-century German glass, brough tfrom 
Basle in 1817. F. S. EDEN. 

Maycroft, Fyfield Road, Walthamstow. 

[A similar subject is referred to in the query of 
M. LEFRANCOIS, ante, p. 47.] 

should be much obliged if any of your 
readers could tell me who wrote the following 
lines : 

With new-fallen dew 

From churchyard yew 

I will but 'noint, 

And then I '11 mount. 

I have traced the last two lines only to 
Thomas Middleton's ' The Witch,' with 
one word altered ("I'll" for "I"). 

T. M. L. 

[These lines are part of the words to Locke's 
music in ' Macbeth.'] 

Nor think the doom of man reversed for thee. 

G. R. 

And there were crystal pools, peopled with fish, 
Argent and gold ; and some of Tyrian skin, 
Some crimson-barred. 


any reader kindly supply me with informa- 
tion regarding the writer of the leading 
articles on philosophy, &c., in this publica- 
tion ? They bear the signature S. N. The 
work, I believe, does not reach any further 
than 1872. Dr. Ingleby and the late Dr. 
James Hutchison Stirling wrote some signed 
articles for its pages. JAMES DOWNIE. 

68, Weaver Street, Glasgow. 

ELIZABETH AND JAMES I. Any information 
as to this personage would be greatly 
esteemed. C. H. 

COMPANY SPOONS. 1 possess two silver 
spoons which appear to commemorate 
some date of interest. On the top of the 
handle are arms (possibly those of the 
Salters' Company), and on a ribbon around 
the stem is the inscription " Sal sapit 
omnia." On the back, behind the arms, 
is the date "May 12, 1853." Can any one 
state the reason the spoons were made t -^ 



is the origin of "If two and two make four, 
what is your opinion of things in general ? 

J. H. KlDSON. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL AUG. 7, 1900. 

strange word, which is unknown to Henley 
and Farmer's ' Slang and its Analogues,' 
has been much used of late in the world of 
cricket. It was invented, or adapted, to 
describe the kind of tricky bowling intro- 
duced by Mr. B. J. T. Bosanquet a few years 
since, and may, perhaps, have been first 
used by Mr. Jessop or another journalist 
in The Daily Mail. It has now appeared in 
a book, and one of authority on cricket. 
Mr. W. G. Grace in ' W. G.'s Little Book ' 
(Newnes), recently published, devotes the 
third chapter to ' The New Bowling,' which, 
he tells us, is more difficult to play than 
any yet invented. He says on p. 30 : 

" We are a conservative people, and if the South 
Africans prove to us that ' googlie ' bowlers can 
last, then our bowlors will take to it as quickly as 

any The 'googlie' is a finger-nip ball, and 

supple fingers are most essential to its successful 
achievement. ' ' 

The point of this bowling is that the 
batsman cannot tell from the bowler's 
action which way the ball is going to break, 
or whether it is going to break at all, nor 
is the bowler himself certain as to this. 

I presume that the word " googlie " 
implies deceptive simplicity, but have no 
idea as to its derivation or origin. What 

Information on the following points is 
needed to complete a history of Barton 
Grammar School. 

Does any portrait of Dr. Adam Airey, 
Principal of St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, 
exist ? 

Where was the Rev. Wm. Langbaine 
(Vicar of Ash, Surrey, until his resignation 
in 1769) buried ? He was previously Vicar 
of Portsmouth. 

Is anything known of the subsequent 
career of the Rev. Henry Thompson, who 
was Curate of Penrith up to 1822 ? 

And of Thomas Stockham, master of the 
School 1862-3 ? HENRY BRIERLEY. 

Pooley Bridge. 

FIELDS. What is the origin of these names 
What Parliament do the latter names com- 
memorate ? JOHN WARD. 
[For Constitution Hill see 8 S. viii. 5, 56.] 

LADY URSULA. Can any correspondents 
kindly inform me what Lady Ursulas are 
now alive within the United Kingdom 
Please reply direct. H. HULSE. 

Towers, Boscombe, Hants. 

BE THE JUDGMENT CALL." There is a well- 
tnown epitaph, written, I think, on a 
Derson buried at sea, of which the last line 
s as above. I shall feel obliged if any 
f your readers can tell me where I can 
find the epitaph. L. A. W. 



(10 S. xi. 489.) 

SERVIUS, commenting on Virgil's descrip- 
tion of Pallas (' ^Eneid,' ii.), 

Refulgent in a nimbus and cruel Gorgon, 
explains the nimbus as " the luminous 
fluid which encircles the heads of the gods " 
(Brock, 142). 

The nimbus is undoubtedly of vast 
antiquity, as appears in representations of 
the gods and goddesses of Babylon, Greece, 
Rome, India, China, and Japan. Virgil, 
in describing Latinus (' ^Eneid,' xii. 162), 
says : 

Twelve golden beams around his temples play, 

To mark his lineage from the god of day. 

The ring nimbus appears on Circe in a 
Pompeian painting engraved by Hislop 
' Two Baby Ions,' 1862, p. 126). 

Montfaucon engraves a Roman sculpture 
of Apollo with a nimbus of seven rays 
('Antiquite Expliquee,' torn. i. p. 118, 
pi. 54) and a Roman sculpture of Diana 
with a ring nimbus (torn. i. p. 46). Didron 
also engraves the latter in his ' Christian 
Iconography,' translated by Millington, 1851, 
Bohn, i. 26. 

Hislop (p. 347) engraves a Pompeian 
fresco of two Roman fire-worshipping^priests 
at an altar, each with a rayed nimbus ; 
and (p. 332) a cut of a serpent, with a rayed 
nimbus, worshipping at an altar. Maurice 
engraves this Phoenician coin also ( ' Indian 
Antiquities,' 1796, vol. vi. p. 368); and Hislop 
(p. 233) gives a woodcut of the four-winged 
Beltis with the rayed nimbus, which is 
copied from Bryant's cut ('Antient Mytho- 
logy,' 1807, vol. v. p. 384). 

Brock gives a wood engraving of Iris with 
a dentated nimbus, and her scarf as a ring 
nimbus, with the sun as a rayed nimbus 
behind all ('Rome Pagan and Papal,' 1883, 
p. 141). 

In a Hindoo mythologic representation 
is depicted the sun in the centre of a disk, 
and an exterior circle containing the signs 
of the zodiac, with eight personified planets, 

10 s. xii. AUG. 7, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the head of each having the ring nimbus 
(Creuzer, 'German Atlas,' pi. 31). 

Didron draws Maya, the Hindoo goddess, 
with a cruciform nimbus ( ' Religions de 
1'Antiquite,' i. 41). 

Moor engraves Krishna in the arms of 
Devaki, both these Indian deities having 
the rayed nimbus ('Hindoo Pantheon,' 
1870, pi. 59) ; so does Hislop, p. 348. 

Many other illustrations of the nimbus, 
both in pagan and Christian art, will be 
found in the works I have cited. D. J. 

Nimbi, ^we read in Tyrwhitt's ' Art Teach- 
ing of the Primitive Church,' are supposed to 
have been originally placed over the heads 
of marble statues standing in the open air, 
as a protection from defilement by birds. 

Miss Louisa Twining in ' Symbols and 
Emblems of Early and Mediaeval Christian 
Art' (1885) remarks that the nimbus, 
derived from the pagans, appears to have 
been adapted to sacred subjects about the 
fifth century. The usual form then was a 
plain circle placed behind the head, undis- 
tinguished by any particular mark. One of 
the most ancient in existence is quoted as to 
be seen in a mosaic of the fifth century at 
Ravenna. Therein is a representation of 
our Lord as the Good Shepherd. The first 
instance known in which the nimbus is 
crossed is in a mosaic at the church of S. 
Lorenzo at Rome. It is sixth-century 
work, and from that date Christ is invariably 
drawn with a cross upon His nimbus. 

Pugin in his ' Glossary of Ecclesiastical 
Ornament' (1868), under 'Nimbus,' states 
that nimbi originally occurred round the 
heads of kings and " emperors, as well as 
other persons. Amongst the latter he 
refers to early images of Eudocia, wife of 
Basil of Macedon, and her sons Alexander 
and Leo. It was not until after the eleventh 
century that the nimbus was exclusively 
employed to signify sacred persons. He 
gives illustrations of half a dozen different 
treatments, and explains that those of the 
Eternal Father (rarely occurring before the 
fourteenth century) have rays diverging in a 
triangular direction from the centre. Our 
Lord's nimbus is marked by a simple cross 
before His Resurrection, but is emphasized 
by more enrichment when He is represented 
in His glorified state. Our Blessed Lady 
has often a chaplet of stars around the 
border of hers; whilst angels, saints, anc 
martyrs have their nimbi ornamented by 
small rays within an outer circle of quatre- 
foils. In the fifteenth century it was noi 
uncommon for the name of the saint 

especially if one of the Apostles) to occur 
around the circumference. This distin- 
guished authority adds that Honorius of 
Autun, describing the nimbus, wrote : 

" The luminous circle which is depicted round 

he heads of saints in the Church designates 

hat, having received their crown, they enjoy 

.he light of everlasting glory. The nimbus is 

represented round in the form of a shield 

because they are defended by the providence 

>f God as with a shield." 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

It would be impossible, I submit, to meet 
with the nimbus in ancient art in circum- 
stances without symbolic purpose. The 
figure of the monk in the MS. cited is very 
improbably that of the artist himself, since 
the nimbus in Christian art, at all events 
until the fourteenth century, invariably 
marks the saint ; and the artist, if he had 
Deen a saint in the canonized sense, would 
lardly have indulged in such a piece of 
self-glorification as to add this attribute of 
loliness to his own portrait. Even in 
Eastern art 'the nimbus denotes physical 
energy no less than moral strength, and 
civil or political power as well as religious 
authority. And in ancient Oriental as well 
as Western pagan art the disk or circle, 
corresponding to the nimbus, invariably 
encompassed the head of the Sun-divinity 
as a symbol of power. 

But Didron says that 

" neither the absence nor the presence of the 
nimbus must be assumed to be an unquestionable 
proof of sanctity or its reverse, except during 
the period preceding, and inclusive of, the four- 
teenth century. After that time, the important 
signification of the nimbus disappears ; it 
given or withheld in a somewhat arbitrary 
manner. But during the thirteenth century, 
especially in certain edifices where the true 
signification of the nimbus is observed, we may 
affirm that the nimbus, when encircling the 
head of any figure, proves the person represented 
to have been a saint." ' Christian Iconography, 
by M. Didron, Bohn, 1851, vol. i. p. 01. 


See F. E. Hulme's ' Symbolism in Christian 
Art,' 1891, pp. 52 to 72, and 167. 


" COFFEE " : ITS ETYMOLOGY (10 S. xii. 

64\ MB. PLATT'S interesting note on the 

etymology of "coffee" is substantially 
correct. But he has not, in my opinion, 
shown why the hv of the Arabic qahvafi 
becomes sometimes ff and sometimes only 
/ or v It is not sufficient to point out that 
h tends to be replaced by / in Turkish. The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. AUG. 7, im 

real explanation seems to me to depend 
upon two facts : 

(a) Some languages, such as English, have 
strong syllabic accents, while others, as 
French, have none. 

(6) The surd aspirate h is heard in some 
languages, but is hardly audible in others. 
English, for example, can hardly be said to 
have an h. Most Europeans tend to leave 
it out altogether. 

Remembering these, let us consider the 
word qdhvdh, in which v is not so much a 
labio-dental as a labial (w). 

1. If the first syllable is not accented, 
the h becomes imperceptible, and may be 
left out in writing ; but the vowel becomes 
lengthened to a in pronunciation. Thus 
Hungarian kdve, Bohemian kdva, Polish 
kdwa. French cafe prefers surd / in place 
of the sonant v, and Servian is indifferent. 
Roumanian cafed, being accented on the 
last syllable, retains short vowel a, and 
has only one / (in place of v). 

2. If the first syllable is strongly accented 
an attempt will be made to pronounce the 
final letter h, and Europeans would tend 
to replace the aspirate by the nearest 
fricative. As h is a surd, the fricative surd / 
(pronounced labially rather than dentilabi- 
ally) would be the most natural substitute. 
Thus we get kdfwe, and by assimilation 
kdffe. As the first syllable is the most 
prominent, it is the h that first becomes /, 
and then w becomes / also. 

It is only in the second case that the 
vowel a changes to o ; for the vowel a being 
absent in most European languages, and 
the syllable bearing a strong accent, 6 is 
the nearest vowel equivalent. 

I may add that in Oriental languages, 
where the aspirate is very clearly sounded, 
the word has undergone no change. The 
lower classes in India, however, are unable 
to pronounce either the Arabic q or the 
aspirate h, and they say kaivd, using the 
diphthong ai instead of dh ; both the 
syllables are equal as regards stress, Indian 
vernaculars not having strongly accented 
words. But Persian words have strong 
syllabic stress, and hence Turkish, deriving 
from Persian, often changes h into /, espe- 
cially before dentals, labials, or labio-dentals, 
and also finally, especially after the more 
closed short vowels. 

51, Ladbroke Road, W. 


MB. PLATT says : "It does not seem 
credulous to assume that kahve might readily 
become kafve." It is, however, a fact that 

Polish Jews have in my own hearing often 
asked for a tas kovve = cup of coffee. No 
doubt the Poles brought back the name and 
the fragrant berry after their wars with 
the Turks under the famous John Sobieski, 
in the seventeenth century. 


LAMBETH REGISTER (10 S. xii. 62). The 
explanation asked for by MR. THORNTON is 
very simple. 

Nicholas Bullingham was restored to the 
Archdeaconry on the petition of Sir F. 
Ayscough to Cecil, dated 27 Dec., 1558. 

He was not Bishop-elect of Lincoln till 
12 Jan., 1560, when the royal assent was 
given to his election. 

When he accepted the bishopric he 
naturally vacated the archdeaconry, which 
was therefore described as vacant on 18 Jan., 
1560. It follows therefore that the state- 
ment that Bullingham was Archdeacon of 
Lincoln at the consecration of Parker on 
17 Dec., 1559, is perfectly correct. T. C. 

BAUGHAN : BOFFIN (10 S. xi. 509). It 
may interest MR. PERCY SMITH to know that 
in the churchyard of Great Rollright, 
Oxfordshire (some three miles from Long 
Compton), there is a considerable monument 
erected to the memory of members of this 
family, who are said to have been squires 
of the parish. It stands under the tower, 
to the left hand of the church porch. In 
the sixties there was an old gentleman called 
Henry Boffin (so spelt and pronounced) 
still living in the village, and my father 
often told me that he was the last repre- 
sentative in the village of the old Baughan 
squires. He was a fine specimen of decayed 
gentility, and used always to sit on a chair 
outside his cottage door, wearing a broad- 
brimmed beaver hat, and leaning his chin on 
a large walking-stick. He would chat to the 
passers-by, and every one in the village had 
a liking for the old man, and missed him 
when he died about the year 1875, I fancy. 

In his ' Surnames of the United Kingdom * 
Henry Harrison gives the following deriva- 
tion : " (Celt.) Little, Small. [Wei. bychan, 
f. bach]." C. E. LOMAX. 


(10 S. xii. 47). This collection, according 
to Duplessis, ' Les Ventes de Tableaux, 
Dessins,' &c., was sold in London in 1758, 
presumably by W. Bathoe, whose name 

10 s. xii. AUG. 7, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


is attached to the catalogue. Possibly a 
catalogue may be found either in the British 
Museum or in the Art Library at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. Bathoe was a well- 
known bookseller of the period. He may 
have purchased the collection en bloc, and 
then catalogued it and sold it piecemeal. 

47, Lansdowne Gardens, Ulapnam, S.W. 

THE STORM SHIP (10 S. xi. 488 ; xii. 32). 
I do not think that the legend of " the 
Flying Dutchman " is peculiar to Germany. 
The story of the two Philip Vanderdeckens, 
father and son, the former having sworn to 
weather the Cape of Good Hope even if he 
had to try till the Day of Judgment, is 
elaborated in Marryat's novel ' The Phantom 
Ship,' first published in 1839. 


"BOSTING" (10 S. xi. 508; xii. 75). 
At the latter reference we have a quotation 
for bostillyng, with the remark, " not in the 

But the 'N.E.D.' has the sb. bossell, a 
kind of boss ; and bosselated, " formed into 
small protuberances, from F. bossele, pp. of 
bosseler, to mould into small protuberances." 
This seems to prove that bostill is formed 
from the F. bosseler, with an excrescent t 
after s. See also bossment, the formation 
of a hump, and bossy, projecting in rounded 
form ; " with bossy sculptures graven," 
Milton, ' P.L.,' i. 716. Also boss, " raised 
work." In boss, " in high relief ; F. en 

When a vessel is " dinted in," it presents 
a boss on the inside, but a depression on the 
outside ; hence boss, adj., " hollow." Note 
also boss, verb, " to make to project, to 
fashion in relief, to beat or press out into a 
relieved ornament, to emboss, to furnish 
with bosses." 

Further, we have boast, verb, " in masonry, 
to pare irregularly with a broad chisel and 
mallet ; in sculpture, to shape (a block) 
roughly before putting in details." This is 
said to be " of uncertain etymology ; 
F. bosse, swelling, relief, as in ronde bosse, 
' full relief,' has been suggested ; but with 
little apparent fitness." 

With all submission, I think it is quite 
right. For the oa points back (as in roast). 
to original O.F. short o ; and just as bosse- 
lated was made from bosseler (which seems 
to be also the origin of bostillyng), there 
is here also a strong probability that the t 
in boast is a mere English addition. 

For besides the F. bosseler, we also find 
the simple verb. Moisy's dictionary of the 

Norman dialect has bosser as a variant of 
bocher, v., " f aire bosse, faire saillie ; en 
v. fr., bocoier avait ce sens " ; and he give* 
a quotation for it. The Norman bocher also 
meant bossuer, to dint in ; and Cotgrave has 
the frequentative bosseler, " to dindge or 
bruise, to make a dint in a vessell of metal." 
And of course bocher is from the Norm. dial.. 
boche, variant of bosse, a boss. 

I see no difficulty in connecting all the- 
above words. If so, boasting merely means 

Josiah Wedgwood in a letter dated 
Etruria, 3 July, 1775, writes to his friend 
Bentley : 

"I think we can manage to model them [the 
Greek and Roman heads], and Mr. Tebo has nothing 
else to do. He is not equal to a Figure, but I can. 
make him bost out and others tinish these heads." 

L. L. K. 

F. B. DELAVAL (10 S. xi. 501 ; xii. 38, 70). 
In The Monthly Review of November, 1782, 
vol. Ixvii. p. 395, the publication of the 
following pamphlet is noticed : 

"The Trial of Sir Francis Blake Delaval, Knight 
of the Bath, at the Consistory Court of Doctors' 
Commons, for adultery with Miss Roach. Insti- 
tuted by Lady Isabella Delaval, wife of Sir Francis. 
1/6. Etherington." 

The Monthly Review proceeds to criticize 
this pamphlet as follows : 

"What is here called the Trial of Sir F. B. 
Delaval happened in 1755. In this meagre catch- 
penny publication we have nothing but the deposi- 
tions, from which the reader will rather infer that 
the trial was instituted by the Knight against the 
lady " 

A further explanation of the incident, 
on the authority of Miss Ambross's ' Life 
of Anne Catley,' is given in The Rambler's- 
Magazine, vol. vii. p. 500. 


455). i n looking over a volume of the 
' D.N.B.' I came by accident on the answer 
to my query. The article on John Willett 
Payne says that Payne, when in command 
of the fifty-gun ship Leander, met on the 
night of 18 Jan., 1783, near Guadeloupe, 
an enemy's ship carrying seventy or eighty 
guns. After a severe action the ships parted. 
The enemy, when sighted during the evening, 
hoisted Spanish colours, but her shot which 
lodged in the Leander were of French casting. 
A Spanish ship could hardly have used 
French shot, and a French ship would not 
have sought to put the Leander off her 
guard by hoisting Spanish colours, as 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. A. 7, im 

England was at war with Spain as well as 
with France. Those on board the Leander 
thought the enemy was either the Couronne, 
eighty, or the Pluton, seventy-four, both 
French ships. But the French have never 
mentioned the battle, and the antagonist 
of the Leander has never been identified. 
Novels have been written in which this action 
is the original of sea-fights told with the 
wildest details that the superstition of 
sailors can invent, showing the impression 
it must have made at the time. 

I have read Cooper's ' Pilot.' The author 
had been in the navy, but only in time of 
peace, and he describes sea-fights very 
differently from Capt. Marryat, who had 
been in many a hard-fought battle. 

M. N. G. 

ISLES (10 S. xi. 441 ; xii. 51). MB. PICK- 
FOJRD may be glad to know that there is 
still to be seen, in a hedge near the high road, 
on the battle-field of Towton, the sub- 
stantial base of a commemorative column 
or cross. C. 3. PEACOCK. 

The inscription on King Richard's well at 
Bosworth Field may be found in ' Memoirs 
of Dr. Parr,' by the Rev. William Field, 
vol. ii. p. 473 (London, Henry Colburn, 
New Burlington Street, 1828). It is also to 
be found in ' Visits to Fields of Battle,' by 
Richard Brooke, F.S.A., 1857, p. 174. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

302). There is a little confusion in the 
handling of the Welsh words brought into 
this discussion. The word llyn ("lake") 
is pronounced in South Wales exactly as 
if it were spelt ttin (riming with Eng. " inn"); 
but in the plural, and whenever it is not a 
final syllable, it is sounded so as to rime 
with Eng. "fun." I say nothing of the II 
sound, which is of no consequence here. 
Now the modern Welsh word for London is 
Llundain, a spelling going back as far as the 
fifteenth century, the earlier form as far 
as the twelfth century being Llundein. 
Not having read Mr. Bradley 's letter in 
The Athenaeum, I can only suspect that the 
very improbable personal name Londlnos 
is founded mainly on the diphthongal 
final syllables in the above two Welsh 

As to the first syllable Llun-, that comes, 
not from llyn, * but from llun (a picture, 
image Dydd Llun, cf. Lundi). For, to 
j udge from modern Welsh usage, the vowel u, 

unlike y, never varies its sound, e.g., llun, 
lluniau ; mur ("wall"), muriau ; du 
("black"), superl. duaf ; sur ("sour"), 
surion ; while in (e.g.) llynoedd, pi. of 
llyn; dynion, pi. of dyn ("man"); byraf, 
superlative of byr (" short ") ; and ystyried, 
derivative of ystyr ("meaning"), the final 
y has the sound of i in Eng. "in," and the 
non-final one the sound of u in Eng. " fun." 
I may add here that there is considerable 
confusion, both of spelling and pronunciation, 
especially in South Wales, as regards the 
vowels i, u, y. If the reader can get a 
native of North Wales to pronounce the 
following sentence, he will find himself 
unable to represent in English spelling two 
of the sounds : " Tyt ! du yw dy dy di, y 
dyn, ac nid gwyn " (" Tut ! black is thy 
house thine, the man, and not white "). 
In my South -Walian pronunciation it would 
sound thus (English values) : " Tut ! dee 
ewe du [as in " tut "] dee dee, u [as in "tut"] 
deen, ak nid gwinn." Welsh u has not two 
sounds, like Welsh y, but only one, that of 
the French u ; hence there can be no con- 
nexion between Llun- and llyn. If the 
place-name London had not been found 
before the Anglo-Norman period, there would 
be no difficulty in identifying it with the 
Londinieres of Normandy (on the Aulne, 
Seine Inferieure) ; and as the name of that 
town has been satisfactorily proved to be a 
corruption of Lat. nundince, a similar deriva- 
tion would have suited London " down to 
the ground." But as London was known 
and mentioned when the country was 
occupied by the Romans, we ought, if we 
are to trust the Welsh spelling, to compare 
the name with the form found in Amm. 
Marcellinus Lundinium. Llun is the same 
as Lat. Luna, or rather, perhaps, Lunus = 
Lucnus, whence the seven or eight known 
Lugoduna of Continental Celtdom. If that 
derivation is for any reason inadmissible, as 
I am afraid it is, then the only alternative 
defensible on substantial analogical grounds 
is Landin in Roman terminology the arx 
(din) of an oppidum (lana, lanon, or lanion), 
stretching back from the Thames, between 
the Lea and the Fleet. I have already, in 
my articles on Llan in these pages, suggested 
this derivation. J. P. OWEN. 

The modern Welsh name Llyndain is an 
ill-spelt representative of a form employed in 
Old Welsh which was not indigenous, and 
which did not represent Londinium. For the 
eighth-century Welsh name of London we 
must turn to the * List of Names of the 
Cities of Britain ' in the ' Historia Brit- 

w s. xii. AUG. 7, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tonum ' ; vide Mommsen's edition, 1894, 

* Chronica Minora,' iii. 211. The ' Historia ' 
was compiled inA.D. 837, and in the eleventh- 
century copy of it in the Harley codex 
No. 3859 we find " Cair Lundem," which 
is a scribal error for Cair Lundein. In this 
MS. and in all other ancient copies of the 

* H.B.' the diphthongs ai and ei are kept 
distinct. In some MSS. of the fourteenth 
century ai usurps the place of ei, e.g., Cair 
Lundain. The digraph ei was used to 
indicate the infected sound, or Umlaut, 
of o, and that vowel was either organic, or 
was the representative of a more ancient a. 
In the list referred to ei is Umlaut of o, a, in 
Cair Ceint = Canti-um, Conti-opolis ; and in 
Cair Custeint = Custanti-um, from Con- 
stantius. It is Umlaut of o in Cair Segeint = 
Segonti-um ; in Cair Celeinion (MS. " cele- 
mion' ' ) = *Coloni-on; in Gereint = Geronti-us ; 
in Dyfneint=DumnOnti-a ; and in yspeil = 

The Old- Welsh Lundein, for these reasons, 
postulates a form Lundoni-a, and that we 
may find in the letter about the bishoprics 
of Lundonia and Eburaca which Pope 
Gregory wrote to Augustine of Canterbury 
on 22 June, 601 ; vide Bede's ' H.E.,' I. xxix. 
p. 63. Gregory wrote " Lundoniensis 
Ciuitas" and "Lundonia Ciuitas," and it 
is from this sixth - century ecclesiastical 
Latin form that the oldest Welsh word for 
London, namely Lundein, derives its origin. 
It is not possible for Lundem, or *Llyndein, 
or Llyndain to mean " lake-fort," nor to 
represent anything but Lundonia and its 
sister-form Londonia. 

30, Albany Road, Stroud Green, N. 

68). In The Weekly Register of 29 Aug., 
1857 a Catholic newspaper which I think 
is now extinct there is an article on Eliza 
Fenning's case which MB. WALTER BELL 
may like to see. From what is said there, 
I think there can be little doubt that the 
poor girl was innocent of the crime for which 
she suffered. A. O. V. P. 

The full account of Elizabeth Fenning 

?iven in Pelham's ' Chronicles of Crime,' 
841, makes no mention of any nephew of 
the Turners, though it appears that, after 
the trial and sentence, a statement was made 
to the Recorder that " a member of Mr. 
Turner's family, who was insane, had 
declared that he would poison the family " ; 
and also that on the eve of the execution 
a chemist in Holborn stated publicly that, 

a few months before the alleged murder, 
Robert Gregson Turner, in whose service 
Fenning was, called on him in a wild and 
deranged state, requesting to be put under 
restraint, otherwise he declared he should 
destroy himself and wife ; also, that it was 
well known in the family that Robert 
Turner was occasionally given to such violent 
and strange conduct. Nothing is said of any 
subsequent confession. W. B. H. 

The author of the article on Schopenhauer 
in The Westminster Review for April, 1853, 
was John Oxenford ; see Gwinner's ' Arthur 
Schopenhauer ' (Leipsic, Brockhaus, 1862), 
p. 103. I think it safe to say that Schopen- 
hauer has never had any vogue in England. 


There is a good translation of Schopen- 
hauer's essays, with a biographical note 
in which the translator acknowledges her 
indebtedness in the preparation of the note 
to Dr. Gwinner's life and Prof. Wallace's 
work on the same subject by Mrs. Rudolf 
Dircks, in " The Scott Library " (Walter 
Scott). JOHN HEBB. 

"TE IGITUR" (10 S. xii. 66). These are 
the first words of the Canon of the Mass 
in the Roman Missal. They are believed 
to be as old as the time of St. Gregory the 
Great, if not earlier. The words which 
MR. PICKFORD quotes from Sir Walter 
Scott's * Ivanhoe ' are evidence that the 
sentence of which they form a part was 
used in oaths of extreme sacredness. 

See the ' Glossarium Mediae et Infimae 
Latinitatis ' of Dufresne, who quotes therein 
Durandus and earlier authorities. 


No doubt the reference in ' Ivanhoe ' is 
to the Canon of the Mass, which begins 
"Te igitur, clementissime Pater," and it 
points to the custom of taking oath upon 
any book dedicated to sacred uses a Mass 
book, a book of Gospels, a book of Epistles, 
the Divine Office, or a Psalter, as occasion 
might serve a custom common before 
the Gospel book came to be exclusively 
used for this purpose. F. S. EDEN. 

[MB. B. D. MOSELEY also thanked for reply.] 

(10 S. xii. 49). This is a portrait of Tycho 
Hofman, gentilhomme danois " (I quote 
from Le Blanc's ' Catalogue de 1'CEuvre de 
Jean Georges Wille,' Leipsic, 1847, p. 130). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL AUG. 7, 1009. 

There are, according to Le Blanc, six states 
of the plate, and the one described in the 
inquiry is the sixth, except that Le Blanc 
gives the date as 1747, and not 1745. He 
also says of this state that '' les epreuves 
sont de venues detestables." Tycho H of man 
was " membre de la Societe Roi'ale de 
Londres," and " Secretaire de la Chancelerie 
du Hoi de Dannemark et de JSTorvegue," &c. 


xii. 88). The lines quoted by MB. J. S. 
CRONE occur in a poem entitled ' A Song ' in 
William Cory's ' lonica.' The correct version 
is as follows : 

Oh, earlier shall the rosebuds blow, 

In after years, those happier years, 
And children weep, when we lie low, 
Far fewer tears, far softer tears. 

NEMO'S two quotations will be found as 
under : 

1. If lusty love should go in quest of beauty, 
Where should he find it fairer than in Blanch ? 

Shakespeare, ' King John,' II. i. 426-7. 

2. The lovely young Lavinia once had friends. 

Thomson's ' Seasons,' ' Autumn,' 177. 


[Several other correspondents thanked for 

ABGYLE STBEET, W. (10 S. xii. 47). The 
excerpt from The Daily Chronicle of 15 June 
required revision before receiving the com- 
parative immortality of the pages of ' N. & Q.' 
Because Walford (' Old and New London,' 
iv. 241) prints the name of this street and 
its famous Rooms " Argyll," every reference 
based on that compendious, but faulty 
work perpetuates the error. 

" Hengler's Cirque " to give it its original 
title was founded in 1854 (not 1871) by 
Charles and Edward Hengler on the break- 
ing-up of Price and Powell's circus at 
Greenwich. In 1871 they came to Argyle 
Street, the premises being then in the 
possession of a gutta-percha merchant ; 
but the manner in which this proprietor's 
previous ventures in equestrian entertain- 
ments had collapsed caused them to be 
known as the Gutta-Percha Circus, and it 
was not expected the Henglers would be 
more successful. There was also the oppo- 
sition of Ducrow and Batty, but the general 
excellence of the Henglers' show gained 
public favour, which lasted through three 

The building in 1865 replaced Argyle 
House, and was intended to be a Diorama, 

plus bazaar, to take the place of the Colos- 
seum. "The Corinthian Bazaar" and 
The Palais Royal " were some of its titles. 
Of its last years there is little to record. 
For a few years (not a few weeks, as the 
newspaper paragraph says) there was a 
circus entertainment of more or less merit. 
Probably its best season in the last decade 
was that of an excellent Italian circus 
company, whose success suggested a revival 
in popular taste for such " varieties." 


S. xii. 68). I have often noticed how Manx 
people use the article with some place-names, 
and not with others ; and I long since came 
to the conclusion that the article is used if 
the name has a descriptive meaning to one 
who understands Manx, but not otherwise. 
For instance, in Kirk Michael parish, where 
I was vicar thirty years ago, you would 
hear a native say, " I was in the mountains 
by the Slieu Dhu," because the name 
describes it "the Black Mountain" ; but 
another mountain in the same parish, not 
far off " Sartfell " although it means 
exactly the same, is spoken of without the 
article because it is Scandinavian, and so 
it conveys no descriptive meaning to a 
Manxman it is merely " a name they put 
on it " (as they say). They will speak of 
rm_ -D^ (rough road), "The 

The Baregarrow 

Kerrooglass " (green quarter), " The Clyeen " 
(little hedge), and so on ; but Scandinavian 
place-names like " Skerristal," " Cammal," 
&c., or farms named after former owners, 
like " Ballacaine," are used without the 
article, because they do not convey to the 
mind a definite picture in the same way that 
Manx words do. In Welsh, " Bala " means 
" the outlet of a lake " : the town near the 
outlet of Llyn Tegid is called Bala in English, 
but in Welsh it is " Y Bala." 

S. Thomas, Douglas, I.o.M. 

Perched high in the Chiltern Hills is a 
village known as " The Lee," evidently 
from its relationship to the prevailing winds. 
Probably " The Lewis," the most northerly 
of the Hebrides, and the places mentioned 
by MB. RUSSELL, are capable of a similar 
explanation. S. D. C. 




I " (10 S. xi. 206). It is worth noting 
such phrases as " between you and I " 
were not unusual in English at least from 
the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. 
Thus Shakespeare, ' Merry Wives,' III. ii. 

10 s. xii. AUG. 7, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


25, " There is a league between my good j 
man and he " ; ' Merchant of Venice,' III. 
ii. 321, " All debts are cleared between you ' 
and I " ; ' Hamlet,' II. ii. 196, " Between 
who ? " The other Shakespearian examples, 
however, of the use of " between " agree 
with modern usage. Later examples are : 
Vanbrugh, 'The Provoked Wife' (1697), 
V. ii., "Between you and I, Belinda, I'm 
afraid the want of inclination seldom 
protects any of us " ; and Defoe, letter to 
J. Dyer, 17 June, 1710, "To state the matter 
fairly between you and I." The phrase 
" between you and I " was put by Chester- 
field into a letter written in the character 
of his footman to the Countess of Suffolk, 
6 Nov., 1766. This is not likely to have 
been an intentional vulgarism, for in writing 
to his son, 9 Dec., 1749, he says : " But 
let you and I analyse and simplify this good 
speaker " (so Bradshaw's edition, 1893, 
with sic after the " I " ; a less careful 
edition, with the imprint of W. Gibbings, 
London, 1890, reads " me "). The explana- 
tion suggested by Prof. A. S. Napier of 
Oxford, when lecturing on historical English 
syntax (1898), was that "you and I," 
occurring so often as the subject of a sen- 
tence, was felt to be an indivisible group, 
and was treated as such. Abbott, ' Shake- 
spearian Grammar,' 205, 209, suggests 
that me was replaced by / after dental 
sounds (i.e., after such words as " and," 
." but ") for the sake of euphony. 



C" Between you and I " has already been discussed 
at great length in N. & Q.' : see o S. ix. 275, 412 ; 
x. 18, 139, 190, 237, 291, 331, 357, 397 J 

" THE EVILS," FIELD-NAME (10 S. xi. 468). 
I venture to query whether this is not 
another instance of a vernacular word 
transformed in the process of its passage 
from a spoken to a written form. " The 
Eels " and " The Eales," names for low- 
lying grounds by riversides, pronounced 
eelz and ee-ilz, would lend themselves, in 
strange ears, to a mistake like this. See 
' Bale ' in * E.D.D.,' and compare its cross- 
references to ' Hale ' and ' Haugh ' in 


"TUDOR" SPELT "TYDDER" (10 S. xi. 
347, 453 ; xii. 78). In Mr. Gairdner's 
'Paston Letters,' vol. iii. p. 316 (1900), 
there is a proclamation of the second year oJ 
Richard III. in which the royal name of 
Tudor is spelt " Tydder." 


27, 70). Sir W alter Scott makes use of 
this expression in a letter to his elder son, 
written on 15 May, 1821. The young man, 
who was at the time in Ireland with his 
regiment of Hussars, seems to have spoken 
somewhat superciliously of " the lawyers 
and gossips of Edinburgh," which naturally 
provoked his father to the expression of a 
salutary and characteristic retort. After 
warning his correspondent against the 
delusion that young military men are the 
observed of all observers, and quoting 
appositely from Fielding, he proceeds im- 
pressively as follows : 

" Avoid this silly narrowness of mind, my 
dear boy, which only makes men be looked on 
in the world with ridicule and contempt. Lawyer 
and gossip as I may be, I suppose you will allow 
I have seen something of life in most of its 
varieties ; as much at least as if I had been, like 
you, eighteen months in a cavalry regiment, or, 
like Beau Jackson, in ' Roderick Random,' had 
cruised for half a year in the chops of the Channel. 
Now, I have never remarked any one, be he soldier, 
or divine, or lawyer, that was exclusively attached 
to the narrow habits of his own profession, but 
what such person became a great twaddle in 
good society." 

If the reference to Beau Jackson concerns 
what that adventurer says of himself in 
Smollett's sixteenth chapter, then we are 
afforded here an interesting illustration of 
Scott's tendency to give the general drift 
of his author while depending upon himself 
for effective details. According to the 
narrator, what Jackson said was, " that 
although he had seen a great deal of the 
world, both at land and sea, having cruised 
three whole months in the Channel, yet he 
should not be satisfied until he had visited 
France." There may, of course, be another 
passage which contains the phrase used in 
the letter, but this seems unlikely. 


It may be of slight interest to record that 
the alliterative collocation, in the primary 
senses of the jaw and the thr6at, occurs 
c. 1400. In ' The Laud Troy Book,' 1. 5538, 
it is said of Hector and the Greeks : 
Here [their] armes vayled not an hoppe, 
He smot In-two bothe ehanel and choppe. 

This is an early quotation for what is now 
familiar as a Bath chap. 

As to " hoppe," it is equivalent to "a 
flax-bete," ibid., 1. 5315. H. P. L. 

vii. 344 ; ix. 97, 236). There is a small 
medallion portrait of Kitty Kennedy the 
lady who saved her two brothers from the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 7, im 

gallows in The Town and Country Magazine, 
ii. 289. It does not bear the slightest 
resemblance to the well-known engraving 
of the lady in the Eastern dress by Thomas 
Watson after Reynolds, but the face is 
somewhat like that of the lady with the 
lapdog in the print by Valentine Green 
after E. F. Calze, described by J. Chaloner 
Smith, * British Mezzotinto Portraits,' 


(10 S. ix. 270; xi. 434, 477). '\ On dit 
d'un homme qui se sauve a la hate qu'il 
est sorti un pied chausse et 1'autre nu." 
The saying is still common : I quote it from 
the ' Dictionnaire Universel, dit de Trevoux,' 
edition of 1771, s.v. ' Pied.' H. GAIDOZ. 
22, Rue Servandoni, Paris (VI e ). 

xii. 68). Jamieson gives to scomer, skomer, 
v.n., to sponge, cater ; Belg. schuymer, a 
smell-feast ; gaan schuymen, to sponge, to 
be a smell-feast, to live upon the catch ; 
and this from schuym, the scum of a pot. 
In brewing, cleansing is the act of removing 
the yeast from the beer, in order to stop 
the fermentation. One of the modes is by 
simply skimming the yeast off as it rises to 
the surface : the hand who performs this 
work is called the skimmer, or scummer, or 
(obsolete form) scomer. 

In common phraseology " upon the hope " 
(or hoop) meant to drink without stint ; 
to drink and make good cheer with reckless 
prodigality. See ' N.E.D.' under ' Cock-a- 
hoop,' and Sir James Murray's note on 
" figures ' on the Hoop ' " in tavern signs. 


In Yorkshire a scummer = skimmer, a 
thing for removing scum. 


50). It is quite natural that the stones 
lying inland, and subject to horse and wheel 
traffic, should be split, and that those on the 
beach should retain their natural condition. 
Those that are carted inland for paving 
have to be split to make them suitable for 
mending roads. W. SCARGILL. 

S. xi. 141, 210; xii. 33, 78). " Horse- 
godmother " (ante, p. 33) is defined by the 
' N.E.D.' as " a large, coarse-looking woman" 
(dialect and vulgar), with a reference to 
Thackeray's ' Vanity Fair,' chap, xxxix. 


Not having read Mr. Laurence North's 
' Syrinx,' I cannot be sure about " the 
mysterious volume " mentioned therein. 

Many years ago I made the following note 
of the title of a book which was lent to me : 

"The Perfumed Garden of the Sheik Nefzaloni ; 
or, The Arab Art of Love. Sixteenth century. 
Translated from the French version of the Arabian 
MS. Cosmopoli, 1886." 

Possibly my version of the name " Nefza- 
loni " is correct. What place London,. 
Paris, Brussels, &c. " Cosmopoli " stands 
for I do not know. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

xi. 169, 254, 316, 394, 458). There have 
lately been published in The Daily Mail 
two stories, the first being ' A Sinner in 
Israel,' and the latter called * The Money 
Master,' both by Pierre Costello. Many of 
the characters in both are sons or daughters 
of Israel, although some of them are not 
very strict followers of the tenets of Judaism. 


Chatterton in one of his^dramatic inter- 
ludes invents a character, Counterfeit, and 
calls him a Jew. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

GLAMORGAN (10 S. xi. 306, 498). If 
" Glamorganshire " is an error, it is a much 
older one than stated at the latter reference. 
Speed's ' History of Great Britain ' (London,. 
1623) has " Glamorganshire." The map in 
' The History of Wales ' by the Rev. Wm.. 
Warrington (London, 1788) has the same,, 
and ' A Collection of Welsh Tours ' (London,. 
1898) agrees. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. 

xi. 327, 477). " Taffy " and "toffee" as 
used on Tyneside have a sort of connexion, 
"s " taffy " is the local pronunciation of 

toffee." R. B R. 

South Shields. 

THOMAS PAINE'S REMAINS (10 S. xii. 44).. 
See the communications at 4 S. i. 15, 84, 
201, 303; 7 S. iii. 249, 336. Mr. Dow's 
pamphlet has already been summarized at 
4 S. i. 201. W. C. B. 

SAINTS' SATISFACTION (10 S. xii. 48). 
" I reckon that the sufferings of this present 
time are not worthy to be compared with 
the glory which shall be revealed in us " 
(Romans viii. 18). " Our light affliction, 
which is but for a moment, worketh for us 
a far more exceeding and eternal weight o 
glory " (2 Cor. iv. 17), ST. S WITHIN. 

10 s. XIL AUG. 7, 





The Manuscripts of Westminster Abbey. By J. 
Armitage Robinson, D.D., and M. R. James, 
Litt.D. (Cambridge University Press.) 
The History of Westminster Abbey. By John Fie te. 
Edited by J. Armitage Robinson, D.D. (Same 

IT is disappointing to learn that the muniment 
room of our national Abbey is but scantily supplied 
with MSS., and those of only secondary importance. 
Such as they are, the present Dean has resolved 
that they shall be printed under the general title 
of "Notes and Documents relating to Westminster 
Abbey," and he has made an excellent beginning 
with the two fair volumes which lie before us. The 
first of these he introduces with an antiquarian 
chapter ' On the Making and Keeping of Books in 
the Abbey between the Years 1160 and 1660,' and 
closes with an account of the Westminster Char- 
tularies, the most important of which seems to be 
that known as ' Domesday,' written at the beginning 
of the fourteenth century. 

The rest of the volume consisting of chapters 
on ' The Remains of the Monastic Library,' on the 
' MSS. in the Chapter Library between 1623 and 
1694,' and on the 'MSS. now in the Chapter 
Library' has been contributed by Dr. M. R. 
James, whose unique knowledge of ancient books 
and diplomatic sources enables him to write with 
authority on these subjects. Among matters of 
general interest may be mentioned the curious 
thirteenth-century rules for the behaviour of school- 
boys (p. 67), and a quaint Christmas carol of the 
fifteenth century, beginning "A babe ys borne I 
wys" (p. 76), and the last line ending with "for 
ever and day," which we would correct, periculo 
nostro, to " for ever and ay." The peculiar phrase 
"Seyny books" is explained as meaning certain 
choir books which monks who had been bled 
(saignes, sanguinati) were allowed to use (p. 11). 

When the conspicuous position which the Abbey 
has always occupied in the ecclesiastical and civil 
annals of the country is remembered, it is strange 
that a history of its foundation written so far back 
as the middle of the tenth century by one John 
Flete, a monk of the house, has been lying 
all these centuries unprinted and unedited 
until the present Dean in this year of grace 
has wiped away the reproach, and given us 
a trustworthy text with every, typographical 
advantage. Flete, after relating the legen- 
dary story of the founding of the Abbey and 
its consecration by St. Peter in proprid persond, 
cites many representative bulls and charters which 
were issued in its favour, and gives a very curious 
catalogue of relics of the saints which it claimed to 
possess (pp. 69-70). 

In the definition of the bounds of the parish of 
St. Margaret we find mention of "fyburne, Cniete- 
brigge, Westeburn, and Padintun in a document of 
Stephen Langton, 1222; and of Wendesworthe, 
Batricheseye, and Chelchith (i.e. Wandsworth, 
Battersea, and Chelsea) in a commission of Pope 
Gregory IX., 1231, which will be of interest to 
students of place-names (pp. 63, 66). A curious 
description of a salmon leap or ladder by Giraldus 
Cambrensis (p. 68) has a reference in a foot-note to 

"in Avenliphensi fluvio non procul a Dublinia 
saltus," which not every one, perhaps, will recog- 
nize as a reference to Leixlip on the Anna Liffey. 

WE are pleased to see in Mr. Frowde's " World's 
Classics " Mrs. Gaskell's North and South, one of 
the books which have a permanent hold on 
readers. Mr. Clement Shorter in his brief intro- 
duction indicates that Labour problems were 
in the air in 1855, and mentions Dickens's ' Hard 
Times,' which appeared only a year before 
'North and South.' It is to Dickens that the 
selection of the title was due, ' Margaret Hale ' 
being the alternative. The heroine certainly 
dominates the book. At the same time a modern 
reader rather wonders at the sermonizing in 
which so young a girl ventures frequently to 
indulge. We must remember that Mrs. Gaskell. 
lived in an exceptionally serious circle, and that 
in those days a period of " obstinate question- 
ings," as Mr. Shorter says questions of religion 
were discussed with a freedom which seems at 
present repugnant to the average Englishman,, 
old or young. We do not mean that there was 
then more religion, but there is now a good deal 
more reserve. Apart from this tendency to 
preachiness, Margaret Hale is to us as, we 
doubt not, to a whole mass of readers one. of 
the most attractive of girls, and, fortunately, not 
perfect. She gives us an impression of beauty 
and distinction which the floods of extravagant 
praise lavished by modern lady novelists on their' 
heroines utterly fail to suggest. 

An oddity of ' North and South ' is pointed out 
by Mr. Shorter in the presence of two lengthy 
sentences on pp. 450 and 451, which are repeated, 
with but slight alterations on pp. 489 and 490. 


MESSRS. S. DRAYTON & SONS of Exeter have in v 
their Catalogue 205 a copy of 'Ingoldsby,' 3 vpls., . 
original cloth, 51. 5s. (Vol. I., second edition;. 
Vols. II. and III., first editions); Hartley Cole- 
ridge's Poems, 1833, 21. 2s.; Dickens's 'American 
Notes,' first edition, 17s. 6d. ; 'English Catalogue 
of Books,' Vol. IV., 1881-9, 18s.; Noel Humphreys's 
' Art of Writing,' 18s. ; Johnson's ' Lives of the 
Poets,' notes by Peter Cunningham, 3 vols., 1854, 
18s.; and 'Life of Morland,' Joy George Dayies,. 
large 4to, II. 15s. (only 300 copies of this edition). 
There are some old newspapers, including The 
Black Dwarf ; also works under Military and 
Natural History, besides Addenda of Theology, &c. 

Messrs. Myers & Co. issue two Catalogues for 
August. No. 147 contains books, and No. 148 
engravings. In the former we notice a fine set of 
the Delphin Classics, large paper, 194 vols., 
royal 8vo, half purple morocco extra, Valpy, 
1819-30, 351. Under Carlyle is a presentation 
copy of the ' Life of Schiller,' one cover and back 
missing, 1825, Ql. 15s. ; and under Chaucer the 
fifth edition, 1602, 61. 17 s. Qd. There is an extra- 
illustrated copy of ' Nollekens and his Times,' 
1828, 51. 17s. Qd. Under Pope is the first issue 
of ' The Temple of Fame,' with the half-title 
and the two leaves of advertisement at the end, 
1715, 51. 17s. Qd. An extra-illustrated copy of 
Stone's 'Mary I. of England,' 2 vols., red crushed 
levant by Zaehnsdorf, is 101. 10s. ; and the first 
issue of Skelton's ' Mary Stuart,' HZ. 10s. Under 
Arctic is'Nansen's ' Farthest North,' 2 vols. in 1 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rio s. xn. AUG. 7, im 

10s. Qd. Under Art are many items of interest. 
There is a good list under Charles I. Among 
London items is a collection of many hundreds of 
newspaper cuttings (all dated), prints, playbills, 
.song-heads, &c., relating to Wapping and the 
Thames Tunnel, covering a period from 1710 
to 1845, mounted and bound in a folio volume, 
II. 10s. In the Addenda, under Dickens, is an 
autograph letter of four pages, dated London 
Tavern, 25 Feb., 1851, asking the Chief Constable 
for "four police officers in uniform and eight in 
plain clothes to be at a dinner to be given to 
Macready," signed in full, with franked envelope, 
3Z. 10s. 

The Catalogue of portraits contains Dickens 
at the age of twenty-six, the original water-colour 
by Samuel Laurence, also the lithograph of the 
same, 9Z. 9s. the two ; Queen Charlotte, after 
Beechey by Bartolozzi, 21. 2s. ; Charles I., after 
Van Dyck by Boydell, 4Z. 4s. ; the Princess 
Charlotte, after Sir T. Lawrence, 21. 2s. ; Van 
Dyck, after Rubens, 31. 3s. ; Martin Folkes, after 
Vanderbank, 11. Is. ; and Colley Cibber, 21. 2s. 
There are portraits of Byron and Thackeray, 
Ouikshank caricatures, and other engravings. 

Messrs. Simmons & Waters's Leamington 
Catalogue 236 contains ' The Avon Booklet,' 
edited by J. Thomson, 1904-5, 3 vols., 10s. 6d. 
This has a collection of early published or sup- 
pressed works, including Browning, Tennyson, 
Lamb, Shelley, Borrow, Thackeray, Dickens, and 
others. Bewick's ' .ZEsop,' first edition, royal 
8vo, original boards, uncut, 1818, is 21. 2s. Under 
Books and Bibliography are volumes of The 
Bookman ; Haney's ' Bibliography of Coleridge,' 
privately printed, Philadelphia, 1903, 14s. ; 
Livingston's ' First Editions of Charles and Mary 
Lamb prior to 1834,' New York, 1903, 11. Is. ; 
William Rossetti's ' Bibliography of Dante 
Rossetti,' 3s. ; and Prideaux's ' Bibliography of 
Stevenson,' 8s. Roman Catholic books include a 
.fine copy of the Breviary, translated by the 
Marquis of Bute, 1908, 21. 2s. Extra-illustrated 
books include Lady Charlotte Bury's ' Diary of a 
Lady in Waiting,' 2 vols., full polished green calf, 
1908, 3Z. 17s. Qd. ; Lady Anne Hamilton's ' Secret 
History of the Courts of George III. and IV.,' 
-three-quarter calf, 31. 17s. Qd. ; Howell's ' Familiar 
Letters,' full calf by Morrell, 4Z. ; Croker's edition 
of Boswell, 1839, 10 vols., full calf, 236 extra 
plates, Ql. 17s. Qd. ; and Rogers's ' Table Talk,' 
1856, extended to 2 vols., green morocco, 4Z. 4s. 
There are first editions of Swinburne. Tennyson 
items include ' The Tribute,' a collection of poems 
by various authors, 8vo, original cloth, 1837, 8s. 
Tennyson contributed 110 lines, a portion of which 
was republished in ' Maud ' in 1855. A collection 
of over 3,700 plates, hand coloured, forms a 
complete pictorial history of female costume from 
1798 to 1900 inclusive. The Empire costume 
was introduced into England by Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, youngest daughter of the 5th Duke of 
Argyle. Many of the plates contain numerous 
figures, so that over 11,000 dresses are represented. 
The collection is in 4 vols., royal folio, three- 
quarter morocco extra, 281. 

Mr. A. Russell Smith's List 67 contains works 
on America, Old English Literature, Topography, 
And Family History. We note Rendle's ' Old 
Southwark,' 1878, 11. Is. ; Halliwell's ' Stratford- 
upon-Avon in the Tunes of the Shakespeares, ' 

folio, 1864, 51. 5s. (only 30 copies privately printed) ; 
and the eleventh edition of Sidney's ' Arcadia,' 
1662, 21. 10s. There is a fine clean copy of 
Taylor the Water Poet's ' Old, Old, Very Old Man,' 
1703, 51. 5s. ; and the third edition, with the 
excessively rare portrait, of the Earl of Sterling's 
' The Monarchicke Tragedies,' 1616, red morocco 
extra by De Coyerley, 211. Another rare book 
is the original edition of Waller's ' Divine Medita- 
tions,' 1680, 31. 3s Under America is Mede's 
' Diatribse Pars IV.,' 4to, calf, 1652, 11. 5s. 
This contains Dr. Twiss's letters to Mr. Meade, 
and his replies as to the first peopling of America 
by Gog and Magog and the Devil. Other items 
include ' Antiquarian Repertory,' 4 vols., royal 
4to, 1807, 31. 3s. ; Baily's ' The Practice of Pietie,' 
1633, 21. 2s. (this copy is from the Isham Library) ; 
' English Martyrologie,' by a Catholic Priest 
(John Watson), 1608, 21. 2s. ; Fletcher's ' Christ's 
Victorie,' 1632, Ql. 10s. ; and Gilpin's ' Damono- 
logia Sacra,' 1677, 21. 2s. There are items under 
Charles I. and II. ; and under James I. is ' Workes, ' 
published by James (Montagu), Bishop of Win- 
chester, folio, calf, with the royal arms in gold, 
1616, 81. 8s. The verses beneath the portrait 
have been lately ascribed to Shakespeare, and it 
may have been issued prior to the book. The 
traffic problem existed as far back as 1699, for 
we find from a Proclamation to prevent inter- 
ruptions by hackney coaches, carts, and drays 
in King Street and Old Palace Yard, that the 
Lords and members of Parliament were frequently 
hindered from going to the House of Parliament, 
folio, broadside, 7s. Qd. 

Mr. Albert Sutton of Manchester has in his 
Catalogue 169 several first editions of Dickens, 
including ' David Copperfield,' original cloth, 
11. 10s. ; ' Dombey and Son,' 11. 5s. ; and ' Martin 
Chuzzlewit,' 11. 12s. Qd. Works on Heraldry 
include Foster's three volumes published at the 
cost of Lord Howard de Walden, 1904, 11. 10s. Qd. 
The Athenceum said of these : " By the issue of 
these great works of reference, Mr. Foster was 
doing more for the cause of genealogy than the 
whole College of Heralds." There are works 
under Ireland and Lancashire. A set of Russell 
Smith's " Library of Old English Authors," 
47 vols., cloth uncut, 1858-70, is Ql. 6s. ; ' The 
Paston Letters,' 6 vols., printed on pure rag paper, 
1904, 21. ; and " The Early English Dramatists," 
12 vols., privately printed, 1905-8, Ql. 10s. 


WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers "at tl* Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

W. J. M. ("Lord Roberts"). -Outside our 

T. S. M. ("The Case is Altered"). -See 5 S. v. 
408; vi. 16; x. 276 ; xi. 139. 

CORRIGENDUM. A nte, p. 54, col. 2, 1. 27 for 
" Shatley " read Shotley. 

10 s. xii. AUG. 7, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 






Catalogues in each Section 
Regularly issued and sent post free to any part of the World on application. 







French Illustrated Books of the Eighteenth Century, and 
Modern French EDITIONS DE LUXE. 

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CONTENTS.-No. 291. 

NOTES: Scottish Market Customs, 121 Fiennes of 
Broughton, 123 'D.N.B. Epitome,' 124 Dirigible Bal- 
loons Anticipated, 125 Early Attempts at Aviation- 
Johnsons at Walsill, Staffs, 126 King's 'Classical and 
Foreign Quotations 'Keith's Mayfair Marriages, 127. 

(QUERIES : London Taverns in the Seventeenth Century 
"Harka" Flying Turk V. De Vos Kendall=Lyon, 
127 Authors Wanted Parodies of Kipling and the Poet 
Laureate Nicholas Hobart of Lindsey Hews or Huse 
Family Crayle Crayle, 1721-80 Gotham and the 
Gothamites The Pryor's Bank, Fulham Folk Song- 
Bible: "Knave of Jesus Christ," 128 Gravestones at 
Jordans Spanish Christmas Carol Meyer and Hoppner 
Families Bacon and Italy Epworth Parsonage Ghost- 
Miss Nash at Orchies Jacob Cole Robert Slade 
Spare Family " Skyle " " Moon-dog," Weather Sign 
Macaulay on Literature ' The Yahoo': 'The Naked 
Gospel'" No Flowers," 130. 

REPLIES : " Bourne " in Place - Names, 130 " The 
Saracen's Head," Snow Hill, 131 Bridg water Borough 
T. L. Peacock Richard Lovell Edgeworth, 132' The 
Oera Linda Book 'Portrait by Lawrence Charles II. 's 
Mock Marriage Happisburgh " Volksbiicher " " Sam- 
iritis" Lynch Law, 133 Dr. Johnson's Uncle Hanged 
Episcopal Scarf or Tippet Derivation of Edinburgh Sir 
Cuthbert Slade C. Pigott's Jockey Club,' 135 -Essex 
fatal to Women Dorchester : Birrell's Engraving, 136 
Girdlestone Healen Penny Harvest Supper Songs- 
Ordeal by Touch " Coherer "Old Names of Apples, 
137 General Picton Dr. Jay Eliza Fenning's Execu- 
tion Capt. R. J. Gordon Papaw : Maturing Meat, 138 
Royal Independent Hanoverian Lodge De Quincey 
Allusions Hocktide at Hexton Paul Braddon, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS .-Little Guides to Monmouthshire 
and Essex Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


AMONG the earliest references to regula- 
tions regarding trading customs is one to 
be found in the ' Lawys of the Burghis of 
Scotland, mayk and ordanyt be the Kyng 
David.' It is to the effect that any stall- 
holder in a market connected with a burgh 
must pay at the rate of one halfpenny per 
day ; and if the merchant had a covered 
stall he was to pay for custom a halfpenny 
on the market day, while if he had no 
cover his booth was mulcted in a farthing. 
There was a good deal of native cuteness 
shown in the regulations, for by another 
rule a penalty was imposed upon any man 
or woman who had the hardihood to go 
beyond the limits of the burgh to buy 
goods before they came within the precincts 
thereof. There was to be no stealing a 
march on one's neighbour. Good govern- 
ment prescribed the dues to be imposed, and 
sales must follow upon the basis thus 
calculated. Even in the case of fish, there 
were no picturesque fisherwomen to be 
seen offering the commodity from door to 

door ; all had to be disposed of in the market 
And so stringent were the rules that any 
one entering the town at night With a 
catch of fish had to remain until the market 
opened next morning. 

It is a common saying that there is no 
Act of Parliament through which a coach 
and four cannot be driven if there is a 
desire to escape its provisions. Some of 
the sailors were in the habit of taking more 
provisions in their ships than were necessary 
for the voyage, and on these daring adven- 
turers an embargo was laid. Anything 
taken with them beyond the necessities of 
the case was to be declared " escheit," and 
" applyit and inbrocht to our Souerane 
Ladyis use." But an exception was declared 
in the persons of the canny folk of Irvine, 
Glasgow, Dumbarton, and some others. 
To them was allowed the privilege of taking 
" bakin breid, browin aill, and aquauite " 
to the Western Isles, for the purpose of 
barter among the inhabitants thereof. If a 
concession were given with one hand, those 
west-coast men were to remember that a 
quo was required for the quid. No one was 
to be allowed to buy from strangers coming 
to the burghs in ships on the west seas, but 
only from men at the free ports. They 
seemed to know the outs and ins of human 
life, and could " take a survey " of daily 
necessities in those far-off days. 

By an Act of James IV. it was decreed 
thatr fairs and markets were not to be 
held on holy days nor within kirks or 
"kirkyairds." A special restriction was put 
upon the sale of malt ; this produce was 
not allowed to be sold in any other place 
than in open market, and only after the 
hour of 9 o'clock. The provost and bailies 
of the burgh were under strict orders to 
see that these provisions were carried out, 
and also that no more was taken for the 
making of one chalder of malt than one 
boll of barley. 

About the year 1540 it was found that 
the meal and " utheris wittalis " market 
of the town of Edinburgh, which was held 
in the " hie gaitt " of the town, was the 
means of drawing together " ane multitude 
of vyle, unhonest, and miserable creatures," 
who had no good motives in being there. 
With the view of removing this nuisance 
it was decreed that some other more con- 
venient place be found for the market, 
which would be creditable for all concerned. 
In these modern days there are exalted 
personages who hold office as inspectors 
of markets. But in the times to which we 
are referring nobody of lower rank than a 


NOTES AND QUERIES/ tio a xn. A, u, im. 

" bailie " was thought worthy of such a 
post. It was laid upon the magistrates of 
all burghs that they should visit the markets 
on every lawful day, and not only see that 
all the rules were being attended to, but 
also set a price on the fish therein exposed 
for sale. 

Reference has already been made to an 
Act passed by James IV. preventing markets 
being held on holy days. It was found 
desirable to extend the provisions of it to 
Sunday. With this view James IV. enacted 
that its purposes should be so applied. It 
was at that time the practice both in burghs 
and parishes to indulge in a good deal of 
gaming and playing, " passing to taverns 
and aillhouses," on Sundays, thereby result- 
ing in many "remaining fra the paroche 
kirk in tyme of sermone and prayers." 
To put a stop to all such practices, severe 
penalties were imposed, and these when 
recovered were to be " applyit to ye help 
and relief of the puyr of the parochyne." 
There was tacked on to this an enactment 
against those that " sueris abhominabill 
aithis." The higher the station in life the 
greater the offence at least if we are to 
judge by the penalties. Under one class 
we find prelates of the Kirk, " erles," or lords ; 
a baron or a beneficed man conies next, 
then the landed proprietor, vassal or f ewar ; 
while for the puir folk who had no gear it 
was provided that they be put in " stokis, 
joggs, or presonit for ye space of four houres." 
The fair sex must have been rather addicted 
to loud expressions, for they are also ^ taken 
into consideration. They are to be "weyit 
and considerit confprme to thair blude and 
estaite of their pairties." Whether it was 
found that bargains could not be concluded 
without tempers being lost is not stated, 
though it may be inferred, but it was deemed 
necessary to appoint censors to attend the 
markets to imprison profane swearers. 

Who has not heard of the Sautmarket of 
Glasgow ? In 1594 a petition was presented 
to the Estates, by certain parties interested, 
that the markets of Glasgow were too much 
crowded together. Even then there was a 
desire for devolution. The petitioners sug- 
gested that the bear and malt market 
might be removed to the head of Grey 
Friars Wynd, which was considered a 
more suitable place. The Sautmarket was 
found to be entirely out of place in its 
then location, as it was at a distance 
from the brig and water of the city, and 
in consequence users of the above commodities 
were put to great expense for transporta- 
tion from the Wynd head to the bridge, a 

distance of fully a mile. Common sense 
prevailed, and the market with its attendant 
glories was removed " to the auld station, 
where it stude for the common benefits of 
the hail inhabitants." 

In 1594 rather an interesting case arose 
in connexion with the Edinburgh market. 
Certain of the bailies and inhabitants of 
the Canongate stated that, the Burgh 
of Edinburgh having the liberty of three 
free markets weekly, at which all the lieges 
were at liberty to buy " fra sone to sone,'" 
the complainers had exercised that right.. 
Of late an attempt had been made to molest 
them, and they sought the protection of 
the Council. They evidently had the* 
makings of a case, for the King and his. 
Council remitted the consideration of the- 
complaint to the Lords of the Council and 
Session to decide the question. 

About the same date Perth had am 
example of the ticklishness of interfering 
with the locality of these stances. When 
that city was appointed a free Royal Burgh 
"the Magistrates and inhabitants thereof for 
the tyme, willing be a civile and politique forme- 
of government to advance the said burgh and to> 
cause the same flurische in welth and policie," 

appointed a fish market to be at the- 
" South Gaitt, at that part thairpf foir anent 
Allareit Chappell, as a place maiist meit and. 
commodious thairto." 

After a time influence in favour of another 
portion of the town prevailed, and it was- 
removed thither. In later years a hankering 
after the old site asserted itself, and the^ 
complaint having been referred to a com- 
mission, their decree was "that all maner. 
of sey fische cumand to the^ said burgh on 
horsbak sould be streykini and sauld in 
the South Gaitt." 

As an example of hoxv: j jealously the 
power to lay on taxation or customs was 
guarded by those in authority; a case which 
occurred in the town of Ha wick may be- 
referred to. Sir James Douglas of Drum- 
lanrig, on his own behalf and in the interests 
of his tenants, complained that certain 
bailies of the town had imposed a tax of 
40s. on " everie rude of twelff score rude 
of land " pertaining to Sir James in the 
barony of Hawick. To this the laird 
objects, as it is " bot for the privat use- 
of the personis particularlie above-written 
and others of thair societie and f ellowschip. " 
But this is not all. 

" The saidis personis committaa mony ma 
insolencyis, oppressionis and wrongis uponn the 
said Sir James tennentis and servandis ; stayis 
his servandis and customaris for lifting of the- 
ordinair and dew customs of the town of Hawik_ 



quhilkis ar onlie proper to him ; and thay uplift 
the same thamsellfs in a far gritter measour and 
proportionn nor evir the said Sir James or 
his predicessouris liftit the same. Especialie, 
quhairas the said Sir James tooke onlie aucht 
pennyis of a load of victuall, thay tak ane ladle 
full of victuall, quilk wilbe quadruple the availl 
of aucht pennyis ; and quhairas the said Sir 
James tuke onlie twa pennyis of a stane of butter, 
cheis, and woll, thay tak aucht pennyis of everie 
stane, with a piece of butter and cheis ane lock 
woll, whilk wilbe worth twelff pennyis." 

Thus ran a portion of the indictment. In 
this case the King's Advocate intervened, 
and the defenders stated 

" that same taxation was set doun and aggreit 
unto with ane uniforme consent of the bailleis, 
counsaill and haill communitie of the town of 
Hawik for the publict and common effairis and 
causis of the towne, as namelie for paying of the 
debtis contractit be thame the tyme of the 
visitationn of the said toun with the plaige, the 
repairing of the kirk bell, paying of thair minis- 
teris stipend, biggeing of thair tolbuith, and 
defraying of the chairgeis quhilkis thay debursit 
in resisting of the said Laird of Drumlanrig his 
troublesome persuitis." 

But it was of no fcvail. The Lords of 


" having lykewise at grite lenth hard both the 

saidis partyis uponn the remanent pintis, heads, 

and articlis of this camplaint, and being weill and 

throughlie advisit with all that wes proponit, 

reasoned, and allegeit be thame, ' ' 

remit the question of law to the Lords of 
Session, and find that the defenders had 
done wrong r 

" in lifting and taking of custome fra his Majesteis 
subjectis for the commoditeis and goodis quhilkis 
ar boght and sauld in thair mercat." 

The spirit of " wha daur meddle wi' me " 
received a shaking on its pedestal the 
King's writ must run. 



MR. A. R. BAYLEY, in his useful notes 
on ' Oxford Parliamentary Leaders in the 
Civil War,' ante, p. 82, fell, he must forgive 
me for saying, into a bad error when, upon 
mentioning William Fiennes, first Viscount 
Saye and Sele (' D.N.B.' xviii. 433), he 
described the connexion between the family 
of Fiennes and William of Wykeham, the 
Bishop of Winchester, as " mythical." 
Nothing concerning Wykeham' s kin is better 
established than this connexion. 

The Bishop's sister Agnes, generally 
known as Agnes Champeneys, had a daughter 
Alice, and this daughter, by 1 her marriage 
with William Perot, had three sons, William, 
Thomas, and John, all of whom took the 
name of Wykeham. See the settlement 

which the Bishop made of the manors of 
Burnham and Brene, Somerset, in 1396,. 
when William, one of these three sons of 
Alice Perot, was about to marry Alice 
Uvedale. It is printed in Lowth's ' Life ' 
of the Bishop, App. No. II. This William* 
who has generally been put down as the- 
eldest of the three, seems to have died with- 
out issue in the Bishop's lifetime ; at any 
rate, he is not mentioned in the Bishop's 
will (also printed by Lowth, App. No. XVII.), 
and his brother Thomas is named in the 
will as the Bishop's heir (" consanguineum 
meum et heredem "). Not that he was, to 
speak strictly, the heir, because his mother, 
Alice Perot, survived the Bishop, and was 
still alive, as was also her husband, in 
1410. See the document printed by 
Lowth, App. No. III. 

This Thomas Wykeham represented Ox- 
fordshire in the House of Commons in 1402,. 
1416, 1422, and 1425 ; and was Sheriff of 
Oxfordshire and Berkshire in 1413, 1417, 
1426, and 1430, and of Hampshire in 1416. 
He received knighthood at an uncertain 
date, later, according to Shaw's ' Knights,' 
than Nov., 1416. In the licence tocrenellate 
his mansion at Broughton, which he obtained 
in 1406, he is styled the King's esquire 
('Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1405-8,' p. 161). His. 
landed estates included the manors of 
Broughton, Oxfordshire ; Ashe, Hants ; and 
Burnham, Somerset ('Feudal Aids,' ii. 348; 
iv. 186, 420). These were all properties that 
the Bishop had acquired by purchase (see 
Moberly's ' Life,' 2nd ed., pp. 33, 165) ; and 
Sir Thomas Wykeham derived title to them 
from the Bishop. The settlement which 
the Bishop made of Broughton in 1391 is 
printed in Collectanea Top. et Gen., ii. 368. 
The descent of Otterbourne, Hants, another 
manor that came to Sir Thomas from the 
Bishop, is traced in * Victoria History of 
Hants,' iii. 441. 

Sir Thomas died on 18 Oct., 1443, leaving 
as his heir his son William, then aged forty 
years and more (Inq. p.m. 22 Hen. VI. 
No. 16) ; and this son, who represented 
Bedfordshire in the Parliament of 1442, 
and was Sheriff of Oxfordshire in 1449, 
died in his turn on 18 Sept., 1456, leaving 
as his heir his daughter Margaret, then 
aged twenty -eight and more, the wife 
of Sir William Fenys or Fiennes, Kt., 
Lord of Saye (Inq. p.m. 35 Hen. VI. 
No. 19). This Sir William Fiennes was 
the second of the Barons of Saye and Sele 
by writ (see G. E. C.'s ' Peerage,' vii. 64 
et seq.), and Broughton Castle came to the 
family of Fiennes by reason of his marriage 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. A, u, im 

Margaret Wykeham. He seems to 
have been slain, while fighting on Edward 
IV.'s side, at the battle of Barnet in 1471 ; 
and was certainly survived by his wife 
Margaret, who, when she died on 20 May, 
1477, had another husband, John Hervy, 
but left as her heir Richard Fiennes, aged 
six years and more, the son of her son Henry 
Fiennes, who had predeceased her (Inq. p.m. 
17 Edw. IV. No. 45). Three inquisitions 
"were taken upon her death, and I follow 
two of them in the above description of her 
Jieir those taken respectively at Basing- 
toke, Hants, and at Deddington, Oxford- 
shire. According to the third, which was 
taken at Wells, Somerset, the grandson who 
was her heir was named Henry, and was then 
aged three years and more. Whether that 
finding was but a mistake or was due to some 
-customary heirship (in favour of a younger 
son) appertaining to lands mentioned in 
the inquisition, I do not know. But at any 
Tate Richard Fiennes, as the grandson and 
heir of Sir William Fynes de Say and Mar- 
garet his wife, proved in 1495 that he was 
born at Charlbury, Oxfordshire, on the Friday 
before Easter, 1471. See the printed 
' Calendar Inq. p.m. Hen. VII.' (vol. i.), 
~No. 1079. This Richard Fiennes was the 
:great - great - grandfather of William, first 
Viscount Saye and Sele. 

I have attempted thus to trace the con- 
nexion between the family of Fiennes and 
"William of Wykeham, not only because 
MB. BAYLEY has called it mythical, but also 
because in G. E. C.'s ' Peerage,' vii. 66 n. (a), 
Margaret Wykeham' s paternal grandfather is 
;said, by a slip that is liable to be repeated, 
to be " Sir William Wykeham," whereas 
he certainly was Sir Thomas. H. C. 



<See 10 S. ix. 21, 47, 83, 152, 211, 294, 397, 

431; x. 183, 282; xii. 24.) 

THE following is the second instalment of 
my third list of corrections, omissions, and 
suggestions : 

Edwards of Nant (Thomas), known as the 
-"Cambrian Shakespeare," b. 1738, d. 1810. 
Wrote several dramas and poems. His portrait, 
-engraved in stipple, appeared in 1800. 

Ellicott (Charles John), Bp. of Gloucester, b. 
1819 ; d. 15 Oct., 1905. Chairman for eleven 
years of the company of Revisers of the New 
Testament. Author of many works on theology 
and Biblical criticism besides his great Bible 

Enfield (William), 1741-97. Add: Wrote in 
'Conjunction with Perry the first ' History of 
-Liverpool,' folio, pub. at Warrington, 1773. 

Feilde or Field (John), d. 1588. Add: Trans- 
lator of Calvin's ' Thirteen Sermons on Free 
Election,' 1579; 'Four Sermons of matters very 
profitable,' 1579 ; and ' Prayers on Hosea,' 1583. 

Fetherstone or Featherstone (Christopher). 
Translator of Calvin's commentary on Gospel of 
St. John, 1584, and Acts of the Apostles, 1585, 
and of Pope Sixtus V.'s 'British Thunderbolt,' 

Fielding (Thomas). Compiler of ' Select Pro- 
verbs of All Nations,' 1824. 

Fitzsimon (Henry), 1566-1643. Add: Wrote 
a ' Catholike Confutation of John Rider's Clayme 
of Antiquitie,' 1608 ; ' Reply to Rider's Rescript,' 

Fleming (Abraham), 1552 P-1607. Add : 
Author of a * Registre of Hystories. Trans, from 
^Elianus,' 1576. 

Flower (Sarah), wife of C. E. Flower (q.v. 10 S. x. 
185), d. July, 1908. Bequeathed her house and 
grounds, with about 12,OOOL, to the Shakespeare 
Memorial at Stratford-on-Avon. 

Fludd (Robert), 1574-1637. Add: Author of 
' Integrum Morborum Mysterium sive Medicinse 
Catholics; Tractatus,' 1631. Add " De Fluctibus" 
to his pen-names. 

Foard (James T.), barrister. Author of 
1 Moral Dignity of Shakespearian Drama,' 1858 ; 
' Life of Francis Bacon,' 1861 ; ' Treatise on the 
Law of Merchant Shipping and Freight,' 1880 ; 
' Genesis of " Hamlet," ' 1889 ; ' Shakespeare's 
Alleged Forgery of a Coat of Arms,' 1890 ; ' On 
" Macbeth," ' 1893 ; ' Bacon-Shakespeare Craze,' 
1895 ; ' Shakespeare's Probable Connection with 
Lancashire,' 1896 ; ' Dramatic Dissensions of 
Jonson, Marston, and Dekker,' 1897 ; ' More 
Silly Stories about Shakespeare,' 1898 ; ' Shake- 
speare's Mission. . ^. as Dramatic Poet,' 1898; 
' Some Caprices of Criticism,' 1898 ; 'On the 
Law Case : Shylock v. Antonio,' 1899 ; ' Some 
Recent Biographies of Shakespeare,' 1900 ; 
' Joint Authorship of Marlowe and Shakespeare,' 

Ford (Robert), d. at Glasgow, 1905, in his 
sixtieth year. Edited ' Robert Fergusson's 
Poems.' Author of ' Thistledown ' and ' Vaga- 
bond Songs.' 

Foster (Joseph). Edited ' Alumni Oxonienses,' 

Fuller (Thomas), 1654-1734, physician. Add : Pro- 
bably born at Hellingly. He was not born at Rose- 
hill (as stated by ' D.N.B.') ; that residence only 
came into the possession of a remote branch of his 
family half a century later (see pedigree in Berry's 
' Sussex Genealogies ') The further remarks of the 
'D.N.B.' upon the Fuller family and the iron 
industry are open to grave question. 

GastreU (Rev. Francis), b. 1707(?), d. 1768. 
Nephew to Francis Gastrell, Bp. of Chester. 
Purchased in 1752 New Place, Stratford-on- 
Avon, formerly Shakespeare's property. De- 
stroyed the house and the poet's mulberry tree 
in a fit of spleen in 1759, earning thereby a 
scathing sonnet from the pen of D. G. Rossetti. 
Stated by Mr. Sidney Lee in error to have been 
Vicar of Stratford, in his ' Stratford-on-Avon,' 
1904, p. 299. 

Golding (Arthur), 1536-1605? Add: Trans- 
lator of Calvin's commen taries upon Daniel, 1570 ; 
and of his sermons upon Job, 1574 ; Ephesians, 
1577 ; and Deuteronomy, 1583. 

10 s. XIL AUO. 14, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Goldney (Edward). Author of ' Scriptural 
Counsel,' 1770 ; " Infallible Remedies for the 
Perfect Cure of all National Unhappiness. . . .by 
E. Goldney, Gent., Widower, hi the 60th year of 
his age, 40th in constitution, an independent 
Freeholder of Wilts," 1770. 

Green (Samuel G.), D.D., b. 1822; d. Streatham, 
8 Sept., 1905. Editor, and afterwards Secretary, 
of the Religious Tract Society. Author of 
' Handbook to the Grammar of the Greek Testa- 
ment,' 1870 ; ' Handbook to Church History ' ; 
' Christian Creed and Creeds of Christendom ' ; 
and many other works. 

Grego (Joseph), b. 1844(?), d. 1908. Author 
of ' Rowlandson the Caricaturist,' 1880. Illus- 
trator of ' Gronow's Reminiscences and Recol- 
lections,' 1889. 

Griffiths (Major Arthur), d. March, 1908. 
Author of ' Mysteries of Police and Crime,' 
' Fifty Years of Public Service,' and other works. 

Grocott (James) of Much Woolton. Author of 
' Almedo : a Poem,' 1819. 

Grocott (John Cooper), Attorney and Sergeant- 
at-Mace of Liverpool. Author of ' Practice of 
the Borough Court of Liverpool,' 1837, probably 
the first provincial work dealing with local law ; 
' Index to Familiar Quotations from British 
Authors,' 1854 ; reprinted 1863, . 1866, and sub- 
sequently; and several other Quotation Handbooks. 

Haigh (Arthur Elam), d. 1905. Author of 
'The Attic Theatre,' 1889. Co-author of a 
* Commentary on Virgil.' 

Hall (Anthony), 1679-1723. Add : Edited 
Moll's 'Atlas Geographicus,' 1711-17. 

Hall (Elizabeth). See Barnard, ante, p. 25. 

Hall (T. B.). Author of a '.Flora of Liverpool,' 

Hardman (Frederick), 1814-74. Add : Author of 
'Peninsular Scenes and Sketches,' 1847, reprinted 
1868 ; ' Student of Salamanca,' 1847 (issued anony- 
mously) ; .'Scenes and Adventures in Central 
America,' 1852; 'Sigismund,' 1856; 'Spanish Cam- 
paign in Morocco,' 1860. 

Harmar or Harmer (John), 1555-1613. Add : 
Translator of Calvin's ' Sermons upon the Com- 
mandments,' 1579. 

Hart (Joan), nee Shakespeare, d. 1646. Sister 
of the poet. Succeeded to the Birthplace pro- 
perty in Henley Street, Stratford. Married 
William Hart. 

Hathaway (Anne). See .Shakespeare (Anne), 

Henley (William Ernest), b. Gloucester, 23 Aug., 
1849. Author, editor, and playwright. 

Hodges (Anthony). Translator of ' Achilles 
Tatius : Loves of Clitophon and Leucippe,' 1638. 

Home (Robert), 1519-80 ? Add : Translator 
of Calvin's ' Two Godly and Learned Sermons,' 
1584. Issued posthumously. 

Huggins (William), 1820-84. For " animal 
painter " read " painter." He painted portraits, 
also architectural and other subjects, in addition 
to animals. 

Hughes (A.), d. 1905. Of the Public Record 
Office. Co-editor of the ' Dialogus de Scaccario.' 
Contributed to The. English Historical Review. 

Japp (Alexander Hay), also known under his 
pen-name of H. A. Page. B. Dun, Forfarshire, 
1839 ; d. 1905. Author of ' Three Great Teachers,' 
1865 ; ' Memoir of Hawthorne,' 1873 ; ' Thoreau : 

his Life and Aims,' 1878 ; and other works.. 
Sub -editor of Good Words and Contemporary 

Jebb (Sir Richard Claverhouse), M.P. D. Cam- 
bridge, 9 Dec., 1905. Editor of Sophocles' 
' Electra,' 1867, and ' Ajax,' 1868. Author of 
' Translations into Greek and Latin Verse,' 1873,, 
and other famous works. 

Jervis (Swynfen), b. 1797, d. 1867. Author of 
' Proposed Emendations of the Text of Shake- 
speare,' 1860 ; ' Dictionary of the Language of 
Shakespeare,' 1868. 

Johnson (Lionel), poet and critic. B. 1867, 
d. 1902. Author of ' Art of Thomas Hardy ' and 
two volumes of verse. 

Johnson (Michael), b. Cubley, Derbyshire,, 
Lichfield bookseller and magistrate. Father of 
Samuel Johnson. 

Johnson (Nathaniel), b. 1712 (?), d. 1737. 
Succeeded his father (Michael Johnson, q.v.) as 
a bookseller at Lichfield. Brother of Samuel 

Johnstone (David Lawson). D. Edinburgh, 
13 Nov., 1905. Author of ' The Mountain King- 
dom,' ' Rebel Commodore,' and other stories- 
for children. 

Kearsley (George), printer and publisher- 
Indicted for publishing The North Briton. Author 
of ' The Traveller's Entertaining Guide through 
Great Britain,' 1803. 

Kelvin (William Thomson, first baron), b. 
Belfast, 26 June, 1824 ; d. 1908. President of 
Royal Society. Author of many scientific 
works. Described by Sir Oliver Lodge as the 
" greatest man of science the nineteenth century 

Lewkenor (Sir Lewis). Translator of Torque- 
mada's ' Spanish Mandevile of Miracles,' 1600. 

Lewkenor (Samuel). Author of a ' Discourse 
not altogether unprofitable for such as are desirous 
to know the Situation and Customs of foraine 
Cities without travelling to see them,' 1600. 

Locke (John), 1632-1704. Add: His 'Post- 
humous Works ' issued 1706. 

Ludham (John). Translator of ' The Practise 
of Preaching,' by A. Hyperius, 1577. 

(To be continued.) 

latest volume issued by the Royal Historical 
Society (Camden Third Series, vol. xvi.), 
'Dispatches from Paris, 1784-1787,' con- 
tains two passages, both occurring in letters 
from Dorset to Carmarthen, which have a 
particular interest at the present time, when 
speculations as to the possibilities of the 
dirigible balloon are so much " in the air." 

The first passage, from a letter written in 
Paris, 16 Feb., 1786, is as follows : 

" The Government has at last accepted Monsr. 
Montgolfier's proposal, concerning which I had 
the honour of writing to your Lordship last week. 
Thirty thousand livres "are to be granted to him 
in advance for the experiment, and if it succeeds, 
the whole of his expenses will be paid, without 
any examination of his accounts ; a pension will 



be granted to him, and every honorary reconi 
pense bestowed on him to which he can aspire 
He pretends to have discovered the means o 
guiding his machine, but it was not till after h 
had declared his intention of offering his projec 
to England in case of refusal here, that it wa 

The second extract is from a letter datec 
28 Dec., 1786 : 

" M. Montgolfier pretends to have at las 
discovered means of directing the course o 
Balloons, and has obtained the sanction of M. de 
Calonne for his first experiment, which is to be 
made the first day of next May, when he engages 
"to depart from a town in Auvergne, distant from 
Paris 150 miles, and to descend at or near the 
City in the space of seven hours. I should 
almost scruple to mention to your Lordship 
^in undertaking so extraordinary, had I noi 
heard from exceedingly good authority thai 
uch a plan is seriously in agitation. Greal 
credit is given to M. Montgolfier's superior skil 
in these matters, and that gentleman's friends 
are sanguine in their expectations of his success 
The weight he proposes to carry exceeds thai 
of a waggon load." 

It has taken some 120 years to render 
Montgolfier's ambitions practicable, and but 
for the discovery of petroleum oil-wells, 
and the invention of light motors using this 
kind of fuel, the conquest of the air might 
still have been as problematical as it was 
when Dorset wrote. J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

xi. 8, 98, 145, 425, and 465 have been 
supplied, by various contributors, some 
very interesting particulars concerning at- 
tempts at aerial navigation. I have just 
come upon an account of a Jewish flying 
man in the columns of The Jewish World 
of the 30th ult. This early navigator of 
the air was one Otto Lilienthal, who is 
styled in this article the " pioneer and martyr 
of aerial flight." The article, interesting 
though it is, is too long for reproduction 
here ; all that can be said is that he was 
born in May, 1848, at Anklam. 

" Lilienthal, who was assisted by his brother, 
experimented for twenty-five years. It was not 
until 1891 that he made his first flight; and 
five years later, on August 9th, at Rhinow, his 
machine was caught and tipped over by a gust 
of wind when he was fifty feet in the air. One 
of the wings of his machine, which had been 
damaged in a previous flight, had not, unfor- 
tunately, been properly repaired, and it is sup- 
posed to have given way. The machine turned 
a complete somersault ; Lilienthal came crashing 
to the ground, and was instantly killed." 

An illustration of the machine is given in 
The Jewish World, and if it looks a little 
peculiar to us, it* is certainly not stranger 
than some of those with which we are 
getting acquainted from day to day. 

Lilienthal did not use a motor, and he 
is said to have been the first to "glide" 
in the air. The machine to which he trusted 
himself consisted of " two large wings," 
which measured 23 feet from tip to tip ; 
they were made of calico, supported on a 
framework of wicker. It had also a " tail." 
He hung between the two wings, with his 
arms over the framework, as by this plan 
he believed he could counteract the currents 
of air which constantly threatened to 
overturn his " aeroplane." He experi- 
mented long and much, but it is clear that 
over his first machine he had very little 

" Ultimately he secured greater stability by 
fixing a pair of rigid wings over those which 
supported him, so that the extra surface thus 
obtained enabled him to reduce the length of 
the wings." 

Although not very successful himself, 
Lilienthal appears to have left behind him 
much that has been useful to his successors. 


subjoined extracts are from F. W. Will- 
more' s ' Registers of St. Matthew's, Walsall,' 
1890, which has no index, and therefore 
possibly the entries have not been collected 
before. Hacket, with whom there are two 
intermarriages, is a distinctly Lichfield 
name ; and Wollaston, and I believe Birch, 
are both connected with that town. The 
association of the Johnsons with Walsall 
seems to have ceased after 1643. 

John Jonson md. Eliz. Wathams, 28 July, 1582. 

John Jonson md. Sibella Hacket, 23 June, 1583. 

John Jonson md. Agnes Hackett, 19 Jan., 1600. 
Deceased wife's sister ?) 

Mr. Hu'frery Johnson md. Mary Wollaston, 19 
Sept., 1605. 

T'm'so Jonson md. Edwd. Birch, 25 May, 1585. 

Rich (?) Johnson md. John Smith, 3 Aug., 1643. 
(Which is the woman ?) (? Joan.) 

Thomas Jonson bapt. 8 Oct., 1570. 

Agnes Jonson bapt. 2 Feb., 1573. 

Agnes Jonson bapt. 18 May, 1575. 

Wm. Jonson, fil. Job.., bapt. 7 July, 1583. 

Abigail, d. Mr. Johnson, bapt. 28 Oct., 1606. 

Eliza' Johnson, als. Troghton, bapt. 25 March, 

Nathannell Johnson, f. Mr. Johnson, bapt. 
4 Feb., 1607. 

Rd. Jonson, fil. John, bapt. 16 May, 1624. 

Rd. Jonson (?) buried 24 Dec., 1586. 
Sibell Hackett, uxor John Jonson, buried 21 
iug., 1599 (not 1575). 

Eliz., wife of John Jonson, bur. 30 June, 1632. 
Old Richard Jonson buried 29 July, 1632. 
John Jonson, fil. Fras., buried 17 May, 1635. 
John Jonson of Walsall buried 26 Sept., 1640. 


10 s. xii. AUG. 14, 1909.] NOTES AND' QUERIES. 


TIONS.' (See 10 S. ii. 231, 351 ; iii. 447 ; 
vii. 24 ; ix. 107, 284, 333 ; x. 126, 507 ; 
xi. 247.) Among the ' Adespota ' is No. 3053: 
"II fut historien, pour rester orateur. . . . 
Supposed to have been said of Livy." 

The author is Taine, the reference * Essai 
sur Tite Live,' Introduction, p. 9 (Paris, 
1856). The passage runs thus : 

" Cette eloquence, comme une source trop 
pleine, ayait besoin de s'epancher. A d^faut du 
present, il appliqua la sienne au passe'. II se fit 
contemporain de la r^publique detruite, et plaida 
' dans 1 antiquiW ; 1'eloquence 6tant ' pacifiee,' 
c'est-a-dire interdite, il fut historien pour rester 

I learnt in some correspondence with the 
late Mr. King that he was preparing correc- 
tions and supplementary matter for a new 
edition of his book. It is to be wished that 
these could be published. 


Keith's Chapel in Mayfair apparently has 
not yet had its historian. J. S. Burn in 
both editions of his interesting volume on 
* The Fleet Registers ' provides notices of 
the Mayfair, Mint, and Savoy Chapels ; 
but surely Keith's marrying house is worth 
more than that. The late Mr. Coleman of 
Tottenham had in his stock of old deeds a 
large mass of papers relating to this chapel, 
and a few of the marriage licences are 
before me. For example, on an oblong piece 
of parchment bearing a five-shilling stamp 
is this inscription : 

"21st Oct., 1748. Whereas Mr. Joseph 
Hawksworth of Fulham and Mrs. Mary White 
of St. George, Hanover Square, Being desirous 
to enter into the state of Matrimony without 
the publication of Banns, Have solemnly declared 
that they are of the age of 21 years or upwards, 
and that there is no lawfull impediment by 
precontract, by any other marriage, by being nearly 
related by blood or marriage, or any other 
way whatsoever : that they are of no better 
state than they appear to be, and that they are 
not under the care of the Court of Chancery, 
I have consented that they be married at ye 
New Chapel in May Fair. 

" Ordinary to the sd. Chapel." 

Not any of these specimens are signed, 
and the fact that a large number were found 
together suggests that these licences to 
marry were written immediately before 
the actual marriage, and therefore they 
were not signed, or claimed by the bride- 
grooms. The only name of interest occur- 
ring in the licences before me is that of 
William Prujean of St. Andrew's, Holborn. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

CENTURY. Can any of your readers refer 
me to a list either printed or in MS. of 
the principal London taverns, eating-houses, 
and ordinaries in the first half of the seven- 
teenth century ? 


The Dutch House, Hampton-ou-Thames. 

" HARKA." A Reuter's telegram from 
Madrid, published in The Times on 3 August, 
says : " The Moorish chief El Gato, at the 
head of a strong body of Kabyles, has 
left to attack the harka." 

What is the meaninjg of the word harka ? 
I suppose it is an Arabic word, and I gather 
from the context that it may mean a body 
of rebels or insurgents. Is the word a 
derivative of the Arabic root harak, to move, 
to be agitated, whence haraka, insurrection, 
tumult ? According to the margin of the 
Revised Version, the verb is to be found in 
the Hebrew Bible, in Proverbs xii. 27, " The 
slothful man catcheth not his prey," literally 
" Slackness doth not start its game." 

21, Norham Road, Oxford. 

FLYING TURK. In the extract printed at 
10 S. x. 186 Bishop John Wilkins refers to 
the case of a Turk in Constantinople who, 
according to Busbequius, could fly. Can 
some reader supply the chapter and verse in 
Busbequius' s works ? L. L. K. 

V. DE Vos. 1 should feel obliged for any 
information concerning a painter of this 
name. I have a large oil. painting of the 
Roman Campagna with figures of peasants 
and animals, signed V. De Vos, 1871. The 
picture was bought, 1 think, at an exhibition 
in Brussels in 1872. I am unable to find 
any trace of the painter in the ordinary 
works of reference. I want to learn whether 
his paintings are known, and whether he is 
living or dead. L- A. W. 


KENDALL=LYON. Where did the mar- 
riage of Henry Edward Kendall to Anna 
Maria Lyon take place, and when ? He 
was an architect of London and Brighton, 
was born about 1775, and was son of John 
Kendall, who married Honor Raper, of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. u, im 

Aberford by York, about 1773-4. Hono 
Raper was descended from Edward III 
Replies direct. W. CLEMENT KENDALL. 
Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmorland. 

following lines are quoted in Momerie' 
* Immortality ' : 

Soul of my soul, I shall meet thee again, 
And with God be the rest. 
Who is their author ? C. 

The following quotation is found in 
Wennington Churchyard (South Essex) ove: 
the remains of Henry Perigal, who died 
set. 97, in 1898 : 

One of those unwelcome preachers who thank 
lessly reteach their teachers. 

Is the author known ? MEDICULUS. 

LAUREATE. I should be greatly obliged i: 
any of your numerous readers would inforrr 
me where I can find parodies of Rudyard 
Kipling's poems, and of the Poet Laureate's 
Several have, I believe, been published in 
various periodicals, but I am unable to trace 
them. I shall esteem it a favour if infor- 
mation be sent direct to me. 

14, Lonsdale Square, Barnsbury, N. 
[For some Kipling parodies see 9 S. iii. 329.] 

Under ' Sir Thomas Browne ' (ante, 
p. 36) SIGMA TAU infers a knowledge of the 
Hpbart pedigree. I am anxious to identify 
Nicholas Hobart, who married Sarah, 
daughter of Matthew Bush. She lies buried 
at Lockerley under a stone which records 
her death on 5 Sept., 1701, and the inscrip- 
tion states that she was wife of Matthew 
Barlow, Doctor of Physic (there buried 
30 April, 1701), and widow of Mr. Nicholas 
Hobbard of Lindsey in Suffolk. Anne 
Gifford, widow, of Lockerley, in her will 
dated 6 April, 4 Charles II., bequeaths to 
her " very kind and loving neighbour Mrs. 
Sarah Hubbart her silver bowl.'* 

Lockerley lies between East Titherley and 
Romsey in Hampshire. X. Y. Z. 


or Hews of Hursley, Winchester (will 1688), 
is very illegibly recorded in the Hursley 
marriage register for 26 Jan., 1675, as being 
father of Elizabeth Huse, married to Robert 
Forder of the same village. Among the 
burials for 1629 is also that of "William 
Hewes, senior." In a somewhat vigorous 
search for this family it has been suggested 

that this name may have been intended 
for Husse (Hussey). I observe under 'Hussey 
of Slinfold ' (ante, p. 3) that in a will of 
1554 the name is spelt " Hussee." Any 
information as to William Hews (Huse) 
will be gratefully received by W. M. 


CRAYLE CRAYLE, ESQ., 1721-80. Will; 
any one kindly lend me the portrait and. 
book-plate of the above gentleman for 
purposes of reproduction ? 

HA, Oxford and Cambridge Mansions, Hyde Park.. 

view to its inclusion in a new and corrected 
edition, I shall be glad to hear of any addi- 
tional information about, or in any way 
bearing upon, the Gothamite legend, not 
contained in my book ' All about the Merry 
Tales of Gotham,' 1900. I shall be especially 
pleased to learn of references in old English, 
literature not previously noted. 

39, Burford Road, Nottingham. 

Baylis, the creator of this house and its- 
collections, issue any catalogue or handbook 
of the contents ? I am curious about the 
origin of his stained glass and carved wood- 

Is an annotated copy of the sale catalogue,. 
May, 1841, to May, 1854, available for 
reference in any London library ? 


FOLK SONG. I remember three lines of an* 
ancient ballad recited to me when a child,, 
nearly sixty years ago, on the border of 
Herefordshire and Shropshire : 

Franky Well went out to plough, 

He spied a lady on a bough. 

Then came some sort of tag or chorus : 

There came a wild boar from the wood. 
Jan any one refer me to a complete copy ? 

A. H. D. 

!n ' A Sketch of the Materials for a New 
History of Cheshire ' (Chelmsford : Printed 
and sold by L. Hassall ; sold also by Mr. 
~ awton, Bookseller, in Chester ; and by 
Mr. Bathurst, Bookseller, in Fleet-street,. 
London, 1771), p. 28, note, is the following : 
" The old English translation of the Bible has- 
Paul the knave of Jesus Christ.' " 

n which translation, and in what place, is 
>t. Paul thus described ? 

The ' Sketch ' is anonymous, but, accord- 
ing to an entry on the title-page of my copy,. 

10 s. xii. AUG. 14, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


it was " by Dr. Wilkinson, F.S.A., who 
died 1819." This is, I think, in the hand- 
writing of Matthew Gregson, who formerly 
owned the book. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

[Halkett and Laing attribute the ' Sketch ' 
to Poote Gower, M.D.] 

PENN. That excellent little work ' A His- 
tory of Jordans,' by Miss Littleboy, says 
that the small headstones marking the graves 
of William Penn and a few others were 
set up in 1862-3. This is probably accurate, 
although James Thorne ( ' Handbook to 
the Environs of London,' i. 83), writing in 
1875, says : 

" No stone or monumental record marks the 
grave of Penn, or any of the many men of mark 
in the early history of the sect who were buried 
along with him in this Campo Santo of Quaker- 

Miss Littleboy also adds : 

" The original stones were probably removed 
about a hundred years earlier, when we find that 
the yearly meeting's advice against the use 
of gravestones as a departure from simplicity 
was being considered in the monthly meetings." 

This provides an indefinite suggestion that 
some form of memorial identifying Perm's 
grave was put up within a few decades of 
his death. Is there any record or reference 
determining this ? ALECK ABRAHAMS. 
[See the articles at 10 S. x. 334.] 

his ' Bible in Spain ' says a carol very common 
in that country commences (as he translates 
Once of old upon a mountain, shepherds overcome 

with sleep 
Near to Bethlehem's royal tower, kept at dead 

of night their sheep ; 
Round about the trunk they nodded of a huge 

ignited oak, 
Whence the crackling flame, ascending bright 

and clear, the darkness broke. 

Can any one give me the original and its 
continuation ? O'DTJNLANG. 

thing known of Henry Meyer the engraver, 
who married a daughter of Woolnoth the 
engraver ? He was the son of Henry Meyer 
the engraver and painter, and great-nephew 
of John Hoppner the painter. 

Henry Meyer was said to have had in his 
possession the Meyer papers left him by his 
paternal aunt Mary Anne (otherwise Nancy) 
Meyer, which I believe would throw light 
on the Meyer and Hoppner family history. 

6, Pare Bean Terrace, St. Ives, Cornwall. 

BACON AND ITALY. Did Francis Bacon 
visit Italy ? Surely 794 of Bacon's ' Natural 
History' rings true as being described at 
first hand : 

Experiment Solitary, touching the Super- 
Reflexion of Eccho's. 

There is in the City of Ticinum, in Italy, a 
Church, that hath Windowes only from above. 
It is in Length an Hundred Feet, in Breadth 
Twenty Feet, and in Height neare Fifty ; Having 
a Doore in the Middest. It reporteth the Voice, 
twelve or thirteene times, if you stand by the 
Close End-Wall, over against the Doore. 

The Eccho fadeth, and dyeth by little and 
little, as the Eccho at Pont-charenton doth. 
And the Voice soundeth, as if it came from above 
the Doore. 

.And if you stand at the Lower End, or on 
Either Side of the Doore, the Eccho holdeth ; 
But if you stand in the Doore, or in the Middest 
just over against the Doore, not. Note that all 
Eccho's sound better against Old walls than 
New ; Because they are more Drie, and Hollow. 


any explanation why the ghost at Epworth 
Parsonage was called " Old Jeffrey " ? Had 
a man of that name died at the Parsonage ? 
Was the house completely destroyed by 
the fire in the Rev. S. Wesley's time ? 

[For " Old Jeffrey " see 9 S. xi. 396.] 

Miss NASH AT ORCHIES. Who was Miss 
Nash, mentioned in * The Annual Register ' 
for 1792 as having been ill-treated by the 
French soldiers at Orchies ? and in what 
manner was she ill-treated ? 



JACOB COLE. I am desirous of learning 
the present address of the representatives 
of Jacob Cole & Son, hatters, who carried 
on business at 8, Bridge Street, Westminster, 
till 1865, when, it is believed, the firm was 
called Cole & Williamson. The object of 
the inquiry is to learn if Jacob Cole, who 
besides being a hatter was a writer of 
comic verses, wrote the song of the Broderers' 
Company, printed in ' N. & Q.' on 12 April, 
1856 (2 S. i. 285). C. H. 

ROBERT SLADE. In the Visitation of 
Huntingdon, 1613, a pedigree of Robert 
Slade is given as follows. Richard Slade of 
Huntingdon married Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Spenser of Patenham, by whom he 
had three children, Thomas, Robert, and 
Rosa. At the time of the Visitation Robert 
was living at Elington, Hunts, and was 
unmarried. I believe he married later, but 
cannot find the name of his wife. Can any 


NOTES AND QUERIES, rio s. xn. AUG. 14, 1900. 

reader give me this information, and also 
names and particulars of any of his de- 
scendants ? G. SLADE. 
Walcot, Alexandra Park, Harrogate. 

SPAKE FAMILY. I desire to learn some- 
thing about the parentage of Samuel Spare, 
who was born about 1674, and went to 
America. In 1670 there was a John Spare 
living in the parish of St. Giles-in-the- 
Fields. We presume he was the father of 
Samuel. John Spare had two actions in the 
Court of Chancery about that date. What 
is known about tlie Spare family at that 
time ? AMERICAN. 

" SKYLE." What is the meaning of this 
word from ' Dives et Pauper ' ? 

Pauper. Every Mass saying is a mind making 
of Christ's passion. 

Dives. The Skyle is good, say forth. 

O. S. T. 

a moon-dog ? Mr. T., a retired fisherman 
and sailor, is weather-wise. His wife said 
. to me : 

"When Mr. B. asked him about it, he told him 
not to touch his hay till this week. < The moon will 
be filling then, and we shall have fine weather.' He 
says, you know, that there are sun-dogs and moon- 
dogs. When the moon-dog is on one side of the 
moon, the weather will be fine ; when it is on the 
other, it will be rainy. When the dog is lying 
down, it will rain. When it is standing up and 
bristling, it will be fine." 


me where in Macaulay's work the following 
majestic eulogium of literature appears : 
In the dark hour of shame I deigned to stand 

Before the frowning peers at Bacon's side. 
On a far shore I soothed with tender hand 

Through months of pain the sleepless bed of 

I brought the wise and brave of ancient days 

To cheer the cell where Raleigh pined alone 
I lighted Milton's darkness with the blaze 

Of the bright ranks that guard th' Eternal 

I. X. B. 


I should be pleased if one of your readers 
would tell me the author of a small book 
I have, called ' The Yahoo : a Satirica 
Rhapsody,' New York, H. Simpson, 1830 
How was the book received when published ' 

I also have '-The Naked Gospel,' by i 
True Son of the Church of England, 1690 

T. H. L. 

[' The Naked Gospel ' is by Arthur Bury, 
who is included in the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.'J 


" No FLOWERS." This addendum to 
announcements of deaths has become very 
common in recent years. Can any -one 
say at what date it was first used ? Is 
the objection to flowers at funerals based 
on a religious or similar reason ? or is it 
merely personal ? F. W. READ. 

(10 S. xi. 361, 449.) 

THE subject of COL. PRIDEAUX'S contro- 
versy with PROF. SKEAT seems too large to 
be dealt with in snippets. COL. PRIDEAUX 
in his reply is able to choose a number of 
names to fit his argument ; but he leaves 
out those which prove that towns were 
often named from rivers. He remarks that 
" we have no town called Severn or Medway, 
or Clyde or Tay." True about Severn ; but 
as to Medway, the name Maidstone was, 
I believe, Medwsegestun in Anglo-Saxon = 
Medway's town. When the Cymri fixed 
their capital on the Clyde, they called it 
Alcluith = the cliff on the Clyde ; but the 
name which it retains is that by which it 
was known to the Goidhelic enemies of the 
Cymri, Dunbarton=cfom Bretan, the fortress 
of the Britons. 

COL. PRIDEAUX writes about the contrast 
in method between " our simple ancestors," 
who were content to ignore the proper 
name of a stream, and " our more enlightened 
selves," who must have a specific name for 
every rivulet. I am able to quote a con- 
verse instance, where the ancient name of a 
stream has fallen out of local use. Curiously 
enough, it is one of the Hertfordshire streams 
mentioned in COL. PRIDEAUX'S second 
extract from Leland's 'Itinerary.' 

Fishing some years ago in the stream that 
flows through Cassiobury Park, I asked the 
gamekeeper what was its name. " Well, 
sir," he replied, "it have a name, sure 
enough, but dang me if I can remember un. 
We just calls it the river." ^Presently one 
whom I took to be a bailiff came along, to 
whom the keeper referred my question, 
extracting a similar answer. Later in the 
day the bailiff returned that way, and 
accosted me with "I've found out that 
name, sir : the river used to be called the 
Gade, but they just call it the river now." 
This is the stream which gives a name to 

I do not think it is safe to lay down even 
a general rule in this matter. It seems to 

10 s. xii. AUG. u, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


be a matter of accident whether a town be 
named from the stream or the stream from 
the town. In this county (Wigtownshire) 
there are three streams of river dimensions 
to wit, the Cree, the Bladenoch, and the 
Luce, all ancient names which have been 
transferred to villages on their banks, viz., 
Oreetown, Bladenoch, Glenluce, and New 
Luce. Sometimes the river-name is empha- 
sized, as Newcas tie-up on-Tyne, Stratford-on- 
Avon, and Berwick-on- Tweed ; sometimes 
it stands alone as the name of a town, as in 
Annan and Girvan. 

When COL. PRIDE AUX talks of " our simple 
ancestors " being content with generic 
names for streams, he ignores the wonder- 
fully minute picture of primitive Britain 
presented by the specific names conferred 
automatically by Celtic and Saxon settlers. 
Every rivulet in our moors has its separate 
title, either denoting peculiarities of cur- 
rent, soil, or colour, or commemorating 
men, animals, or vegetation distinguishing 
the environment. Font's maps of Scot- 
land, surveyed about 1590, and engraved in 
Blaeu's Atlas sixty years later, contain 
hundreds of such names, which continue in 
current use. 

COL. PBIDEAUX mentions Plymouth and 
Plympton as names from rivers ; why does 
he omit Tavistock, Tiverton, Collumpton, 
Exeter, &c., in the same county ? Aberdeen, 
Inverness, Dublin, Arundel, Itchenstoke, 
Tynemouth town and village names taken 
from streams are almost innumerable. 


I beg leave to dissent from the argument 
-at the second reference. We are told that 
a settlement beside a bourne, which began 
with a single mill, would be called a mill 
at the bourne, and then a Milbourn. Such 
was not the Anglo-Saxon way of forming 
compounds. Our ancestors would have 
called such a mill by the name of Bourn-mill. 
It was the bourne itself that was at first 
distinguished from other streams by being 
called, specifically, the mill-bourne. 

"A case in point is the village of Shal- 
bourne in Wiltshire." Just so ; for Shal- 
bourne means "shallow bourne," and the 
epithet " shallow " distinguished this stream 
from other streams, not from other villages. 
When people applied the name to the 
village, that also became Shalbourne ; and 
when they forgot the origin of the name 
of the stream, in consequence of its having 
been applied to the village, they made a 
new compound, and called it " Shalbourne 
water," i.e., " Shallow-stream-stream." 

The word ford gives us a large number of 
place-names in the same way. Thus Shal- 
ford and Shelf ord mean (as Mr. Stevenson 
has proved) " shallow ford." It is not 
meant that the name of the ford was due to 
that of the village, but conversely. 


I would instance as a companion to the 
German Paderborn the Russian Kimburn 
or Kin burn, the fort in the Black Sea which 
was captured by the allied French and 
English troops in 1855. N. W. HILL. 

New York. 

(10 S. xii. 65). The carriers from Witney in 
Oxfordshire came to " The Saracen's Head " 
" without Newgate," and lodged there, no 
doubt bringing with them many a wagon- 
load of blankets, Witney duffels or pilot 
cloths, wagon and barge tiltings, gloves, 
malt, &c., since that town was famous from 
early times for the manufacture of those 
commodities. The old inn was the resting- 
place also for the carriers and wainmen 
from Leicestershire, Buckinghamshire, Bed- 
fordshire, and Gloucester city (Taylor's 
' Carriers' Cosmographie '). In 1752 the 
Exeter fast coach left " The Saracen's 
Head " on Snow Hill every Monday " for 
the better conveyance of travellers " (Salis- 
bury Journal of that year). 

"Next to this church" (i.e. St. Sepulchre's), 
says Stow, " is a fair and large inn for receipt 
of travellers, and hath to sign ' The Saracen's 
Head.' ' The hostelry appears to have 
served the purpose of an early local post- 
office, to judge from the following notice 
in The Daily Advertiser of 25 Sept., 1741 : 
General Post Office, London, Sept. 23, 1741. 

Whereas the Post-Boy carrying the North and 
Peterborough Mails this Morning from London 
to Enfield, dropt the Peterborough Mail between 
this Office and that Place, which contain'd the 
following Bags, viz., Boston, Spalding, Peter- 
borough, Louth, and Horncastle ; the Post- 
Master-General thinks proper to give the Publick 
this Notice, that such Persons as may have sent 
Bills or Notes in any of the said Bags, may take 
such Measures as they think proper : And 
whoever shall find the said Mail and Bags entire, 
and bring them to this Office, shall have a Guinea 
Reward, to be paid by Joseph Plaisto, Pest- 
Master, at ' The Saracen's Head ' on Snow-Hill, 
by whose Servant's Negligence this Accident 
happen'd. By Order of the Post-Master-General. 
J. D. BARBUTT, Secretary. 

From the courtyard of "The Saracen's 
Head" (of which there is a water-colour 
illustration in the Crace Collection, British 
Museum, portfolio xxvii. 81) the coach 
set out conveying Squeers with his un- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. AUG. u, im 

happy pupils, including Nicholas Nickleby, 
to Dotheboys Hall, the inn having 
been the head-quarters of Squeers when 
he visited London. The aspect of the inn 
in its latter days is graphically described in 
the fourth chapter of ' Nicholas Nickleby ' ; 
but surely Charles Dickens the Younger, 
in his ' Notes on some Dickens Places and 
People' (Pall Mall Magazine, July, 1896), 
means " The Saracen's Head," and not 
" The Belle Sauvage," when alluding to a 
Dickens spot which disappeared with the 
construction of Holborn Viaduct. 


I have met the name of one real person 
who made use of the old " Saracen's Head " 
near St. Sepulchre's. This was the humble, 
but remarkable soldier's daughter and wife 
Mary Anne Wellington, whose adventurous 
career was written by the Rev. R. Cobbold. 
She was the daughter of George Wellington, 
a private in the Royal Artillery at Gibraltar, 
where she was born in 1789. She there 
married Thomas Hewitt of Hingham (son, 
it is said, of a Norfolk squire), who was in the 
band of the 48th Regiment. In 1808, being 
ordered to Lisbon to take part in the war 
against France, Hewitt sent his wife to 
Portsmouth. Passing through London, on 
her way to her mother-in-law's in Colchester, 
she stayed at " The Saracen's Head " (p. 73). 
She afterwards returned to Portugal, and 
with her husband passed through many 
adventures during the Peninsular War, 
behaving with courage and ability in all. 
She died, a widow, and aged, at Norwich. 

As " The Saracen's Head " was a very old 
London inn, it suggests the possibility of its 
having been named after the renowned 
Roger the Saracen, celebrated by Ariosto 
(' Orlando Furioso,' Books I., II., III.), 
who, according to the genealogists (Halliday, 
' House of Guelph '), was an ancestor, 
through Charlemagne and the house of 
Este-Guelph, of Edward VII. D. J. 

MR. HIBGAME is evidently aware of the 
fact, but it may be as well to note, that the 
" old hotel immortalized by Dickens in 
' Nicholas Nickleby,' and also by the fact 
that Lord Nelson slept there when on his 
way to join the Navy," had no connexion 
with the modern hotel that finally closed 
its doors on the 3rd of July, except that 
it bore the same name. The new " Saracen's 
Head " was not nearly on the same site. 
The " Saracen's Head " of Dickens and of 
Nelson was one of the coaching inns, with 
a spacious inn-yard, and was situated upon 

old Snow Hill, of which not a vestige now 
remains, I believe, except a portion of the 
roadway and the church of St. Sepulchre, 
to which the old inn was almost adjacent. 
4, Nelgarde Road, Catford, 8.E. 

DUKEDOM (10 S. xii 88). MR. R. J. WHIT- 
WELL should communicate with the Vicar 
of Bridgwater (Rev. Dr. Powell), the best 
authority on the charters of the borough. 

I should like to ask how the Egerton family 
came to assume the title of Bridgewater 
for its earldom and dukedom, consequently 
transmitting the name to the Bridgewater 
canal, the Bridgewater treatises, and Bridge- 
water House, London. D. K. T. 

(10 S. xii. 88). For many years before his 
death Peacock lived at Halliford, as I can 
attest from personal knowledge. It was 
there that he wrote his Shelley articles in 
Fraser, as well as ' Gryll Grange.' My 
father, who was his colleague in the Ex- 
aminer's Department in the East India 
House, was one of his most intimate friends, 
and often spent a Sunday with him at 
Halliford. I have a vivid recollection of 
the old gentleman, with his keen eyes and 
enormous nimbus of white hair, wearing, 
as he usually did, a white tie and old- 
fashioned tail-coat. From his youth Pea- 
cock had an intense love of the river. His 
' Genius of the Thames ' was published in 
1810, and a second edition, with a frontis- 
piece after Westall, in 1812. 


Peacock died on 23 Jan., 1866, at Lower 
Halliford, near Shepperton, Middlesex, in 
the house which he had constructed out 
of two old cottages more than forty years 
before. The fact that Chertsey is at no 
great distance has probably led Mr. J. A. 
Hammerton into placing Peacock's residence 
in that town. A. R. BAYLEY. 

448). In Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' i. 337, 
Lovell Edge worth of Edgeworthstown, J.P. 
and D.L., High Sheriff of co. Longford 1819, 
the son of Richard Lovell Edgeworth by his 
marriage in 1773 with Honora Sneyd, is said 
to have been born 30 June, 1776, and to 
have died unmarried in December, -1841. 
This does not agree with Gent. Mag., which 
at vol. xix. p. 222 (New Series), contains the 
following obituary notice: 23 Dec., 1842, 
" at Bangor, aged 66, Lovell Edgeworth, 

10 s. XIL AUG. 14, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


esq., of Edgeworth Town, Ireland." In the 
' D.N.B.' his father's marriage with Honora 
is said to have taken place at Lichfield, 
17 July, 1773. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

* THE OERA LINDA BOOK ' (10 S. xii. 88). 
I thought this book had been decently 
buried by this time. There is no credit to 
be gained by the revival of an attempt to 
deceive the literary world by a modern 
forgery. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

(10 S. xii. 90). This is probably a portrait 
of General George Augustus Eliott, who 
defended Gibraltar during the great siege 
of 1779-83. He died in 1790, when Law- 
rence was only twenty-one ; but as the latter 
began to take portraits when twelve years 
old, he may well have painted that of the 
General. The " Mr. Elliot " of Jersey may 
have been General Eliott's son. 


90). Your correspondent will find the 
account of this discreditable incident in 
Evelyn's ' Diary.' J. WILLCOCK. 


xii. 86). The official spelling of this in 
' The Admiralty List of Lights ' is now 
Haisboro. I, however, have a chart in 
which the i is omitted. 


" VoLKSBTtCHER " (10 S. xii, 9, 58). 
Passing along Potsdamerstrasse some days 
ago, I saw about twenty numbers of the 
above series offered at a second-hand book- 
seller's at a very low figure about thirteen 
shillings. If any English scholar cares 
to have them, I will get them for him. 


"SAMNITIS" (10 S. xi. 187). As no one 
has answered DR. BRADLEY' s query con- 
cerning this word, I may make a suggestion. 
" Samnitis " looks like a caricature of a 
Greek word, but I need hardly say is not 
found in Dioscorides or any Greek writer 
or in Pliny. It looks as if the writer or 
printer had been led away by some fancied 
connexion with the " Samnites " of Roman 
history ; and the original form may have 
been more like " Sammitis." Then Greek 
words beginning with the letter psi often 
had the p omitted when brought into a 
Latin form, so that probably " Psammitis " 

would be nearer to the original word. Now 
this is not a Greek word, of course ; but it 
has a colourable resemblance to psimmuthion 
or psimithion, the Greek name for what we 
call white lead or subcarbonate of lead,, 
ceruse, in Latin cerussa. This is well known. 
to be a very deadly poison which may cause 
fatal illness in the workers who prepare it,. 
unless proper precautions are taken, and 
must be what Spenser meant. 

The word is further disguised by the 
termination -itis, which may have been 
suggested by the analogy of chalcitis, 
haematites, and other Greek names of 
minerals. Psimithion is found in Pliny 
('Nat. Hist.,' xxxiv. 54 and elsewhere), and 
also in Dioscorides, Galen, Paulus ^Egineta r 
and other Greek writers. It is not clear 
where Spenser can have found the word. 
Holland's translation of Pliny was not 
published till later (1601). There was a 
miserable little book called ' The Secrets, 
and Wonders of the World out of Plinie,' 
published about 1565. I have searched 
one edition of this without finding the word ; 
but there are other editions. 


Royal College of Physicians, Pall Mall East, S. W. 

LYNCH LAW (10 S. xi. 445, 515 ; xii. 52). 
As M. evidently has not consulted the article 
and book on lynch law to which I referred 
him, I will make another attempt to show 
why his theory is untenable. There are 
two reasons. 

1. In my previous reply I tried to show 
that, as originally understood, lynch law 
meant punishment illegally inflicted for 
crimes or offences (or alleged crimes or 
offences) against the community or members 
of the community. The punishment was of 
various kinds usually a whipping, but 
never death. In or before 1817 Judge 
Spencer Roane, who married a daughter of 
Patrick Henry, wrote some reminiscences 
of his father-in-law, which were printed 
in William Wirt's ' Life of P. Henry.* 
Among other things, Judge Roane said : 
" In the year 1792 there were many suits on 
the south side of James river for inflicting 
Lynch's law " (p. 372). Wirt, apparently 
under the impression that " Lynch's law "" 
needed some explanation, added this foot- 
note : 

" Thirty -nine lashes, inflicted without trial or 
law, on mere suspicion of guilt, which could not 
be regularly proven. This lawless practice, which, 
sometimes by the order of a magistrate, some- 
tunes without, prevailed extensively in the upper 
counties on James river, took its name from the 
gentleman who first set the example of it." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xri. AUG. u, im 

Though this is the earliest known instance of 
the term " Lynch' s law," it is a fair guess 
(though a guess only) that the term had been 
in use during at least a portion of the 
twenty-five years that had elapsed since the 
occurrence of the cases mentioned by Judge 
Roane. But however that may be, Wirt's 
foot-note leaves no doubt as to the meaning 
-of " Lynch 's law." 

Let us now turn to the case of Lynchy in 
Ireland in 1816. Lynchy had neither 
committed a crime or offence nor was 
accused of so doing. On the contrary, he 
had been instrumental in bringing to justice 
three malefactors who were convicted of 
burglary, and " suffered death accordingly." 
In revenge for the part taken by Lynchy 
and his son-in-law Rooney, upon whose 
testimony the malefactors were executed, 
" a body of men, supposed to amount to forty, 
and well mounted, rode up to his dwelling, 
which they surrounded ; and, without a single 
compunction at the indiscriminate destruction 
in which they were about to involve so many, 
they set fire to this unfortunate man's house, and 
destroyed, in this diabolical deed, not only 
Lynchy and his son-in-law Rooney, but his 
wife, two children, two servant maids, and two 
young men ! ' ' 

In short, the killing of Lynchy and others 
was a case of simple murder, and not a case 
of lynch law at all. 

2. As previously stated and as shown 
above, the original term was not " lynch 
law," but " Lynch' s law." The term 
" Lynch's law " could have been, and pre- 
sumably was, derived from the name Lynch, 
but it could hardly have been derived from 
the name Lynchy. 

In the paper on ' The Term Lynch Law,' 
after mentioning the terms " regulator," 
" moderator," " club law," " gag law," 
and " mob law," all of which were employed 
in this country, I added this foot-note : 

" In addition to these terms for summary 
modes of punishment, there are others which 
have long been used in the British Isles, but 
which are unknown in this country ; as, Cupar 
justice, Halifax law, Jeddard justice, Lydford 
law, Stafford law." 

When, in my previous reply, I stated that 
the practice of lynch law arose in this 
country, I used the word "practice" 
advisedly. Cases of lynch law have doubtless 
occurred in all countries, but they have been 
sporadic cases merely. In this country, 
however, lynch law became a practice at 
least as early as the last decade of the 
eighteenth century. Between 1820 and 
1830 writers regarded the practice of lynch 
; law as on the wane, and likely soon to dis- 
appear altogether before advancing civiliza- 

tion. But in the next decade came the 
anti-slavery agitation ; the practice revived, 
and spread throughout the country ; the 
punishments became more and more severe, 
finally including death ; negroes then first 
became victims ; and at the present day the 
practice of lynch law is not only the most 
serious blot on American civilization, but 
presents a problem with which no other 
civilized country is confronted. 

So far as Charles Lynch is concerned, there 
is proof that in 1780 he illegally fined and 
imprisoned certain Tories. Had Charles 
Lynch been the only person who resorted to 
illegal acts in dealing with Tories, there 
might be strong presumptive evidence that 
to his connexion with such illegal acts 
we owe the term " lynch law." But the 
fact is that many others were equally con- 
cerned in such illegal acts. In 1777 " the 
Governor and Council, and others," were 
indemnified by the Virginia legislature 
" for removing and confining Suspected 
Persons during the late publick danger." 
In 1779 "William Campbell, Walter 
Crockett, and others " were indemnified 
for illegal acts committed 'in suppressing 
a late conspiracy." In 1782 "William 
Preston, Robert Adams, junior, James 
Callaway, and Charles Lynch, and other 
faithful citizens " were indemnified for 
measures (taken in suppressing a conspiracy 
in 1780) not " strictly warranted by law, 
although justifiable from the imminence of 
the danger." In 1784 all persons were 
indemnified who committed " any insult 
or injury against the person of a certain 
Joseph Williamson " on 10 Oct., 1783, 
" which was previous to the ratification of 
the definitive treaty between Great Britain 
and America." It is seen, then, not only 
that Charles Lynch was one of many who 
resorted to illegal proceedings, but that it 
was not he who "set the first example" 
of such proceedings. 

What is needed is new evidence in regard 
to lynch law in this country previous to 
1817. It is useless to refer to James Lynch, 
Mayor of Galway in 1493, whose son is said 
to have been executed in that year ; or to 
Stephen Lynch, who was sent to Jamaica 
in 1688 ; or to the Lynchy who was murdered 
in 1816 for these cases have nothing to do 
with lynch law. Finally, it is possible 
indeed probable that Judge Roane's remi- 
niscences of Henry, though not published 
until 1817, were written several years earlier. 
The Preface to Wirt's book is dated " Rich- 
mond, Virginia, Sept. 5th, 1817." In it he 
says that " it was in the summer of 1805 

10 s. XIL AUG. 14, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that the design of writing this biography 
was first conceived." He then goes on to 
make his acknowledgments to various 
persons, stating that " from judge Roane 
the author has received one of the fairest 
and most satisfactory communications that 
has been made to him." And later Wirt 
says : " Although it has been so long since 
the collection of these materials was begun, 
it was rot until the summer of 1814 that the 
last communication was received." If these 
words are to be taken literally and I can 
see no reason why they should not be so 
taken it follows that Judge Roane's state- 
ment about " Lynch' s law " was written 
in or before the summer of 1814, or more than 
two years previous to the murder of Lynchy 
on 1 Nov., 1816. ALBERT MATTHEWS. 
Boston, U.S. 

429, 495 ; xii. 12, 55). Possibly the story 
was an exaggeration of what happened to 
the previous Samuel Johnson, perhaps 
asserted to have been Dr. Johnson's uncle. 

" 1683, Nov. 20. Samuel Johnson, a clergy- 
man, convicted of writing a seditious libel, called 
Julian the Apostate, reflecting upon his royal 
highness the duke of York, for which he was 
fined 500 marks, and his book burnt by the 
hangman." ' The Chronological Historian,' by 
W. Toone, 1826, vol. i. p. 305. 

" 1686, Nov. 16. Mr. Sam. Johnson, once 
Chaplain to the late Lord Russel, and who had 
been formerly convicted and punished for writing 
a libel, called Julian the Apostate, was again 
convicted the last Trinity term, of writing a 
pamphlet, entitled, An Address to the English 
Protestant's [sic] in King James's army ; wherein 
he advised them not to be instrumental in intro- 
ducing Popery and arbitrary power. He was 
this day adjudged to stand three times in the 
pillory, to pay a fine of 500 marks, and to be 
whipped from Newgate to Tyburn ; but before 
the sentence was executed, he was brought 
(Nov. 20) before the high Commission-court, and 
formally degraded and delivered over as a mere 
layman into the hands of the secular officer, to 
undergo the punishment aforesaid." Ibid., p. 322. 

Most of the above is in the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography.' 


130, 295, 494). What is the evidence for 
there being a scarf peculiar to bishops ? 
I doubt the existence of such a scarf very 

As to the stole, it is worn by the Pope as 
part of his ordinary full dress ; it is worn 
by all the clergy in administering any of the 
sacraments ; it is also w T orn in some places 
e.g., this country (usually) in preaching. 

For full information as to the stole I would 
refer MR. SWYNNERTON to the article ' Stole ' 

in Addis and Arnold's ' A Catholic Dic- 
tionary ' ; to O'Brien's ' History of the 
Mass,' pp. 46-8 ; to Tuker and Malleson's 
' Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical 
Rome,' passim ; and to Tyack's ' Historic 
Dreps of the Clergy,' pp. 97-103. 


(10 S. x. 410, 473 ; xii. 17). In reference 
to this subject, it may be of interest to give 
what I find in Dr. Pegge's ' Anonymiana,' 
London, 1809, pp. 31-2 : 

" The following epigram, which is an excellent 
specimen of satirical humour, will afford most 
entertainment to those who have a relish for the 
national reflection : but even those more enlarged 
souls, who are above taking pleasure in that, 
may be captivated by the ingenuity of the author : 
Cain, in disgrace with Heav'n, retir'd to Nod, 
A place undoubtedly as far from God 
As he could wish ; which made some think he went 
As far as Scotland ere he pitch'd his tent ; 
And there a city built of antient fame, 
Which he from Eden Edenburgh did name." 

SIR CUTHBERT SLADE, BT. (10 S. xi. 508 ; 
xii. 58). ' Whitaker ' for the current year 
states that Sir Cuthbert Slade died last year, 
and was succeeded by his son Sir Alfred 
Fothringham Slade, the fifth and present 
baronet, born 1898, descended from King 
Edward I. No doubt this descent may be 
traced through Barbara Vaux, as described 
by MR. A. R. BAYLEY; but I am inclined 
to think I have heard, or somewhere read, 
that there are some thirty thousand families 
in Great Britain which can claim a similar 
descent, and if so, this particular case seems 
hardly worth specializing more than another. 

x ii. go). Sir F k E n, Bt., one of the 
parties lampooned in this eccentric work, 
was Sir Frederick Evelyn, a sporting baronet, 
who resided at Wotton Place, near Westcott, 
in Surrey, the home of his distinguished 
ancestor John Evelyn, the author of ' Sylva ' 
and the famous diary, which ranks as an 
English classic. He was the third baronet, 
having succeeded his father in 1767, and he 
died on 1 April, 1812. He ran a horse 
called Wotton in the first Derby in 1780, 
and his colours were yellow and crimson 
cap. In those days most of the members 
of the Jockey Club were themselves gentle- 
men riders. 

In reply to MR. BLEACKLEY s further 
inquiry, I may state that there is no work 
solely devoted to the history of the Jockey 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn, AUG. u, im 

Club, though of course there are multi- A manuscript note in my copy of ' The 

tudinous references to its genesis in various Jockey Club ' identifies " Sir F. E n " as 

works on racing. No turf historian or " Sir Fredk. Eden." W. H. DAVID. 
commentator has hitherto been able to 

ascertain the exact date when this famous mi EssEX FAT ^ TO WOMEN (10 S. xii. 90). 

corporate racing association first sprang into The parts of Essex referred to are the low- 

being. It is known, however, that it owes tyg districts around Corrmgham, Fobbing, 

its origin to the reign of George II. The & c - * n ? there is no doubt considerably 

first official record of the Club is in ' Heber's foundation for the statement, which is still 

Racing Calendar ' for 1758, wherein mention current in those districts. It appears that 

is made of a regulation for the purpose of the men brought their wives from the up- 

compelling riders to enter the scales and be Mf-nds, wh o bein accustomed to fresh, 

weighed after a race a rule which is signed <?ry air, seldom lived above a year or two 
by Lord March, afterwards Duke of Queens- m their . new homes, owing to the fogs and 
berry, and by several other noblemen and damps inducing ague &c It is mentioned 
gentlemen. .The head-quarters of the Club *h so . me feted in 'A Tour through the 
were from the first established at Newmarket, Whole J^ nd of G * ^ritem, b ^ a ^ entle " 
and its members were themselves jockeys, man > 17 . 2 f PP- 14 -\f: This gentleman 
and donned silk and buckskin breeches to W 5f -Daniel Defoe. WILLIAM GILBERT. 
figure in the saddle. Gradually the Club Walthamstow. 
was extended in order to admit other It was Daniel Defoe who first started the 
members of high rank and position, who were story that the marshes near the coast were 
owners of race-horses, but many of whom malarial, and consequently the men had 
were too heavy to ride themselves. We quite a succession of wives. But Defoe, 
cannot be far out in assuming that the Club though copied by other writers, was hardly 
was instituted in or about 1753, for a good a reliable witness ; in his works truth and 
deal of evidence was adduced in an action fiction were so mixed that he cannot be 
for trespass brought by the Duke of Portland quoted with safety. The registers of deaths 
against a Mr. Hawkins at the Cambridge in the marsh parishes to which he alludes 
assizes in 1827, to show that the heath at do not bear out his assertions. 
Newmarket became the property of the W. W. GLENNY. 

Turf Senate in 1753. The jury were thereby Barking, Essex. 

satisfied as to the trespass and gave the This idea seemg t have originate d from 
Duke a verdict with one shilling dam ag e S * ^^ 

From that day to this no one has disputed ^ ,, storie ' g duri hig tour 

th t/r? V * ? tl ^ tr 4f" 

passers or objectionable persons off the m th recentl pub li s hed ' London's Forest,* 

heath at Newmarket. This is practically L p T 
all that there is to be said about the history by > . b * 

t> <>40 G H W 

' P ' ~ * 

of the Club. 


I have never heard that any part of Essex 
is less healthy for women than for men, 

Sir Frederick Evelyn, Bt., of Wotton, but it is no doubt true that the marsh 
Surrey, was a member of the Jockey Club, parishes in the eastern and southern parts 
and is probably the person referred to in of the county are, even now, when improved 
the query. He died without issue 1 April, methods of drainage are in general use, 
1812, and was succeeded by his cousin not favourable to good health in those who 
John Evelyn (see Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxii. are unacclimatized. In old days Canvey 
p. 397, and G. E. C.'s * Complete Baronetage,' Island had an unenviable reputation in this 
vol. v. p. 17). respect, and this is referred to by the late 

There does not appear to be any modern Mr - Philip Benton of Wakering Hall in his 
history of the Jockey Club, but one of the ' History of Rochford Hundred ' (p. 81). 
Pall Mall Gazette " Extras " (No. 38 for F - s - EDEN. 

1888) may be of interest. It is entitled 
* Jockeys and their Masters ; or The 
Sherrard Stables and the Jockey Club,' and 
contains an account of the malpractices 
on the turf charged by Lord Durham against DORCHESTER : BIRRELL'S ENGRAVING (10 
Sir Geo. 6hetwynd. ' S. xii. 89). The engraving inquired for 

F. M. R. HOLWORTHY. occurs in vol. ii. of ' The History and Anti- 
Broraley, Kent. quities of the County of Dorset,' by John 

[MR. JOHN T. CURRY sends a long extract from 
which we have forwarded to MR. ALLEN 

"^ correspondents are thanked 

10 s. xii. AUG. 14, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hutchins, p. 4. It is inscribed : " To the 
Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of 
Dorchester, This view in that Ancient Town, 
is respectfully Inscribed by their most 
obedient humb. servt. George Frampton." 
The last named was a bookseller and printer 
next the County Hall. 

Reform Club, S.W. 

GIRDLESTONE (10 S. xi. 448; xii. 78). 
The oldest spellings I have discovered are 
de Gerleston and Girolston, in or near Lynn, 
c. Edward I. The letter d may safely be 
discarded ; it is like the p in Thompson. 
An examination of old records led me to 
associate the name with Garveston (Central 
Norfolk), which is spelt Girolfestuna in the 
Domesday Book. Some dropped the fe 
in this name, and made it Girolston or 
Girleston ; others dropped the ol, and made 
it Garveston. Norfolk supplies plenty of 
similar contractions. I should add, however, 
that the name as now spelt is found in a 
Balliol fine in the time of the Black Death. 

My great-grandfather was spelt Gridle- 
stone in Gent. Mag. when he died, but he 
and his ancestors were baptized Girdlestone. 
The name is spelt in twelve ways in the old 
registers. After all, what does Girdlestuna 
mean ? R. B. GIRDLESTONE. 

Canon R. B. Girdlestone, in his ' Genea- 
logical Notes on the Girdlestone Family ' 
(published 1904), says that a tradition exists 
in his family that the Girdlestones were 
evolved out of Kerdeston, a Norman family 
which " had to do in various ways with 
Kelling." In the Appendix of his book 
(Part III.) is a lined pedigree showing the 
Canon's descent from Guido and Agnes 
Ayno (see ante, p. 61), whose daughter 
Joan married John Bolney. F. H. S. 


HEALEN PENNY (10 S. xi. 507 ; xii. 98). 
The replies of Miss LEGA-WEEKES and MR. 
MACMICHAEL are of interest, but do not 
clear the point raised by me. In the Cam- 
borne accounts (partially published in 
Journal Royal Inst. of Cornwall, vol. Iv.) 
the healen penny is received by the church- 
wardens, not paid by them. Miss LEGA- 
WEEKES'S extract from Northfield suggests 
that possibly the necessary moneys were 
collected by the church authorities and paid 
to the apparitor. Is it likely that he col- 
lected it for the King ? We can see that 
it was a burden felt by royalty, or the coin 
.given to the sufferer would not have fallen 
from the gold angel of Edward III. to the 

rose noble of Henry VII. and the silver 
penny of Charles II. 

I have still a few copies of reprints of 
extracts from these accounts, which I shall 
be pleased to send to any one interested. 


Redruth, Cornwall. 

HARVEST SUPPER SONGS (10 S. xii 30, 71). 

-' The Horkey,' a Suffolk ballad by Robert 

Bloomfield, published in 1806, gives a 

graphic description of a harvest supper in 

East Anglia and of the songs : 

John sung ' Old Benbow ' loud and strong, 

And I ' The Constant Swain ' ; 
" Cheer up, my lads," was Simon's song, 
" We 11 conquer them again." 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Your correspondent will find much that 
will interest him in ' English County Songs,' 
Leadenhall Press, 1893. 



(10 S. xii. 87). 1619. Mentioned by W. 
Perkins in ' Cases of Conscience,' p. 294. 

1628. John Earle in ' Micro-Cosmographie ' 
(ed. Arber, 1868), p. 26 : "A meere dull 
Phisitian .... death and he haue a quarrell, 
and must not meet ; but his feare is, least 
the Carcasse should bleed." 

1655. At Edwinstow, Notts, a man was 
found dead. The man who first found him, 
being suspected, was made to touch the 
corpse in the presence of the coroner and 
the jury (Marshall, * Edwinstow Registers,' 
1891, p. 24). W. C. B. 

"COHERER" (10 S. xii. 88). The first 
coherer was constructed by an Italian in 
1884, and was known as " Onesti's tube." 
Then followed Branly's radio-conductor ; 
and in 1894 Mr. (now Sir) Oliver Lodge read 
a paper before the Electrical Congress on 
' The Possibility of transmitting Signals 
with a Hertz Radiator.' He employed a 
device modelled after Onesti's tube and 
Branly's radio-conductor, and gave the tube 
the name of " coherer." Cf. A. Fred. Collins, 
'Wireless Telegraphy' (New York, 1905), 
p. 137. L. L. K. 

429 ; ix. 297, 314, 495 ; x. 15, 215). ^As I 
have already contributed to this discussion 
(supra, p. 314), I am loath to trespass 
further on your space ; but as it is not eveiy 
one who has access to the authorities he men- 
tions I cannot help asking if the REV. W. D. 


NOTES AND QUERIES, po s. xii. A, u, 

MACBAY could kindly give the names of the 
" seventeen sorts of English apples which 
had been sent as being the best to Marshal 
Wrangel in Sweden in the year 1663." It 
seems to me that a list of what were con- 
sidered to be the best varieties of English 
apples in Charles II. 's reign would be very 
interesting, if only to see how many of them 
are known or grown at the present day. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 
Antigua, W.I. 

GENERAL PICTON (10 S. xi. 490). Many 
years ago I knew John W. Picton, M.D., 
who died, I think, at his house in Carlisle 
Square (?), in or about 1883. If my memory 
is correct, he told me, or I was told by some 
one else who knew him, that he acted as 
chief mourner at one of the two funerals of 
Sir Thomas Picton. My impression is that 
he said it was when he was a boy. In that 
case it must have been in 1815. 

The second funeral that is, when the 
body was removed from the St. George's, 
Hanover Square, burial-ground, Bays water 
Road, to the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral 
took place on 8 June, 1859. According to 
The Illustrated Times of 11 June, 1859 
(p. 379), the first carriage contained J. 
Picton, Esq., the Hon. Col. Vereker, &c. 
Perhaps J. Picton, Esq., was John W. 
Picton, M.D. The Illustrated Times of the 
next week has (p. 397) two pictures, 'Arrival 
of the Car containing the Remains .... at 
St. Paul's Cathedral ' and * Depositing the 
Remains .... in the Vault at St. Paul's 
Cathedral.' This second funeral is not, 
I think, mentioned in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography.' 


441, 502 ; vii. 293). On pp. 441 and 504 
Mrs. Symons, a daughter of Dr. Jay, is 
mentioned. I have just come across another 
instance of her fame as a harpist in the 
following piece : " Valse a la Taglioni, 
arranged for the harp, and dedicated to 
Mrs. ^Symons, by J. F. Pole. London, 
J. Dean, 148, New Bond Street." 

The date suggested in the National Library 
Catalogue of Music is 1845 ; but this is too 
late, as Dean's name is in the ' P.O.D.' at 
the above address in 1830-7-8 only, and hot 

I have not been able to find any par- 
ticulars of John Frederick Pole, but besides 
the aboye waltz four pieces of music by him 
are in the National Library, namely, 
Andante,' Edinb. (1835); 'Saxon Air,' 

Lond. (1845); 'The Rose Tree ' (1850); 
and ' The Royal Archer's Quadrilles,' Edinb 

I may mention that a pedigree of the Jay 
family is given in ' The Green Room Book"; 
or, Who's Who on the Stage,' for 1908, 
p. 590 ; it is compiled by Mr. J. M. Bulloch 
from the articles in ' N. & Q.' 

I should like to take this opportunity of 
making a correction. On p. 504 I gave the 
Public Record Office high praise because 
there were no fees charged. There were not 
when I then last searched, but now the case 
is altered. RALPH THOMAS. 

68, 115). About seven or eight years ago 
I studied this case with some care ; but 
although I took a good deal of trouble to 
obtain " authentic evidence " of the death- 
bed confession mentioned by MR. WALTER 
BELL, I could discover nothing to show 
that it had ever been made. The case of 
Eliza Fenning was used by opponents of the 
Government for political purposes, and the 
unhappy woman obtained much sympathy 
because she was hanged for a crime less than 
murder ; but apart from her persistent 
declarations there is nothing to show that 
she was innocent. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

Haydn's ' Dictionary of Dates ' (20th ed.) 
says of Eliza Fenning, sub ' Executions ' : 
" In the ' Annual Register ' for 1857, p. 143, 
it is stated, on the authority of Mr. Gurney, 
that she confessed the crime to Mr. James 
Upton, a Baptist minister, shortly before her 
execution." ST. S WITHIN. 

CAPT. R. J. GORDON (10 S. xii. 29).- 

There is a short notice of Capt. Robert 
James Gordon, R.N., in ' Annual Obituary * 
for 1824 (vol. ix. p. 419), in which he is 
stated to have died on 27 Sept., 1822, at 
Wilet Medinet, one day's journey from 
Sanaar, while on his way to attempt to 
penetrate to the source of the Bahr Colitiad. 

Bromley, Kent. 

(10 S. ix. 389 ; x. 53, 96, 453 ; xi. 456). 
When I first went to live in Jamaica, nearly 
forty years ago, I was told that if a fowl 
was tied to a papaw tree at night, it would 
be found dead in the morning ; and that 
if a papaw tree grew near a stable, the horses 
kept there would suffer in health. Some 
time later I noticed papaws growing near 
the stables (very open ones) in which a 
friend kept his working mules at night, and 

io s. XIL AUG. 14, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES.' 


I told him what I had heard. He said at 
once that this was probably true, for his 
mules were constantly out of order, and that 
he would get rid of the papaws. When he 
told his wife of his intention, the careful 
housewife said that she should be sorry to 
lose them, for they were so useful for making 
a tough fowl tender by rubbing it with the 
fruit before it was cooked. The fruit is 
rather pleasant, though, except in strict 
moderation, it is very unwholesome. 

109, Club Garden Road, Sheffield. 

(10 S. xi. 470). In The London Magazine 
for October, 1786, there is an account of the 
institution of the Most Noble Order of 
Bucks. One of the three lodges, viz., the 
Royal Hanoverian Lodge, met at " The 
Horns Tavern," Doctors' Commons. This 
society or club probably issued the tokens 
described in Atkins's ' Tradesmen's Tokens 
of the Eighteenth Century ' ; see p. 80, 
Nos. 110, 111; p. 141, No. 750; p. 147, 
No. 823. Doubtless the seal mentioned by 
MB. CROUCH had its origin in the above 
club or society. The tokens all have a stag 
upon them, and some of the mottoes given 
in The London Magazine occur on the tokens 
as legends. See also my own ' Notes on the 
Middlesex Tokens,' p. 10. 


Leamington Spa. 

SIONS (10 S. xi. 388, 438 ; xii. 95). 4. The 
west door of Haccombe Chapel, South Devon, 
has one of these old door-fastenings, con- 
sisting of a thick bar of wood sliding back 
in the thickness of the wall. There is a 
good illustration of it in Mr. John Stabb's 
recently issued ' Devon Church Antiquities,' 
vol. i. p. 69. G. L. APPERSON. 

HOCKTIDE AT HEXTON (10 S. xi. 488 ; xii. 
71). The etymology of hocktide is un- 
known ; see ' N.E.D.' 

I must protest against the assumption 
at p. 73 that hock is " the Anglo-Saxon hoc, 
a hook." Any one who has learnt Anglo- 
Saxon knows that short o and long o are 
different vowels. There is no A.-S. hoc 
meaning " hook." The A.-S. for hook is hoc. 

PAUL BRADDON (10 S. viii. 489 ; x. 417 ; 

xii. 91). I have a water-colour of old 

Folly Bridge, Oxford, which is signed 

" Braddon." The signature is unmistakable. 


Sibson Rectory, Atherstone. 


The Little Guides. Monmouthshire. By G. W.. 

Wade and J. H. Wade. Essex. By J. Charles 

Cox. (Methuen & Co.) 

WE are always glad to see additions to this series 
of " Little Guides," for being arranged under 
places in alphabetical order, and confining them- 
selves to sound information without the verbiage 
of the older guide-books, they are practical and 
readily consulted. We never fail, when attacking 
any new district, to ask if these compact booklets 
are available, for we have found them remarkably 

' Monmouthshire ' has a capital selection of 
illustrations, and includes notes on natural 
history. The writers have a touch of humour 
and derision which enlivens their notes and 
criticisms. Thus rare plants are said to be 
rapidly disappearing " through the greed of 
professional collectors, as well as in consequence 
of the painful tidiness of County Council officials.'" 

Dr. Cox is not himself a native of Essex, but 
he has paid visits there during forty years, and 
has had extensive experience of English life m. 
many districts. He is able to pronounce an 
expert verdict on interesting churches and ruins 
such as few are qualified to give, and, dropping 
the terms " Decorated " and " Perpendicular,'" 
refers to particular centuries. We hope his book 
will add to the appreciation of a rather neglected 
county, which is by no means so flat as people- 
think, even on the side of the Thames marshes.. 
He has had the great advantage of using two- 
volumes of the " Victoria County History," a 
monument of careful erudition which all willi 
hope to see completed. 

IN The Cornhill Mr. H. Hesketh Prichard has a 
good paper ' On the Labrador,' though in his, 
sporting expedition he did not get the caribou 
he sought. Mr. Quiller-Couch gives us further- 
' News from Troy,' worthy of that fascinating- 
region. Mr. Kenneth Bell has a good article on 
' Architecture in English History,' and Mr.. 
Horace Hutchinson ' A Pickwick Paper ' of interest,, 
in which he dwells on some of the manners of the- 
time as revealed by the immortal Club. We hear,, 
he points out, of nightcaps, but not of nightgowns* 
and never of the morning bath. ' The Second 
Paradise,' by Mr. Norman Gale, is a poetical 
study of Adam and Eve and their children. In 
' Under a Fool's Cap ' Mr. Norman Hoe gives an 
account of a book of light verse amplifying 
nursery rimes, of which he is the happy possessor. 
The author, who published the book in 1884 
with a firm now defunct, calls himself Daniel 
Henry, junior, and deserves a wider audience 
than he has hitherto, apparently,, attained.. 
Nothing appears to be known of him, and perhaps, 
after this display of his muse, he will emerge,, 
if still writing, from obscurity. 

IN The Fortnightly Mr. J. L. Garvin has a 
vigorous summary of ' Imperial and Foreign 
Affairs.' ' The Cult of the Unfit,' by Mr. E. B. 
Iwan-Miiller, begins with Darwin, and ends with, 
denunciation of Radical Socialists and the 
Budget. ' Tennyson : a Reconsideration and 
Appreciation,' by the'Rev. H. W. Clark, is heavy- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. w, im 

and wordy, though generally sound. ' An Hour 
with the Pope' gives a pleasant picture of the 
simple Pontiff, who felt so sure that he would 
not be wanted for long at Rome that he took a 
return ticket when he attended the conclave. 
This return ticket has been much sought after 
fay wealthy collectors, and was given last year to 
the King of Greece. A leading position this 
month is taken by the very interesting revelations 
of Mr. B. W. Matz concerning ' George Meredith 
.as a Publisher's Header ' for Messrs. Chapman 
.& Hall. Meredith refused ' Erewhon ' and ' East 
Lynne,' but he encouraged many writers. Some 
of the verdicts published seem to us hardly fair 
to living writers, though Mr. Matz does preserve 
.anonymity in many cases. A sentence beginning 
'" Some of his comments," which goes on " were 
disposed of with such comments," is an instance 
of clumsy writing, and the confusion which 

comes from long sentences. Prof. Rhys Roberts 
has a capital article on ' Porson and Jebb,' which 

s should interest both scholars and the ordinary 
jpublic. The former class may, perhaps, think 
Person's achievements understated. He left 
his mark on Sophocles, for instance, as well as 
Euripides, as any one may see who investigates 
Jebb's text of the earlier dramatist. Mrs. 
Arthur Harter has a pleasant paper on ' The 
Influence of Italy on the Poetry of the Brownings.' 
In ' The Madness of Launcelot ' Mr. Kaufmann 
'Spiers succeeds in writing a Tennysonian addition 
"to the Arthurian idylls. We should prefer to see 
rsome new vein cultivated. Mr. Hewlett's ' Letters 
to Sanchia ' gives an attractive picture of the 
^unconventional young man whose career started 
iin the preceding number. 

IN The Nineteenth Century Mr. J. A. R. Marriott 
adds to the enormous mass of writing on ' The 
House of Lords and the Budget.' Dr. E. J. 
Dillon is vigorous concerning ' Great Britain and 
Russia : an Alliance or an Illusion ? ' Mr. 
Frederic Harrison will command attention with 
his views on the various poets he discusses in 
' The Tennyson Centenary,' but we should be 
sorry to endorse some of his conclusions. He 
devotes a lot of space to Byron, patronizes 
" dear old Wordsworth," and does not put 
Coleridge in the first rank as a poet. The twen- 
tieth century is, in his judgment, to give 
first-class honours to Byron, Shelley, Wordsworth, 
and Keats, and Tennyson as their peer. Tenny- 
.-son is, perhaps, superior to Keats on the ground 
that the latter's " work is fragmentary and 
iimmature." This last comment surprises us. 
If Mr. Harrison does not see in Keats 's finest 
Odes the perfection of English, we refuse to 
regard him as a competent judge of style. ' Francis 
Bacon as Poet,' by Sir Edward Sullivan, and 
' A Last Word to Mr. George Greenwood,' by 
Canon Beeching, both touch on Shakespeare 
and the defence of the orthodox position. Both 
papers deserve careful perusal, for they contain 
real argument on the question. Mr. Pett Ridge 
has an ingenious and, so far as we can judge, 
fairly just paper on ' Faults of the Londoner.' 

* Roddam Spencer - Stanhope, Pre - Raphaelite, ' 
gives an engaging insight into the life and work 

-of a painter who shared the enthusiasms of the 
greatest artists' of the last century, and was 
regarded by good judges as a supreme colourist. 
In ' The Slump in Modern Art ' the Hon. John 

-Collier tells artists to paint pictures, *which the 

public want to buy, and appears to regard art- 
critics as too jaded by many shows to have a 
valuable opinion. It is likely that some pen 
more able than ours will point out to Mr. Collier 
the weakness of his position. Mr. Edward 
Dicey in ' Hindu Students in England ' refers 
merely to such students at Gray's Inn. What he 
says, however, is well reasoned and moderate 
in tone. Some of the difficulties he mentions 
are also felt strongly at Cambridge. 

The Burlington Magazine has, as usual, some 
important and well-written editorial matter. It 
is suggested that the owners of historic monu- 
ments should have the land on which they stand 
exempt from taxation. The example chosen, 
Holland House, seems to us unfortunate, for 
we have yet to learn that the average Londoner, 
or even the person of artistic taste, has a chance 
to see the historic house and grounds in ordinary 
circumstances. Dr. F. R. Martin finds ' The 
True Origin of so-called Damascus Ware ' to 
be Isnik, and puts forward a strong case for his 
view. The frontispiece is a brilliant work by 
Rembrandt, somewhat doubtfully entitled ' A 
Nymph of Diana Reposing,' which belongs to 
that fortunate gatherer of masterpieces, Mr. 
Salting. Other illustrations show beautiful 
decorative work by Philippe de Bourgogne in the 
cathedrals of Burgos and Toledo, and wonderful 
examples done from memory by pupils of a famous 
teacher of art, Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 
The bona fide character of this work Is established. 
One of this master's famous pupils, Prof. Legros, 
won his special favour by a reproduction from 
memory of Holbein's * Erasmus.' An historic 
monument which has long shown signs of wear, 
Can Grande's statue at Verona, is now so much 
injured that it has been found necessary to 
take it down from the place where it has been 
for nearly six hundred years, and remove it to 
the studio of a Veronese sculptor to be copied 
exactly. This copy will be placed on the old 
site, and what is left of the famous horse and 
rider will be preserved in the Museo Civico. No 
one can object to such treatment, which is far 
better than leaving a monument to crumble to 

to (0msp0ntonis. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

Editorial communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

M. L. B. BRESLAR ("Horse-marine"). Used by 
Scott in 'St. Ronan's Well,' chap, xxi., Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, and others. Discussed at great 
length at 9 S. ii. 26, 112, 355, 456 ; iii. 215. 

A. W. (" Sowgelder'sLane "). See 8 S. ix. 29, 138. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 116, col. 1, 1. 22 from foot, for 
"its famous" read the famous. P. 118, col. 2, 1. 20 
from foot, for 1898 read 1798. 



Crown 4to, with 8 Illustrations, 10s. 6d. net. 














Comprising his contributions, with Additions, to Notes and Queries. 


His father and mother His education His first poem" King of the College "Joins Edward Hewitt 
in founding a Mechanics' Institute in Leeds Gives a lecture before the Leeds Philosophical and 
Literary Society on ' The Fairies of English Poetry 'The Leeds Wits Friendships for W. E. Forster 
and the Marquis of Ripon Dr. Reynolds minister at East Parade Chapel and his friendship for the 
Knights Knight's marriage Leaves for London Feels capable of either editing The Times or 
commanding the Channel Fleet Writes for Literary Gazette under John Morley Succeeds J. A. 
Heraud as dramatic critic of The Athenaeum His views of Fechter and IrvingKnight originates 
Banquet to the Come'die Francaise Reviews the French Academy's Dictionary in The AthencKumAlso 
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Martyrdom 'Becomes Editor of Notes and Queries Writes article on its jubilee, also on death of 
Queen Victoria Dramatic critic of The Daily Graphic and of The Globe Death of William Terriss 
Mafeking night Jeu d'esprit on the Radical defeat in 1895 in St. James's Gazette, ' The Bannerman's 
Lament' List of his contributions to the * Dictionary of National Biography 'Writes Life of 
Rossetti Writes article on Cyrano de Bergerac for The Fortnightly Review M. Coquelm His 
Sylvanus Urban " papers in The. Gentleman's Magazine His friendship for the publisher Mr. Andrew 
Chatto Writes in The Idler on the Laureateship Sunday evenings with the Marstons Tom 
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the death of F. G. Stephens His death Funeral at Highgate Cemetery Tributes to his memory. 

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10 s. xii. AUG. 21, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



OONTENTS.-No. 295. 

NOTES :-Serjeant-Major Cotton of Waterloo, 141 Houses 
of the Nobility c. 1680, 143 'Notes by the Way,' US- 
Thomas Creevey and the Duke of Wellington T. E. 
Brown Dorset Gardens Estate, 146 Nicholas Spencer 
of Westminster " Shot at the rook," &c. Edward IV. 's 
Standard-Bearer at Barnet, 147. 

QUERIES: "Never too late to mend " " Dainty Daisy " 
Taylor = Berkeley, 147 Naylor of Canterbury 
Samaritan Society Merdon Manor, Hursley Maltese 
Beef -eaters Rodd Family Authors Wanted Mayors 
elected in Churches 'A Sketch from Nature' Draw- 
bridges still in Use Yorkshire Similes Twelve Sur- 
name Magna Charta Barons Holderness Families 
" Le Meriole'': "Le Colebrehous" " FasSole" "The 
Mauraden" "Protection for burning," 1592 " Stagga 
Bob-tail Warning "Godfrey of Bouillon and Rashi, 149 

"Land Office business" John Bossom, 1729/30 
Wooden Lectern at St. Cross, Winchester Macleay 
Family, 150. 

REPLIES : Macaulay, Thorns, and 'The Dunciad,' 150 
Donna Maria of Spain -" The I very," 152" Pennyworth " 
Leaden Figures Vintners' Company Eel-Pie Shop, 
153 -Abbots of Evesham English Poem in Welsh Metre 

" Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John," 154 Farnese 
Arms Chaucer : " Strothir "Hollow Loaf foretelling 
Death Gainsborough, Architect, c. 1300, 155 "Coffee" 
Windows from Church at Trier, 156 John Kelsall, 
Mayor of Chester Castor Oil, 157 Mechanical Road 
Carriages Balloons and Flying Machines " Seynt-pro- 
Seynt," a Wine Pins substituted for Thorns Hus before 
the Council of Constance Authors Wanted, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Folk-Lore and Folk-Stories of 

Wales ' ' The Pronunciation of English.' 
Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


COTTON'S Museum of Relics and the Grand 
Museum Hotel at Waterloo are for sale. 
The auction will be conducted in the notaries' 
public salerooms, 38, Rue Fosse-aux-loups, 
Brussels, by notary EC tors, in conjunction 
with notary Brabant, the preliminary 
bidding being on Friday, 3 Sept., and the 
final bidding on Tuesday, 5 Oct., 1909. 
An illustrated catalogue, in French and 
English, of the contents of the museum and 
hotel has been issued. 

Many of the relics are of much interest. 
Among them are (1) a case containing coins 
and a snuff-box with portrait of the Duke 
of Wellington taken at Paris, which was 
presented to Cotton by Major Anstruther ; 
(2) Cotton's Toulouse, Orthez;, and Waterloo 
medals ; (3) many presentation copies of 
works relating to the battle, one of the most 
important being a copy of the third edition 
of Capt. Siborne's account of the battle, 
which was given by Tennyson (then living 
at Farringford in Freshwater parish), with 

selections from his own works, in 1865. 
The chief relics found on the battle-field, 
including several in this collection, are said 
to be described in ' Pendant et apres Water- 
loo,' 1908, by Louis Navez ; but no copy of 
this work is at the British Museum. The 
date of the foundation of the Museum 
by Cotton is painted over its entrance as 
1825 ; the hotel has been in the hands of 
the family since 1827, and during that 
time has served annually over 30,000 visitors, 
about a third of the number being English 
and American. It is much to be hoped that 
the collection will remain on its present site. 
The Council of the Royal United Service 
Museum were in correspondence with the 
owner of the collection some time ago, but 
so large a price was put upon it that terms 
of purchase could not be arranged. 

Edward Cotton became, and is recollected 
as, Sergeant-Major Cotton of the 7th Hussars. 
In 1871 Charles Roach Smith, the archaeo- 
logist (who was born near Shanklin, in the 
Isle of Wight, in August, 1807), visited this 
" museum of arms." He was much im- 
pressed with the excellence of the English 
spoken by the proprietress, and in response 
to his inquiries found with delight that the 
family came from Freshwater, also in his 
native isle. Smith impressed upon her 
" the policy of retaining the museum intact 
until the Belgian Government should offer 
to purchase it." On his return to England 
he made inquiries about the family, but 
Cotton " was not remembered either at 
Freshwater or anywhere in the Isle of 
Wight" ('Retrospections,' iii. 65-6). The 
Rector of Freshwater informs me that there 
are in the registers many entries of the 
family of Cotton, but that there is no 
mention of any Edward Cotton between 
1780 and 1800. 

Cotton mentions that he was three times, 
viz., at Orthez, Haspereen (about 12 miles 
from Bayonne), and Waterloo, when under 
the command of Peter Augustus Heyliger, 
engaged with the French, and that Heyliger 
was wounded on each occasion. The 7th 
Hussars formed part at Waterloo of a brigade 
which should have consisted of the 7th and 
15th British Hussars, and the 2nd Hussars, 
King's German Legion ; but as the German 
regiment was still on the frontier, its place 
was taken in the battle by the 13th Light 
Dragoons. The colonel of the 7th Hussars 
was Lord Anglesey, and the brigade was 
commanded by Major-General Sir Colquhoun 
Grant. During the retreat through Genappe 
on the 17th of June the 7th Hussars were 
prominent in the struggle which took place 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 21, UODL 

with the French. Cotton's horse was killed 
under him on the 18th, and he rode for 
the rest of the day on the horse of a French 
Cuirassier. He saved on that day the life 
of a trooper named Gillmore. At other 
times he saved two lives from drowning. 
One was a lad, David Bale, at Clapham, 
near London ; another, a boy, named 
Tannis, in the village of Mont St. Jean. 

When the army was disbanded Cotton 
elected to reside in Belgium, and at Lord 
Anglesey's wish settled at Mont St. Jean. 
He was clever, and of education beyond his 
fellow-soldiers ; and he seized every oppor- 
tunity of acquiring information from the 
officers who revisited the plain on which they 
had fought. Jean Baptiste de Coster, who 
was in attendance on Napoleon on the 18th 
of June, 1815, was the best-known guide 
at Waterloo until his death in 1826. Accord- 
ing to the preface to his volume, Cotton did 
not adopt the profession of guide until 
1835 ; but from that time he was the 
favourite companion of all the visitors from 
England. It is said that Sidney Cooper 
relied upon his statements for many of the 
details in his large picture ' The Half -past 
One o'clock Charge at Waterloo,' which 
was in the great exhibition in Westminster 
Hall during the spring of 1847. Cotton 
was described in 1845 (Naval and Military 
Gazette, 19 April, p. 252) as " an intelligent, 
spare, active, good-looking fellow, of 53 
years of age, and the very cut of a Hussar." 
The statement that he attended Lord 
Byron on his visit to Waterloo in May, 
1816, and George IV. on 1 Oct., 1821, 
requires corroboration. Lord William Pitt 
Lennox asserts in his ' Celebrities I have 
Known,' Second Series, ii. 22, that Cotton 
guided Sir Walter Scott, the Duke of Rich- 
mond, and himself over the battle-field in 
the summer of 1815 ; but the volume was 
written many years after that date, and the 
accuracy of the statement is not beyond 

Cotton and Sergeant-Major Munday, also 
of the 7th Hussars, married two sisters. 
Cotton's wife died in 1848, and on his death 
next year he left four orphan children. 
From their age it would seem that Cotton 
married about 1835. This was probably the 
reason why he adopted in earnest in that 
year the business of guide to the battle- 
field. One of his daughters was the lady 
with whom Charles Roach Smith conversed. 
Another daughter, a girl of eleven in 1849, 
was assistant superior of the convent of 
the Sisters of St. Mary at Braine-l'Alleud, 
and survived to witness the ceremony at 

j Evere on 26 Aug., 1890. His niece, Miss 
| Munday, married George Veraleweck, who 
made the coffin for Cotton's remains. 

It was in a house built at Mont St. Jean 
that Cotton established his museum. He 
died there from consumption on Sunday, 
24 June, 1849, having on the previous 
Friday taken an English family over the 
field (Athenceum, 7 July, p. 696). By his 
express desire he was buried two days later 
in the orchard of Hougomont, by the side 
of Capt. John Lucie Blackman (youngest 
son of Sir George Blackman, Bt., who took 
in 1821 the surname of Harnage only), who 
was born on 4 Oct., 1793, entered the 
Coldstream regiment of Foot Guards on 
11 Jan., 1814, and lost his life in defending 
that farm. Cotton's epitaph in the orchard 
is article 364 in the catalogue of the Museum. 
It runs as follows : 

" Sacred to the memory of Edward Cotton, 
author of ' A Voice from Waterloo,' and late 
sergeant-major of the 7th Hussars, who departed 
this life at Mont St. Jean, the 24th day of June, 
1840, in his 58th year." 

Many of the chief English residents at 
Brussels showed their respect for him in 
following his body to the grave. In 1890 
the remains were removed to the crypt 
beneath the Waterloo monument in the new 
cemetery of Evere. Cotton's skeleton was 
entire, although the coffin had wholly dis- 

The memorial at Evere was unveiled by 
the Duke of Cambridge on 26 Aug., 1890, 
and the sermon which the Rev. Edward 
Ker Grey, LL.D., preached in the English 
Church, Rue Belliard, Brussels, on Sunday 
afternoon, 24 Aug., and repeated in St. 
George's Chapel, Albemarle Street, London, 
on 2 !N*ov., 1890, was published by request, 
with an appendix of notes relating to the 
memorial and its inauguration. No copy 
is at the British Museum ; it was printed 
by Holmes & Son of 31, South Molton Street. 
The remains of seventeen warriors are en- 
tombed in the memorial, those of Cotton 
being the sixth in the crypt. He was the 
only one of them who died a natural death. 

The museum of relics was maintained for 
the support of Cotton's orphan children. 
During recent years the property at Mont 
St. Jean has been in the hands of a great- 
niece, Madame Browne, daughter of M. 
Veraleweck by Miss Munday, and the widow 
of a naval officer. 

Edward Cotton was more than a brave 
soldier and an admirable guide. He was a 
successful author, and his work, ' A Voice 
from Waterloo,' is said to have gone through 

10 s. XIL AUG 21, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ten^editions, and has held its own for 63 
years against all competitors. The author's 
rights in it will be sold with the other 
properties. The following particulars of 
the editions are taken from the volumes 
belonging to Mr. T. W. Brogden of 1, New 
Court, in the Temple. Only one copy of 
the work, and that of the third edition 
(1849), is in the Library of the British 

The title of the first edition, now a rare 
volume, is : 

1. A Voice from Waterloo, being an abridged 
history of the battle, founded on authentic 
documents, official returns, and the combined 
testimony of eye-witnesses, illustrated by the 
plan and key, and embellished with portraits 
of the leading characters. By Serg.-Major E. 
Cotton, guide, Mont St. Jean. Facts are stubborn 
things. [Then follow four lines of verse.] Pub- 
lished by Edward Browne, Brussels 1846. 

A facsimile of his signature is on p. 2 of the 
preface. This volume contained a few 
typographical inaccuracies. 

2. A Voice from Waterloo, a history of the 
battle of the 18th June, 1815. By Sergeant- 
Major Cotton (of the 7th Hussars at Waterloo). 
Facts are stubborn things. A new edition, 
revised and considerably enlarged. . . .Printed 
for the author, and sold by him at Mont St. Jean ; 
sold also by Todd, Muquardt, and at the English 
reading-rooms, Brussels, 1847. 

In a note to his preface he speaks of his 
" twelve years' residence on the spot, 
acting, as I have been, as the Waterloo 

3. A Voice from Waterloo, a history of the 
battle fought on the 18th June, 1815, with a 
selection from the Wellington despatches .... By 
Sergeant-Major E. Cotton (late 7th Hussars). 
Facts are stubborn things. Third edition, 
revised and considerably enlarged. London, 
B. L. Green, 62, Paternoster-Bow. 1849. 
This was the first impression that had 
been put into the hands of a London pub- 
lisher. The work was much altered in style 
of writing. 

4. A Voice from Waterloo, a history of the 
battle fought on the 18th June, 1815, with a 
selection from the Wellington dispatches. By 
Sergeant-Major Edward Cotton, late 7th Hussars, 
Facts are stubborn things. Fourth edition 
revised and enlarged. Printed for the author 
Mont St. Jean 1852. 

5. A Voice from Waterloo [<fcc., as in 4th ed.] 
Fifth -edition, 1854. 

Appended to this edition are six stanzas on 
Cotton's tomb at Hougomont and a plan o:' 
the battle-field. 

6. A Voice from Waterloo [&c., as in 4th and 
5th eds.]. Sixth edition. 1862. 

An impression in French was publishec 
at Brussels in 1874. 

7. A Voice from Waterloo [&c., as in 4th, 5th 
and 6th eds.]. Seventh edition. 1889. 

By this time many printers' errors had 
rept into the narrative. 

8. A Voice from Waterloo [&c., as in 4th, 5th r 
th, and 7th eds.]. Eighth edition. Printed [at 
'ffice of Belgian News, 17, rue du Pepin, Brussels} 
or the proprietor, H6tel du Mus6e, Braine- 
'Alleud. Sold also by the principal booksellers 
n Belgium. Brussels : Kiessling & Co.'s 
ibrary (P. Imbreghts, Successor), 72, Montagne 
de la Cour. 1895. 

The letterpress of this edition was revised by 
Mr. Brogden, and the " additional notes and 
anecdotes," in Appendix VII., pp. 273-87, 
were furnished by him. 

Mr. Broadley states that ten editions of 
Cotton's work have been published. The 
last two are unknown to me. They are, 
probably verbatim reissues of No. 8. 


NEAR LONDON c. 1680 : T. BAKER. 

IN the ' Index Villaris ; or, An Alpha- 
betical Table of all the Cities, Market-Towns 
. . . .in England and Wales,' by J. Adams, 
1680, at the end, viz., pp. 409-12, is 'A 
True and Perfect List of the Nobility of 
England, with their Principal Houses, and 
the Counties in which they are.' 

Written at the foot of p. 409 in my copy 
is " This last sheet is wanting in several 
copies." The handwriting is, I think, the 
same as in the following, which is on the- 
title-page : " Tho : Baker Coll : Jo: Socius- 

Baker, because of his non-compliance with 
the abjuration oath, was compelled to 
resign his fellowship St. John's, Cam- 
bridge in 1716/17. According to the 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' it was- 
his invariable practice after losing his 
fellowship to write " Socius ejectus " after 
his name on the " blank leaf " of any book 
of his. According to Foster's ' Alumni 
Oxonienses,' he was " incorporated " a mem- 
ber of the University of Oxford, 12 July,. 

As to the houses of the nobility, I give- 
those in Surrey and Middlesex. S stands 
for the one, M for the other. I omit the 
inferior titles. The Knights of the Garter 
have an asterisk prefixed. The letters and 
words in parentheses are taken from the 
* Index Villaris ' itself. 
*His Royal Highness James, Duke of York and 

Albanie. Richmond, S. (St. James House in 

Westminster. M.) 
Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk. Norfolk 

House in Arundel Buildings. M. Albury ^ 

Waybridg (House). S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xir. A. 21, 1909. 

= *George Villers, Duke of Buckingham. Walling 
ford House near Whitehall. Colledg Hill in 
London. M. 
""Christopher Monk, Duke of Albemarl. Albe- 

marl(e) House. M. 
: *Henry Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle. Clerken- 

wel House (Clarkenwell Nunnery). M. 
Barbara Villers, Duchess of Cleveland. Cleve- 
land House near Saint James's. M. 
*Charles Fitz-Boy, Duke of Southampton. 

Nonsuch. S. 

Charles Powlet, Marquess of Winchester. Win- 
chester House in Lin. Fields. M. 
*Henry Somerset, Marquess of Worcester. 

Worcester House in the Strand. M. 
Henry Pierpoint, Marquess of Dorchester. 

Highgate. M. 
Anthony Grey, Earl of Kent. Kent House in 

St. James Squ. M. 
*William Bussel, Earl of Bedford. Bedford House 

in the Strand. M. 
* James Cecil, Earl of Salisbury. Salisbury 

House in the Strand. M. 

John Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater. Bridge- 
water House in Barbican. M. 
Philip Sidney, Earl of Leicester. Leicester 

House in Leic. Fields. M. 

.James Compton, Earl of Northampton. Cam- 
bray. M. 

Edward Rich, Earl of Warwick and Holland. 
Warwick House in Holborn. Holland House 
in Kensington. M. 
William Cavendish, Earl of Devon. Bowhamp- 

ton (house). S. 
Gilbert Holies, Earl of Clare. Clare House in 

Drury-Lane. M. 
*John Sheffield, Earl of Mulgrave. Mulgrave 

House near Whitehall. M. 
Thomas Savage, Earl Bivers. Bivers House in 

Queen-street. M. 
Bobert Bertie, Lord High Chamberlain of 

England, Earl of Lindsey. Chelsey. M. 
Bichard Tufton, Earl of Thanet. Thanet House 

in Aldersgate-str. M. 

*Henry Jermin, Earl of St. Albans. St. Alban 

House in St. James's Square. M. Byfleet. S. 

Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex. Essex House hi 

St. James's Square. M. 
Bobert Brudenel, Earl of Cardigan. Cardigan 

House in Lincoln's-Inn Fields. M. 
Arthur Annesley, Earl of Anglesey. Anglesey 

House in Drury-Lane. M. 
William Craven, Earl of Craven. Craven House 

in Drury-Lane. M. 
Bobert Bruce, Earl of Ailesbury. Ailesbury 

House in St. Johns (St. Johns House). M. 
Bichard Boyle, Earl of Burlington and Corke. 

Burlington House. M. 
*Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington. Arlington 

House in Westminster. M. 
William Herbert, Earl of Powis. Powis House 

in Line. Fields. M. 
*John Maitland, Earl of Guilford, Duke of Lauder- 

dale. Ham. S. 
"Thomas Osborn, Earl of Danby. Wimbledon 

(house). S. 
George Savil, Earl and Viscount Halifax. 

Halifax House in St. James's Square. M., 
Charles Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield. Maccles- 

field Hoifee in Westminster. M. 
George Berkeley, Earl of Berkeley. Berkely 
House (Berkeley) near St. Johns. M. Cran- 
ford (House). M. Durdence (Durdece). S 

Edward Conway, Earl of Conway. Conwa\ 

House in Queen-str. M. 
Baptista Wriothesley Noel, Viscount Campdec. 

Campden-house in Kensington. M. 
William Howard, Viscount Stafford. Tart-hall 

in Westminster. M. 
Thomas Bellasyse, Viscount Fauconberg of 

Henknowle. Fauconberg House near Pell- 

Mell. M. Sutton Court. M. 
Charles, Viscount Mordant of Avelon. Mordant 

House in Parsons-Green. M. Beygate 

(house). S. 
Elizabeth, Baroness Percy, sole Daughter and 

Heiress of Jocelin, late Earl of Northumber- 
land, and Widow of Henry Percy, Earl of 

Ogle, onely son of Henry Cavendish, Duke of 

Newcastle. Northumberland House in the 

Strand. Sion House. M. 
Thomas, Lord Windsor. Flanchford. S. 
William, Lord Paget. Drayton. M. 
Charles, Lord North and Grey of Bolleston. 

Towting Graveney. 8. 
James Bertie, Lord Norreys. Lindsey House in 

Westminster. M. 

Fulke Grevil, Lord Brook. Hackney. M. 
Ford, Lord Grey. Charter-house Close. M. 
John, Lord Bellasyse. Whitton. M. 
Charles Henry Kirkhoven, Lord Wotton. 

Belsise (Belsyse). M. 
Charles, Lord Berkeley. Stratton House alias 

Berkeley House in Peccadilly. Twickenham. 

Francis, Lord Holies. Pepper Harrow. S. 

Highgate. M. 

Heneage, Lord Finch. Kensington (House). M. 
Dr. William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Lambeth House. Croydon Palace. S. 
Dr. Henry Compton, Bishop of London. London 

House (C. of Lond.). Fulham House. M. 
Dr. George Morley, Bishop of Winchester. 

Farnham Castle. S. Chelsey House. M. 
Dr. Peter Gunning, Bishop of Ely. Ely House 

in Holborn. M. 

The following are addenda taken from 
' Index Villaris ' itself. Some of them are 
probably repetitions, e.g. (Lord Wotton) 
Hampsted probably equals Belsise. 

Duke of Norfolk. Arundel House, Westminster. 

Earl of Burlington. Bansted. S. Burlington 
House in Westminster. M. 

Earl of St. Albans. Byfleet Park House. S. 

Marques of Dorchester. Charter-House Close. 

Earl of Bristol. Chelsey. M. 

Lord Brook. Clapton. M. 

Lord Wotton. Hampsted. M. 

Marquess of Dorchester. Holloway Upper. M. 

Prince Bupert. St. James Park Lodg in West- 
minster. M. 

Earl of Lindsey. Lindsey House in Westminster. 

(? Viscount) Mountague. Mountague House. M. 

Earl of Newport. Newport House in Westmin- 
ster. M. 

Earl of Northumberland. Northumberland 
House in Westminster. M. 

Earl of Nottingham. Putney. S. 

Countess Dow. of North. Sion, M. 

Lord Bussel. Southampton House. M. 

10 s. XIL AUG. 21, 


Viscount Mordant. Stanton. S. 

Earl of Lindsey. Towting-beck. S. 

Earl of Falmouth. Twickenham Park. M. 

Probably the ' List of the Nobility ' was 
compiled after the ' Index Villaris,' which 
is a laborious work giving the latitude and 
longitude of "Cities, Market-Towns, Parishes, 
Villages, and Private Seats." 



NOTWITHSTANDING the care taken in 
reading the proofs of my work, errors have 
crept in. 

On p. 297 it is stated that Ebsworth was 
married to the eldest daughter of the Rev. 
William Blore. This should be Blow. 
Ebsworth had in his drawing-room a very 
fine life-size portrait in oils of his father-in- 
law, now in the possession of Mrs. Ebsworth's 
nephew. Mr. Arthur Hill of New Bond 
Street tells me that one of Blow's nephews, 
the Rev. William Blow, Rector of Layer 
Breton, Kelvedon, Essex, was a wonderful 
amateur violinist. 

Among other friends of ' JST. & Q.' who 
have kindly given me information as to 
mistakes is W. C. B., who tells me that 
the second name of " John Crutchley 
Prince " (p. 294) should be Critchley. He 
also notes that on p. 303, 1. 11, " birthday " 
should be marriage. 

The reference in the Index to Miss Mar- 
tineau and the Penny Post belongs to Charles 
Wentworth Dilke, not to his grandson Sir 
C. W. Dilke. 

Mr. Richard H. Thornton writes : " * Martyr 
Charles,' in the Church of the Evangelists, 
Philadelphia, is not on a window - pane 
(p. 298), but painted on panel or canvas, 
for I have seen him there." 

J. R. Lowell, in 'A Fable for Critics,' 
says that Cowper (see p. 63) rimed (or 
rhymed) his name with " horse-trooper." 

In The British Weekly of the 1st of July, 
under the ever- welcome * Rambling Remarks ' 
which " A Man of Kent " contributes 
weekly, the statement on p. 314 that De 
Quincey was a writer in MacphaiVs Eccle- 
siastical Journal is doubted. It would be 
interesting to have this confirmed, and 
perhaps some reader may be able to do this. 
Mr. Axon in The Bookman considers it 
to be not improbable, although it has 
escaped De Quincey 's biographers, " as 
the Opium - Eater's sympathies were al 
with the Established Kirk in the Great 
Disruption." Mr. Axon suggests that "i 
somewhere there is a marked copy of the 

Journal it might reveal unknown essays 
>f that prince of magazine writers." 

1 wrote to Mr. Alexander W. Macphail, 
he son of the founder of the Journal, to 
ee what information he could give me, and 
he tells me that " the evidence I have is 
>his. When a boy, I heard my father 
epeatedly state that De Quincey wrote a 
<?ood deal for the Journal, and I distinctly 
emember his describing the quaint little 
man's appearance, which with his retiring 
nanner always put him in mind of a Metho- 
dist preacher of the old school." Mr. 
VEacphail " also recollects that his father had a 
considerable portion of De Quincey's MS.,- 
which was given away in pieces to admirers 
as a loving memento of the great British 

The friends of Ebsworth will be interested 
o know that a white marble cross now 
lenotes his resting-place in Ashford Ceme- 
;ery. Upon the base of the cross is placed 
;he following inscription : 

In affectionate remembrance of Margaret, the- 
beloved wife of the Rev. Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth,. 
M.A., F.S.A., and daughter of the Rev. William 
31ow, who died on the 18th of April, 1906, aged 

Also of the Rev. Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, who 
died on the 7th of June, 1908, in the 84th year of his 
age. He most generously, without fee or reward, 
devoted twenty-five years of his life to the Ballad 
History of England, and to him we owe the com- 
plete collection of The Roxburghe Ballads. 
I know that my Redeemer liveth. 

The grave chosen by Ebsworth for hia 
wife is situated in the most lovely part of 
the beautiful cemetery at Ashford, Kent, 
within a few yards of the pretty country 
sunken road. 

I take this opportunity to express my 
grateful thanks to 'N. & Q.' friends for the 
kind letters they have written to me in 
reference to my book. These I shall always, 
keep and treasure. JOHN C. FRANCIS. 

May I be permitted to point out one- 
or two unnoticed errata in the very excel- 
lent ' Notes by the Way ' ? I do so in 
no spirit of carping criticism, but merely 
to render more correct a work that I feel 1 
will be a standard book of reference in the 

On p. 242, 1. 12, for " living of Bunmahon 
should be substituted " curacy of Monksland,. 

On p. 311, 1. 20, 1859 should be 1869. 

The name of Dr. William Maginn,. 
although occurring twice in the text, does- 
not appear in the Index. 

I should be glad of any biographical facts 
regarding the Rev. Dr. Doudney, the curate* 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL AUG. 21, im 

of Monksland. I know his ' Ireland : its 
Priests and its People,' 8vo, 1892. 


[A notice of Dr. D. A. Doudney is included in the 
second volume of the Supplement to the ' D.N.B.,' 
his death having taken place on 21 April, 1893. A 
* Memoir,' by his eldest son and eldest daughter, 
was published the same year.] 

interesting reference, which can only apply 
to the immortal Thomas Creevey, in ' The 
Private Correspondence of a Woman of 
Fashion,' by Harriet Pigott, ii. 77. Miss 
Pigott writes from Brussels, 6 June, 1815 : 

" Old C , of ' all the Talents ' of Whig memory, 
as quaint as ever in his manner always talking 
of his intense Parliamentary labours, and who 
knows the ways of the House of Commons better 
than most of its members always stepping 
forward with some quaint expression, or a per- 
tinent question which almost amounts to an imper- 
tinent one, resides here with his amiable family." 

In addition to this valuable little sketch 
Miss Pigott helps to confirm the truth of 
Creevey 's wonderful interview with the 
Duke of Wellington after the battle of 
Waterloo, which is described in ' The 
Creevey Papers,' i. 236-7. On 24 June, 
1815, she writes from Brussels : 

" Old C , one of the ' all- talented Whigs,' 
who you know is half a buffoon, was a torment 
to us during the fearful period of the three days 
running to and fro, standing in everybody's 
way, seeking and reporting news, exclaiming, 
* but the battle cannot be lost I do not see the 
.army in retreat,' etc., etc. At length, the battle 
o'er, England victorious, the Duke on Monday 
rode quietly into Bruxelles, to make arrangements 
for the wounded, etc. C rushes to his apartment 
to make his compliments. 

" ' Thirty thousand men lost ! ' replied the 

' ' But what a victory 1 ' 

' ' Thirty thousand men killed ! hard case ! ' 
still answered the Duke, with his usual sim- 
plicity of expression when speaking of his own 
exploits. C , who knew not what diffidence 
was, nor could discover its merits in another, 
retreated in evident disappointment at his 
compliments of felicitation having the appearance 
-of being so little appreciated ; almost doubtful, 
whether Wellington was in truth a hero, or 
whether the battle was really gained." ' Private 
orrespondence of a Woman of Fashion,' ii. 117-18. 

There are so few references to Creevey in 
the published writings of his contemporaries 
that the above paragraphs might well be 
inserted in any new edition of ' The Creevey 

T. E. BQOWN. On Friday, 9 July, at 
Douglas in the Isle of Man, there was 
unveiled by the Speaker of the House 
of Keys in the presence of Lord Raglan, 

the Governor, and of the Keys, who had 
adjourned for the purpose a marble bust 
of the well-known Manx poet T. E. Brown. 
The ceremony took place in the Town Hall, 
the Mayor and Corporation and many of 
the principal inhabitants of the island also 
attending. Mr. A. W. Moore, C.V.O., the 
Speaker, pronounced a panegyric. 

I think this fact should find record in 
' N. & Q.' The bust was the work of my 
brother, Mr. J. W. Swynnerton, the sculptor, 
of London and Rome. 


on Monday, 19 July, there were sold in 
fourteen lots the freehold ground rents of 
what is understood to be the balance of 
this estate, and thus ends a tenure of nearly 
four centuries. Noble, the local historian 
('Memorials of Temple Bar,' p. 101), is not 
very definite as to its origin, but Stow 
(ed. by Kingsford, ii. 45) is sufficiently 
clear : 

" It [Salisburie Court] hath of late time 
beene the dwelling, first of Sir Richard Sackuile, 
and now (1603) of Sir Thomas Sackuille his sonne, 
Baron of Buckhurst, Lord Treasurer, who hath 
greatly enlarged it with stately buildings." 

To these earliest post-Reformation holders 
of the estate there are local references. 
Thus it was probably from here " Sir 
Richard Sakfeld " attended as chief mourner 
the burial of " Master Denham Squyre " 
in St. Bride's, 20 Feb., 1562/3 (Machyn's 
'Diary,' p. 301). On 28 Oct., 1602, when 
the Lord Mayor elect was presented by the 
Recorder to the Lord Chancellor, " the 
Lord Treasurer, L. Buckhurst, spake 
sharpely and earnestly" of two things 

** l*Jv T\Tr Zf\c%4- -i/i \c$ /locjTrf/'vncj oil^rYiilsl VIA 

hir Majestie is desyrous should 
amended." One was to make provision of 
corn, and the other the erecting and furnish- 
ing of hospitals. 

" Theise were things must be better regarded 
than they have bin : otherwise, howsoever he 
honour the Cytie in his priuat person, yet it is 
his dutie in regard of his place to call them to 
accompt for it." Manningham's ' Diary,' p. 73. 

The property being inherited by the first 
Earl of Dorset, son of Lord Buckhurst, con- 
firmation of tenure was obtained on his 
compounding for defective title by giving, 
25 March, 1611, a piece of land at Cricklade, 
which, however, according to Seth Ward, 
who was Bishop of Salisbury 1667-89, 
" was not good, nor did the value answer 
his [Dorset's] promise " (Calendar of State 
Papers, quoted in Chancellor's * The Squares 
of London,' p. 359 ; Noble's ' Temple Bar,' 
p. 161). 

10 s. XIL AUG. 21, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


It is not necessary here to refer to the 
interest and associations of the buildings 
that at different times stood upon this 
area. Many will be familiar with the sources 
of such local history, and these pages have 
on several occasions contained notes on 
the Dorset Gardens Theatre and some of 
the local celebrities. 

Many of the earlier deeds relating to 
building leases and transfer of house pro- 
perty on the estate at the commencement 
of the eighteenth century exist. One now 
before me is an indenture of lease dated 
26 March, 1710, between Lionel Cranfield, 
Earl of Dorset, and Joseph Watlington of 
Binfield, Berks, of part of the Wilderness in 
Dorset Gardens. The lease was for 41 years 
at a rent of 551., the total area being 135 ft. 
9 in. north to south by 74 ft. 6 in. The 
particulars are of interest because they show 
how closely the estate had been built on at 
this date. Although a large proportion 
was covered with stables, there were nine 
houses measuring only 25 ft. by 18 ft. each. 
The present site of this portion of the 
estate is the rear of the Salisbury Hotel 
and the north and south sides of Hut ton 
Street, then Wilderness Street. 


WESTMINSTER. In a note of a very interest- 
ing character upon ' John Angel or Anger ' 
(see ante, p. 6), contributed by M. B., the 
name of one of the three executors of that 

Gentleman's will is given as " Mr. Nicholas 
pencer of the Parish of St. Margaret West- 
minster in the County of Middlesex Sadler." 
I feel that it is a matter worthy of note 
that the aforesaid Mr. Nicholas Spencer was 
a man of considerable importance in the 
parish of St. Margaret, as he served as 
overseer in the years 17389, becoming 
churchwarden in 1751, the year in which 
Mr. Angel's will was proved. As the election 
took place (as it still does) on the " Thursday 
next before Whitsun Day," it will be seen 
that he was not in office. He served the 
usual two years, 1751-2, but, contrary to 
custom, was people's warden in the latter 
year, his coadjutor, William Goff, being in 
office 1751-2-3, and holding premier position 
in 1752-3. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY; 



CROW." This, surely, is the English version 
of a well-known saying. In a translation 
of a book entitled ' Rasplata ' ( ' The Reckon- 
ing ' ), by Vladimir Semenoff, a Russian 
naval officer who was actively engaged in 

he late Russo-Japanese War, I was sur- 
prised to find " aimed at the rook and hit 
he cow " given as a " Russian colloquialism." 
'. am not sure that the Russian version is 
lot the better. REGINALD R. SHARPE. 
Guildhall, E.G. 

BARNET. When attending the recent meet- 
ing of the Devonshire Association at Laun- 
ceston, I was informed by a member that 
here lives at Kingsbridge an old labourer 
aamed Richard Crocker, who is lineally 
descended from John Crocker of Lyneham 
in the county of Devon, who was standard- 
Dearer to Edward IV. at the battle of 
Barnet. My informant I believe to be a 
credible witness, who is fully convinced of 
the truth of what he states, and I therefore 
thought this little fact worth making a 
note of. FRED C. FROST, F.S.I. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
bo affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

do we first hear of this ? I have failed to 
find it among the numerous proverbs men- 
tioned in the various Indexes to ' N. & Q.' 
In the course of my work I have recently 
come across it in a petition submitted by 
the Commonalty of the City to the Mayor 
and Aldermen in 1433 in the following terms : 
" Wherefor, as it is saide in englissh pro- 
verbes, better to amende late J>an never. ..." 
This points to its being an old saying, even 
at that early date. Had it a classical origin ? 

Guildhall, E.G. 

"DAINTY DAISY." I shall be obliged 
if any of the readers of ' N. & Q.' can tell 
me what was the real name of the individual 
(a man) who was known, circa 1755, by the 
nickname of " Dainty Daisy." 


TAYLOR = BERKELEY. Will some con- 
tributor inform me as to the parentage of 
Thomas Taylor of Ballynort, co. Limerick 
(circa Charles I.), who married Gertrude, 
daughter of Sir Francis Berkeley of Ask- 
eaton, co. Limerick ? Was his father by 
any chance Francis Taylor, Lord Mayor of 
Dublin, who married Janet Shelton ? 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XH. AUG. 21, im 

wife of Robert Naylor of Canterbury ? 
Their daughter Joan (married 1564) was the 
mother of Richard Boyle, " the great Earl 

Castle Ward, Downpatrick, Ireland. 

were its objects, and does it still exist ? 


In 1707 Matthew Imber published a small 
book entitled ' An Abstract of the Customs 
of the Manor of Merdon in the Parish of 
Hursley, County of Southampton.' It re- 
lates to a lawsuit between the tenants and 
the lord (Oliver Cromwell). " The dispute 
about the customs began about 1691, and 
many of the tenants impowered Mr. John 
White as their attorney and solicitor " ; 
and the said Mr. White " disbursed great 
sums of money in defending the suit." 
Sarah was widow and administratrix of 
John White. His origin would be interest- 
ing, as he was ancestor of the Rev. William 
White, who was baptized in that church, 
vicar from 1747 to 1780, and there buried 
in the latter year. According to Foster's 
' Alumni Oxon.,' he was " son of John 
White, gent., and matriculated at Ch. Ch., 
Oxford, 4 July, 1740, aged 16." Can any 
reader say whence came John White ? 

F. H. S. 

trated Times of 16 April, 1859 (vol. viii. 
p. 251), is a paragraph headed ' JSTew Corps 
of Maltese Beefeaters.' It announces that 
the corps has been formed for the employ- 
ment of old deserving soldiers for service 
in the garrison of Malta. 

" The new dress resembles somewhat that 
worn by the imposing gentlemen who conduct 
visitors through the metropolitan fortress, the 
only difference being, that instead of a crown 
on the breast, they have a Maltese cross, in white 
cloth, edged with red. These men will be em- 
ployed in the Governor's palace at Valetta." 

On the next page is a three- quarter-length 
portrait of one of these Maltese Beefeaters. 
What is the history of this corps ? 


RODD FAMILY. Can any reader guide 
me to the parentage of John Rodd, who is 
supposed to have been identical with John 
Tremayne Rodd, who married Bridget Hart 
Burnell, ne'e* Savery ? He lived at Barn- 
staple 1805-15, and migrated to Australia, 
where he died. PATTIE OSLER. 

45, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

any one inform me of the name of the 
author of a poem commencing 

Star-trembling Night, mother of songs unsung ? 
I believe it has been written since the year 

6, Pare Bean Terrace, St. Ives, Cornwall. 

He ran a race, but never reached his goal ; 
He shot an arrow, but he missed his aim ; 
And now he lies within a lonely grave 
With no achievement carved above his name, 

mediaeval days the Mayor of Northampton 
appears to have been elected in one of the 
parish churches of the town ; and the same 
custom prevailed at Sandwich. Grantham, 
and Boston, and doubtless elsewhere. Can 
any readers give other instances ? And if 
so, how long was the custom kept up ? 


' A SKETCH FROM NATURE.' For nearly 
seventy years I have been on the look-out 
for a poem descriptive of early rising, its 
pleasures and advantages. I have at last 
found it. It is unique, I believe, and was 
printed by C. Whittingham, Chiswick, 
on 12 April, 1814, 53 pp., 8vo. Who wrote 
it ? The scene is laid on the banks of the 
Severn, with its "tides" of "mystery." 
It opens with the lines 

To mark the progress of the vernal dawn 
From ruddy gleams to universal day, 
What genuine friend of Nature will refuse 
On some auspicious morn to banish sleep 
And climb with me the woody-crested hills ? 


recently called attention to the fact that 
the drawbridge at Helmingham Hall, Suffolk, 
is raised nightly. Are there other instances ? 
Stone bridges have taken the place of the 
drawbridges at Ightham Mote and Leeds 
Castle, for example, but there may yet 
survive elsewhere in this country draw- 
bridges that are drawn up at sunset. 


YOBKSHIBE SIMILES. I remember among 
keepers and others in the North Riding some 
forty years ago the similes " As fierce as a 
maggot," " Grinning like a weasel in a trap," 
and, of any one " got up " unusually, 
" Looking like a throttled earwig." Are 
these still common ? The expression for 
wishing to be at home was " I wish I had 
our cat by the tail." H. G. P. 

10 s. XIL AUG. 21, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


TWELVE SURNAME. I came across some 
Lancashire people recently in Ireland with 
the surname Twelve or Twelves. Is this a 
common name ? R. B R. 

South Shields. 

that there is not now living a lineal mal< 
descendant of any one of the barons wh< 
signed Magna Charta ? I have heard i 
stated. CURIOUS. 

HOLDERNESS FAMILIES. I should be glad 
of information as to whether there is any 
history, either ancient or modern, whict 
contains an account of the families ol 
Holderness, Yorkshire, and especially any 
mention of the name or family of Pearson, 
Peirson, or Pierson of Hedon or Ryall or 
elsewhere, bearing as arms Az., between 
two pallets wavy ermine three suns in their 
glory ; crest, the sun emerging from clouds 
or any arms similar to these. H. G. P. 

What was a " Meriole," mentioned in the 
' Calendar of Wills,' 1435, as a sign in West- 
chepe ? 

In 1348 " Le Colebrehous " was another 
sign in Bradstret (? Broad Street). What 
waa a " Colebrehous " ? See The Topo 
graphical Record, 1907, vol. iv. p. 99. 


lish the beans which from the shape of the 
pods are often called kidney beans are also 
called French beans. The epithet " French " 
here is simply used in the sense of foreign ; 
the vegetable in question was brought from 
the East, and the Germans call the bean 
" tiirkische," or more commonly " walsche 
Bohne," i.e. foreign bean. But the French 
call it "faseole," from the classical Greek 
<t>d(ry\o<s, Latin phaselus or faselus. Now 
the Latin word phaselus is also used for a 
light boat or skiff, which, according to 
Liddell and Scott, is taken from its likeness 
to the pod of this bean. Littr6 puts the 
matter the other way, and says : Comme 
c/xxo-^Aos signifie aussi une barque, il est 
probable que ce nom a ete donn6 au fruit a 
cause de sa forme." Which, then, is the 
cart, and which the horse, in this derivation ? 
As phaselus in the sense of a boat is found 
only in Latin (Catullus and Horace both 
use it), it would seem probable that Liddell 
and Scott are right. But what is the origin 
of the Greek word <t>dcrrj\o<s is another ques- 
tion. Is it possible that, like "pheasant" 
(Gr. <acriavds), it came from the river Phasis ? 

W. T. LYNN. 

" THE MAURADEN." By a deed of 4 July, 
1558, William Davenport of Chorley, gent., 
granted to Sir Rafe Leycester of Toft in 
Cheshire the stewardship of his lands in 
Chorley, Werford, and Fulshaw, " and the 
conduction, governance, and service in 
time of war called The Mauraden, as well of 
him, the said William, and his heirs, as of 
all his tenants." This is probably a trans- 
lation of a Latin deed. See Ormerod's 
'Cheshire' (1882), i. 505. 

What is " The Mauraden " ? R. S. B. 

In the ' Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 
1592,' is a " protection for burning " granted 
to John Good, husbandman of Thorpe, 
Surrey, on certificates given by several 
J.P.s of Surrey, " to gather in co.s Surrey 
and Kent." A reference to the origjuial 
document throws no light upon its nature. 
What was it that John was licensed to gather 
and burn charcoal ? F. TURNER. 


if there are any boys in Mid-Derbyshire 
who still play the rousing game which we 
called " Stagga bob- tail warning." It was 
playable best on frosty moonlit nights, where 
high hedges and bushes made dark shadows 
in which to hide. The boys divided into 
two equal parties. One half stayed in goal, 
the other went out, and into hiding. After 
an interval the out side had to shout " Stagga 
Dob-tail warning," upon which the goal party 
went out to seek the others, one of the former 
remaining within a short distance of goal 
;o give warning if the out half should attempt 
to rush the goal whilst the in party were 
absent. If the out half were a long time 
Before shouting, the in party sang out : 

Willy, Willy, Walla, 

If yow dunna shout, 

Wey shanna follow 
Stagga bob-tail warnin'. 


n a volume of essays issued in the late 
ixties the writer mentions Edward Fairfax'8 
ranslation of Tasso's poem on this cele- 
rated Crusader. I am specially interested 
oth in the poem and in " Godefroi," who, 
f tradition does not play us false, is reputed 
o have paid a visit to our great scholar 
lashi and obtained his benediction before 
Eating out for the Holy Land. My father 
ras wont to tell me the story, but I have 
ever seen it in print. Is it founded on fact ? 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL AUG. 21, woo. 

The 'N.E.D.' cites Alexander Hamilton, 
1790. But land offices antedated the Ame- 
rican Revolution, for The Massachusetts 
Gazette, 7 March, 1774, says : " Letters 
from London, by way of South-Carolina, 
mention that the land- offices in North- 
America will be opened again." The ' N.E.D.' 
further cites a report to Congress in 1882 
as stating that a certain company " once 
did a land office business in crushing ore." 
This, however, is unexplained. A " land 
office business " means a rushing business, 
with allusion to times when the land offices 
had more work to do than could well be 

I should be glad of earlier examples, 
accurately dated, under either heading. 


W, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

COLLEGE, OXFORD. In Joseph Foster's 
' Alumni Oxonienses ' (second series) there 
is the following entry : " John Bossom, 
Cook of University College, privilegiatus 
March 18, 1729/30. 

Will some one explain what was meant by 
the process here styled " privilegiatus " T 
and can any one give me information con- 
cerning the individual, his place of birth, 
his death, marriage, and descendants ? 
He seems to have had in later life some con- 
nexion with Avon Dassett, near Leamington ; 
and he is said to have had three handsome 
daughters Sarah, Hannah, and Elizabeth. 

Sarah married in September, 1738, the 
Rev. John Prinsep, then a newly fledged 
B.A. of Balliol College, about twenty-one 
years of age, afterwards Vicar of Bicester, 
Oxfordshire, and father of John Prinsep, an 
Alderman of the City of London. Hannah 
is said to have married an Oxford Don of the 
name of Mason. Elizabeth married Henry 
Reeves, the well-known usher and writing- 
master at Harrow School, whose son Fre- 
derick Reeves went to India in the Bombay 
Civil Service in 1781, and upon his return 
to this country settled at East Sheen and 
was a J.P. for Surrey. F. DE H. L. 

WOODEN LECTERN. Having in vain tried 
to find out the meaning of the wooden lectern 
at St. Cross Hospital^ I venture to ask th 
readers of ' N. & Q.' to help me. The 
lectern has eagle's claws webbed, cock's 
feathers in the wings, and eagle's body with 
parrot's beak and cock's head, the comb 
being in the shape of a heart. 


MACLEAY FAMILY. I shall be grateful 
f any of your readers can tell me of a history 
)f the Macleay family. A book was once 
>egun by a bearer of the name in New York, 
'. am told. Any information will be gladly 
'eceived. (Miss) JANE REID. 

9, Wilbury Road, Brighton. 


(10 S. xi. 165, 215, 293, 354.) 
SINCE my return to England, I have 
ooked up the " Grantiana " in my posses- 
sion, in the expectation of finding something 
rearing on this question, and I have not been 
disappointed. Col. Grant had preserved 
the correspondence in The Daily News, 
commencing with the issue for 29 Sept., 
1885, in which Mr. Edgar Sanderson's 
letter appeared ; and it contains not only 
bis own reply, but a letter from Mr. Edward 
Solly, F.R.S*, whose name will be familiar to 
the older readers of * N. & Q.' as that of a 
writer whose knowledge of eighteenth-century 
literature was almost unparalleled. Mr. 
Solly stated that he had heard the story 
from Mr. Thorns himself ; but it is un- 
necessary to enter further into this corre- 
spondence, which included another in- 
temperate letter from Mr. Sanderson his 
contention being that Macaulay referred 
only to the complete work published in 
1742, which contained no mention of 
Dryden as a few days afterwards (17 Oct., 
1885) Mr. Solly published a full account of 
the whole occurrence in the columns of 
' N. & Q.' (6 S. xii. 301), under the heading 
' Pope and Dryden.' I am a little surprised 
that MR. FRANCIS, whose mind is steeped 
in the traditions of ' N. & Q.,' did not 
recollect this extremely valuable and interest- 
ing article. Mr. Solly returned to the 
subject in The Athenceum the following 
week (No. 3026, 24 Oct., 1885) in a lumin- 
ous bibliographical paper entitled ' Pope's 
Dunciad, 1728.' 

Summarily the question stands thus. 
In the first three issues of the first edition, 
purporting to be " Dublin, Printed ; Lon- 
don, Reprinted, for A. Dodd," with the Owl 
frontispiece, 1. 94, Book I. runs 

And furious D n foam in Wh 's rage. 
This was one of the enigmatical lines with 
which Pope delighted to throw dust into 
people's eyes, as D n might be taken 
to apply equally to a great poet, Dryden, or 

10 s. XIL AUG 21, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


an insignificant pamphleteer, Dunton. In 
the next issue, which was the Dublin edition 
that Thorns had in his pocket during his 
conversation with Macaulay, the names were 
printed in full 

And furious Dryden foam in Wharton's rage. 
In the next three 1728 issues, one of which 
has " Second Edition " on the title-page 
and the two others " Third Edition," the 
line is again altered 

And furious D s foam in W y's rage. 

In March, 1729, there appeared in quarto 
the first authorized or "variorum" edition 
of " The Dunciad, With the Prolegomena 
of Scribjerus," which was quickly followed 
by an edition in octavo. In both these 
issues the line was changed to 

And all the Mighty Mad in Dennis rage, 
to which was appended the following note : 

"This verse in the surreptitious editions stood 
thus, And furious D foam, &c., which, in that 
printed in Ireland, was unaccountably fill'd up 
with the great name of Dryden" 

This note was repeated in the subsequent 
editions until in that of 1733 it was finally 
struck out. 

In the course of this inquiry, I looked 
through my ' Dunciads,' and comparing them 
with the descriptions given in Elwin and 
Courthope's edition of Pope's ' Works,' 
vol. iv. pp. 299-311, I have made a few 
notes, which may be of use, should any one 
hereafter undertake the Herculean task 
of compiling a bibliography of Pope. To 
begin with the first variorum edition of 1729, 
which was the earliest with the Ass vignette, 
Mr. Thorns was at first under the impression 
that the octavo issue had been printed from 
the same types as the quarto, as the same 
mistakes occurred in both ; e.g., in Book I. 
1. 6, both the quarto and octavo read 

Still Dunce second reigns like Dunce the first, 
the word " the " before " second " being 
omitted in both. I find, however, on com- 
paring the two issues, that in the quarto 
there is a note of interrogation after the 
word " first," while in the octavo there is a 
full stop. Two " literals " will be found in 
both issues 

My Henley's periods, or my Blackmore's numbers 

(Book II. 1. 340), 

The sick'ning Stars fade off the a'therial plane* 

(Book III. 1. 342), 

* In the octavo this line is printed 

The sick'ning stars fade off the a'therial plain 
which is an additional proof that the Dublin 
edition was copied from the quarto, as it prints 
"Stars" with a capital. 

where " a'therial " should read " setherial." 
In the next edition the line reads 

The sick'ning Stars fade off th' setherial plain. 

Mr. Thorns says that in one copy seen by 
him the Index is followed on the opposite 
page by ' Addenda. M. Scriblerus Lectori.' 
I have two copies of the quarto, in one of 
which this extra leaf occurs. It was pro- 
bably printed off separately, after the main 
body of the edition had got into circulation. 
In my copy of the octavo the separate leaf 
of ' Addenda,' noted at p. 304 of Elwin and 
Courthope, vol. iv., also occurs. 

At p. 311 of Elwin and Courthope, Col. 
Grant describes a Dublin edition (G 8 ), 
which he says is an exact reprint of the quarto. 
On examining my copy of this issue, I find 
that this statement is substantially correct, 
there being a note of interrogation at the 
end of 1. 6 of Book L, and 1. 342 of Book III. 
also reads " a'therial " ; but 1. 340 of 
Book II. is printed correctly, " Henley " 
instead of " Henley." 

Mr. Thorns notes three varieties of the 
edition "Printed for Lawton Gilliver," which 
he marks H, one of which has the Ass 
frontispiece, another the Owl, and the third 
both, the Owl in one copy preceding the 
First Book, and in another the Second. 
I have copies of all three issues, the Owl 
in the third preceding the Second Book. 
It is, as Mr. Thorns shows, a re-engraved 
plate, as the inscriptions on the pile of books 
vary from those in previous editions, and 
are identical with those in subsequent ones ; 
but he failed to notice that it is not the 
insertion of a frontispiece plate, as on the 
recto of the plate is printed a half-title, 
' The Dunciad.' This half-title is never 
found when the Owl is used as a frontis- 
piece. I may also add that in the copy with 
the Ass frontispiece there is found the very 
rare cancelled leaf, pp. 189, 190, together 
with the substituted leaf. 

With regard to Mr. Thoms's edition I, 
which with the exception of the title-page, 
and the absence of two pages of errata, is 
identical with edition H, Mr. Thorns points 
out, inter alia, that on p. 182, 1. 26, in the 
word "length," the g has dropped. As a 
matter of fact, however, it is the t that has 
dropped, and not the g. 

To the description of edition K it should 
be added that it ends with a leaf with 8 lines 
of errata on recto. 

Lastly, there may be noted a variation in 
the title-page of the Fourth Book, which 
is not recorded by Elwin and Courthope. 
It will be seen from the description given 
in that book that the title-page of the second 


NOTES AND QUERIES, no s. xu. AUG. 21, 1909. 

edition is identical with that of the first 
In both cases it is preceded by a half-title 
and is followed by an address ' To the 
Reader. ' I have a copy of this second edition 
which, so far as the text is concerned, is 
identical with that containing ' The New 
Dunciad ' title. It bears, however, the 
following title : 

The | Dunciad : | Book the Fourth. | By Mr. Pope, 
I With the Illustrations of Scriblerus, and | Notes 
Variorum. | The Second Edition. London, | 
Printed for T. Cooper at the Globe in Pater-noster 

There is no half-title or address * To the 
Reader.' It seems to me probable that the 
title-page sheet of the first edition may have 
been overprinted, and supplied, BO far as it 
went, to copies of the second edition. 
When it became exhausted, the new title- 
page which I have given above was struck 
off on a single leaf, and the remaining con- 
tents of the sheet cancelled. 


KING OF PORTUGAL (10 S. xii. 47, 91). 
Emanuel (Manoel) the Fortunate, King of 
Portugal, married three times : 

1. In 1497 Isabel, eldest daughter of 
Ferdinand the Catholic and Isabel, and 
widow of Alphonso, Prince or Infant of 
Portugal, heir to the throne, second cousin 
to Emanuel. 

2. In 1500 Mary (Maria), third daughter 
of Ferdinand and Isabel. 

3. In 1519 Eleonora, daughter of Philip 
of Austria and his wife Johanna, second 
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabel. The 
Emperor Charles V. was Eleonora's brother. 

1. By Isabel (died 1498) Emanuel had one 
son, Michael (1498-1500). 

2. By Mary (died 1517) he had seven sons 
and three daughters, viz., John (1502-57) ; 
Isabel (1503-39) ; Beatrix (1504-38) ; Lewis 
(1506-55) ; Ferdinand (1507-34) ; Alphonso 
(1509-40); Henry (1512-80); Edward(1515- 
1540) ; Mary and Anthony, who both died 
in infancy. 

3. By Eleonora (died 1558) he had Charles, 
who died in infancy (1521), and Mary, who 
died unmarried in 1578. 

Emanuel died 1521. Eleonora his widow 
married Francis I., King of France, 1530. 

Of Emanuel and Mary's children John III. 
was King ; Isabel married the Emperor 
Charles V. ; Beatrix married Charles III., 
Duke of Savoy ; Lewis was Duke of Beja 
and Constable of Portugal ; Alphonso was 
Archbishop of Lisbon and Cardinal ; Henry 
was Cardinal and King in succession to 

Sebastian, grandson of John III. (Sebastian 
was killed in battle 'at Alcazar in Morocco, 
1578) ; Edward was Duke of Guimaraens 
and Constable of Portugal, and had, besides 
two other children, a daughter Catherine 
(by his w T ife Isabel, daughter of James, 
Duke of Braganza), who married John, 
Duke of Braganza : their grandson John IV., 
King of Portugal and Duke of Braganza, 
was the father of Catherine of Braganza, 
wife of Charles II., King of England. 

See ' Royal Genealogies,' by James Ander- 
son, 1732 ; ' Genealogical Tables,' by 
William Betham, 1795 ; and ' Lavoisne's 
Complete Genealogical, Historical, Chrono- 
logical, and Geographical Atlas,' 3rd ed., 
1822. I have given the Christian names 
as they are spelt in the books above named. 

I notice that MAJOR HUME (p.91) attributes 
only six sons to Mary (Maria). Perhaps 
he omitted Anthony, who died young. 
Should not "Catholic Kings" (ibid.) be 
"Catholic King" ? 


(10 S. xi. 385). No answer having been 
given to the REV. A. L. MAYHEW'S question 
on the meaning of the place-name " The 
Ivery " at Wroughton, I wrote to him de- 
scribing the locality of " The Ivery," and 
pointing out that his suggested derivation 
of the name from the Latin form of the 
Old French iverie, namely, Equaria, a place 
for breeding horses, was not applicable 
to the field in question. 

I have his permission to make use of his 
answer, which is as follows : 

"Since I wrote my note in 'N. & Q.' on the 
etymology of 'Ivery,' I have consulted at the 
Bodleian Anderson's ' Genealogical History of the 
House of Ivery,' published in 1742. I have found in 
this book evidence that the manor of Elcombe was- 
for more than two centuries one of the manors be- 
longing to the Lovel family. I think there can be 
no doubt that the name ' tf he Ivery ' must be con- 
nected with the former owners of the land." 

MR. MAYHEW also says : 

1 The forms of the word, namely, Briaco, Ibreio, 
or Ivry, show me that the place-name cannot be 
derived, as I suggested, from iverie, a stud farm, 
but is simply the French form of the old Romano- 
Celtic (Gaulish) name Ebriacum or Briacum. I beg r 
therefore, to withdraw my suggestion." 

The facts relating to the place may be 
briefly described here. " The Ivery " at 
Ellendune, alias Wroughton, is part of the 
ancient hill fort or dun of Ella, famous for 
the decisive battle at which Egbert, King 
of Wessex, defeated Beornwulf, King of 
Mercia, in 823. The field, together with 
the church, churchyard, &c., is actually 

10 B. xii. AU. 21, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


inside the fort, which stands on a promontory 
overlooking the valley of the Thames and 
the Mercian frontier. 

This land, part of Elcombe manor, was 
held by the Loyels for about 200 years. 
One of them, William Lovel de Yvry, was 
one of the barons at King John's corona- 
tion. Early in King John's reign Maud, 
wife of William Lovel, endowed the monks 
of Ivry with revenues from Minster Lovel 
(Oxon). A pension from Elyndon Church 
was applied to the same purpose, and is 
recorded in Pope Nicholas's Taxatio under 
' Ecclesia de Elindone ' as " Pensio mona- 
chorum de Briaco in eadem," 21. ; and in 
Tanner's ' Notitia Monastica ' we read 
concerning Minster Lovel : 

"The church of this place being given to the 
Abbey of St. Mary de Ibreio or Ivry by Maud, the 
wife of William Lovel, before 8 Johannis, it became 
an alien priory of Benedictine Monks, cell to that 
foreign monastery, which after the suppression of 
those houses was granted to Eaton College. 

These facts show the connexion of Ellen- 
dune Church and land inside the dun or hill 
fort with the family of the Levels and with 
the Abbey of Ivry in Normandy. Possibly 
it was " The Ivery " itself that supplied 
the tax paid from " Elindone to Briaco." 

" PENNYWORTH " (10 S. xi. 487). In 
common usage are many expressions of 
good and bad "pennyworths" in relation 
to bargains. Children all know where they 
can get the best and biggest " penn'orths," 
and also where " penn'orths " are "skinchy." 
Of the sayings there are " Hey 's browt 
his penn'orths to a bad market" ; "Shoo '11 
get her penn'orths if shoo marries him " 
a man with not an over-good reputa- 
tion ; and " Th' penn'orth turned out a 
bad ha'porth." On the other hand, "Ah 
tonn'd ma penn'orth intow tup-pence " 
when a deal has resulted well. A " penn- 
'orth " in the way of a good or bad bargain 
is still in pretty common use. One speaking 
of losses and crosses says : " Ah should like 
aw my penn'orths agen." 


Work sop. 

LEADEN FIGURES (10 S. xii. 28). If MR. 
ALECK ABRAHAMS will look in the Archaeo- 
logical Journal, vol. xlv., 1888, he will find 
an article entitled * English Ornamental 
Lead Work.' This may give him the infor- 
mation he requires. 


Library, Constitutional Club, W.C. 

VINTNERS' COMPANY (10 S. xii. 30). In 
'The Boy's Own Annual,' vol. vi., 1884, 
there is an article on the Vintners' Company. 

Library, Constitutional Club, W.C. 

THE EEL-PIE SHOP (10 S. xii. 26, 93). 
Halfway up Holborn Hill, on the right-hand 
side when one was coming from the City, in 
the forties and early fifties (i.e., long before 
the Viaduct and its approaches were built) 
there stood a popular pie-shop, also cele- 
brated for its soup. In one of the windows 
that flanked the entrance doorway was dis- 
played a card upon which was printed in 
large letters : 

A la mode Soup, 

and no flies. 

JFourpence a basin. 

I remember that, as a lad, I used to wonder 
what kind of soup that defined as "a la 
mode " really was. 

In those days one of the most popular 
eel-pie resorts in North London was (as 
the sign stretched across the gables read) 
"The Highbury Sluice House Tavern,' y 
more generally known as " The Sluice 
House." This was situated close by the 
bank of the New River, just at the termina- 
tion of the public way by the side of the 
latter, field paths leading direct to Hornsey 
Wood House. There, in sylvan arbours,, 
lining three sides of a tree-shaded lawn r 
which was enclosed immediately in front of 
the modest hostel, delicious eel-pies " all 
hot " were consumed by numerous appre- 
ciative visitors, the majority of whom had 
strolled out of town purposely to enjoy them, 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

Correspondents on the subject of old- 
time eel-pie shops may like to know of a 
once well-known establishment in Notting- 
hamshire, on one of the coaching-roads. A& 
a matter of fact, the Ordnance maps still 
show "Old Eel-Pie House," 2J- miles N.W. 
from Tuxford, on the Great North Road, 
beside a tributary of the river Idle. The 
spot is well known in county history as 
" Merrils Bridge." In July, 1667, the place 
was of sufficient standing to afford hos- 
pitality to Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Durham, 
when on a journey to London. He is re- 
corded as having called there " to water his 
coach horses," and to treat himself to " 3 
eele pyes," for which he paid 2s. 6d. (Surtees 
Soc. Pub., vol. lv. p. 351). Thoresby 
several times in his diary mentions " the 
noted Eel-Pie House," which he records 
passing on 20 Feb., 1683, 14 May, 1695, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL AUG. 21, im 

28 Dec., 1708, and 17 Feb., 1709. On the 
latter two occasions he complains of the state 
of the roads, which he describes as " danger- 
ous as well as troublesome." 

On 11 Nov., 1717, James Fretwell noted 
in his diary : 

"We breakfasted at Bawtry, where I had an 
opportunity of seeing some of our relations from 
Maltbey, it being the fair-day. William Ward 
went with us on the way to London as far as the 
Eel-Pye House; but my father went with us to 
Newark, and there tarried all night." Surtees 
Society, vol. Ixv. p. 191. 



ABBOTS OF EVESHAM (10 S. xii. 28, 78). 
A large brass has recently been placed in 
All Saints' Church, Evesham, containing a 
list of fifty-five Abbots of Evesham ; and 
a full list of their names may be found in the 
admirable ' Notes and Queries ' column of 
The Evesham Journal. The date of this 
list is 9 Jan., 1909 ; but a number of very 
interesting references to the abbots will be 
found passim in the weekly column. 

I may say that the list given in the brass 
above mentioned does not correspond with 
the names of the fifteenth, seventeenth, and 
nineteenth abbots given by W. C. B. in his 
reply. According to the brass \ these are 
respectively Kynelm, Ebba, and Edwin ; but 
I have no means of knowing which statement 
is correct. HOWARD S. PEARSON. 

In my list of fifty-eight abbots No. 15 is 
Kynelme, No. 16 Kynach, No. 17 Ebba, 
and No. 18 Kynath. 

The origin of the name Kynoch, as 
indicated in Chambers's ' Twentieth-Cen- 
tury Dictionary,' p. 1158, appears to be from 
kenn or ceann (Gael.)=a head, and auch or 
oc&=a field. J. K. 

Hav wards Heath, 

WELSH METRE (10 S. xi. 367). When 
writing the note at the above reference I 
was unaware of the fact, which I have since 
discovered, that this poem had been pub- 
lished, with a copy of it in English spelling, 
by Dr. Furnivall, under the title ' An Early 
English Hymn to the Virgin. . . .and a 
Welshman's Phonetic Copy of It,' in the 
Miscellanies of the English Dialect Society 
March, 1880. The two texts there printed 
are taken respectively from Hengwrt MSS. 
479 (English) and 294 (Welsh phonetic 
copy), whereas the text given in ' Gwaith 
Barddonol Etowel Swrdwal a'i Fab leuan,' 
p. 32 ff., is from B.M. Add. MS. 14866, with 
variants from Hengwrt MS. 294. To Furni- 

vall' s edition are added notes on the Welsh 
copy by A. J. Ellis. It should, however, 
be pointed out that the implication con- 
tained in Dr. Furnivall's title, that the 
hymn was of English origin, is probably 
inaccurate ; the fact that the poem is in 
Welsh " strict metre " makes it practically 
certain that it was, as stated in the B.M. MS., 
the work of a Welshman. H. I. B. 

(10 S. xii. 47, 95). MR. THOS. RATCLIFFE 
(p. 95) has a last line which looks like the 
penultimate of a version known in West 
Yorkshire some forty years ago. I cannot 
remember the whole wording exactly. There 
were many variants, and I think they were 
all frowned upon by " proper " parents as 
being Popish, but kept alive by nursemaids. 
I think they all led up to one of two termina- 
tions, one of which was 

If I should die before I wake, 
I pray the Lord my soul to take ; 

while the last line of the other was 

I pray the Lord my soul to keep. 
This is probably the line missing from MR. 
RATCLIFFE 's version. 

Hadlow, Kent. 

In the version of my youth the watching 
and praying belonged to the angels, not 
to the Evangelists. The lines ran thus : 

Four corners to my bed, 

Four angels round my head ; 

One to watch and one to pray, 

And two to bear my soul away. 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 

Bless the bed that I lie. on. 
Another riming prayer for bedtime was 
(and perhaps still is) : 

Now I lay me down to sleep, 

I pray the Lord my soul to keep ; 

And if I die before I wake, 

I pray the Lord my soul to take. 

I believe the right reading was 

And if I die and ne'er awake, 

but the other was the popular version. 


This is one of the hardy perennials of 
' N. & Q.' See 1 S. vi. 480 ; xi. 206, 474 ; 
xii. 90, 135 ; 7 S. viii. 208, 275, 414, 494. 
The late E. McC (Mr. Edgar McCulloch) 
gave a French version of the charm, and 
Miss R. H. BUSK added that it was known 
over the greater part of Europe. Halliwell- 
Phillipps's ' Nursery Rhymes/ 1843, p. 130, 
may with advantage be consulted. 


10 s. XIL AUG. 21, im] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


FABNESE ARMS (10 S. xii. 87). In Mrs. 
Bury Palliser' s ' Historic Devices, Badges, 
and War - Cries,' 1870, p. 100, is the 
following foot-note : " The Farnese arms 
are Or, six flenrs de lis azure, three, two, 
and one." This note concerns a descrip- 
tion of one of the devices of Cardinal Ales- 
sandro Farnese (died 1589), grandson of 
Paul III. This device was an arrow pierc- 
ing the centre of a target with the motto 
BaAA. ovrw5, throw or shoot thus (Homer, 
' Iliad,' viii. 282). 

" As all eyes were turned upon him, he meant to 
show that he should have one mark or end in view, 
and pursue it with a steady aim, neither diverting 
from his course nor acting by chance." 

On p. 101 is a figure of the device a 
round target fixed on the face of a round 
tower, which stands on a rock. An arrow, 
about twice as long as the tower is high, has 
its point in the centre of the target ; in the 
background are water, land, and sky ; in 
the right-hand top corner the motto BaAA. 
ovrws in capital letters, of course without 
accents, &c. Mrs. Palliser adds (p. 100) : 

"Cardinal Farnese also saying that in the first 
year of his cardinalate fortune had been propitious 
to him, even in his most secret wishes, Giovio gave 
him for device a blank paper, with the motto, Votis 
subscribent fata secundis, ' The fates will promote 
fortunate vows,' which device the Cardinal had 
embroidered upon his portitre." 
Giovio stands, I think, for Paolo Giovio, 
Vescovo di Nocera, author of ' Dialogo 
delle Imprese Militari ed Amorose,' Lyon, 
1555 and 1559 (see ibid., p. 3, and Brunet's 
* Manuel'). 

Mrs. Palliser gives also the devices of 
Alessandro Farnese, Pope Paul III. ; Ales- 
sandro Farnese, third Duke of Parma ; 
Bertoldo Farnese ; Orazio Farnese, Duke 
of Castro ; and Ottavio Farnese, second 

The arms of Farnese are not those ques- 
tioned by MR. ROSENTHAL. They are Or, six 
fleurs-de-lis azure. 


Dr. Woodward in his treatise on ' Ecclesi- 
astical Heraldry,' published in 1894, de- 
scribes the Farnese arms as Or, six fleurs- 
de-lis azure, 3, 2, 1. (This coat- has a 
bordure on the monument in the church of 
the Ara Coeli.) CHARLES GORDON. 


TALE' (10 S. xii. 90). Surely Wright's 
assertion is merely a bad guess. By 
" Strothir " I suppose that Strother is 
really meant, and not Langstrothdale at all. 
Being from home, I cannot quote my note 

upon the line ; but I do not understand upon 
what principle that note is to be disregarded 
as being non-existent. I expressly discuss 
the dialect. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Mr. Gollancz has pointed out that the 
Strother family of Northumberland, famous 
in the fourteenth century, was a branch of 
the Strothers of Castle Strother in Glendale, 
to the west of Wooler, and that the chief 
member of this northern branch seems 
to have been Alan the younger, who died in 
1381, and was father of a John de Strother. 
In the tale scholar John swears appro- 
priately by St. Cuthbert. A. R. BAYLEY. 

xii. 88). The notion regarding the hollow 
loaf which obtains in Pembrokeshire is 
precisely the reverse of that already men- 
tioned under this heading. Down there they 
say it foretells a birth. More than that, 
they say, "Mrs. Baker is going to have a 

Pains wick, Glos. 

Some years ago an old lady, a native of 
Penshurst, Kent, explained to me that a 
" very big hole " in a loaf of bread signified 
that the owner would shortly lose by death 
a near relative ; but that if the hole were 
but a " medium-sized " one, the relative 
would be a distant one. This is the only 
occasion that I have heard anything similar 
to the superstition mentioned by MR. 
JENNINGS. There is, however, a superstition 
in this part of Kent that to buy a hollow 
loaf brings bad luck. 


Ferndale Lodge, Tunbridge Wells. 

In Yorkshire and Lincolnshire a hollow 
in a loaf is called a grave, and is held to 
signify death. It is unlucky to place a loaf 
upon the table upside down. H. A. 

I have met with this superstition in South 
Notts and on the Derbyshire border. 

C. C. B. 

xi. 449 ; xii. 18,. 93). The following passage 
occurs in Adam Stark's 'History of Gains- 
burgh,' London, 1817, p. 140 : 

"Richard de Gaynisburgh. It is probable he is 
the same person, although then stiled Richard de 
Stow, with whom the Dean and Chapter ot Lincoln, 
in 1306, contracted 'to attend to, and employ other 
masons under him, for the new work ; at which 
time, the new additional east-end, as well as the 
upper parts of the great tower and the transepts, 
were done. He contracted to do the plain work 
by measure, and the fine carved work and image 
by the day.'" 

w . o 


NOTES AND QUERIES, rio s. xn. AUG. 21, im 

" COFFEE " : ITS ETYMOLOGY (10 S. xii. 
64, 111 ). I hardly think it necessary to 
derive this word from an imaginary Turkish 
kafve, as the ordinary word, qahveh, which 
belongs to Persia as well as Turkey, sum- 
ciently accounts for the English coffee. 
French cafe, and German Kaffee. Nor do I 

coffe, and therefor had in esteemation." 1 
This rather looks as if on the coast of Arabia, 
and in the mercantile towns, the Persian, 
pronunciation was in vogue ; whilst in the 
interior, where Jourdain travelled, the 
Englishman reproduced the Arabic. The 
passage from Revett is of interest, as it is 

quite understand why Sir James Murray apparently the earliest instance of a pro- 
and MR. JAMES PLATT should transliterate 
the Arabic word as qahwah and the Turkish 

as kahveh. The Turks have not changed the mariner, in entering the word in his log, 

initial letter of the word, known amongst was influenced by the abstruse principles of 

Anglo-Indian munshls as the " round ga/." phonetics enunciated by MB. V. CHATTO- 

It is found in the TurkI language as well as PADHYAYA. Edward Terry (1616), like- 

in the Arabic. MB. PLATT would not, I Evelyn in his Balliol days (1637), spells the 

fancy, pronounce the word qard, black, as if word coffee, as we do at the present day. 

it were Curragh, which an untutored ear 
might think it resembled. 

It may, however, be pointed out that the 



European languages did get one form of the x ii. 109). By a curious coincidence MB. 

name directly from the Arabic qahwah. J\ S. EDEN'S inquiry appears on the opposite 

For the history of the word Yule and Bur- p age to that on which I ask for information 

nell's ' Hobson-Jobson ' is perhaps more about Edmund, Baron de Harold. The 
satisfactory than the ' N.E.D.' We find, 


for instance, Chaoua in 1598, Cahoa in 1610, 
Cahue in 1615 ; while Sir Thomas Herbert 
(1638) expressly states that "they drink 
[in Persia]., above all the rest , Coho or 
Copha : by Turk and Arab called Caphe 
and Cahua." Here the Persian, Turkish, 
and Arabic pronunciations are clearly differ- 
entiated. There is another witness to the 
Anglo-Arabic pronunciation whose evidence 
was not available when the ' N.E.D.' and 
'Hobson-Jobson ' articles were written. 
This is John Jourdain, a Dorsetshire sea- 
man, whose Diary was printed by 



Hakluyt Society n 1905 under the 
editorship of Mr. William Foster. 

28 Mav 1 60Q hp rpoordcs that 
z may, i oy, ne records tnat 

" in the afternoone wee departed out of Hatch [Al- 
Hauta, the capital of the Lahej district near Aden], 

letters of the Baron's which I have are five 
addressed to Thomas Astle, and in the 
second of them (Dusseldorf, 6 Aug., 1779) 
are the following words : 

haye t you an Entire Window with 
excellent figures, arid when I get some more that 
has been promis'd me I will send them to you care- 
fully pack'd up." 

Later De Harold wrote to the same cor- 
respondent ("Dusseldorf, le [ ] 8bre r 

1780 ") : 

take the Libert of writi to by the 

bearer, Mr. Rohan, a young gentleman who has- 

studied painting here for some time ; he has been sc* 

obliging as to furnish me with a method [of] sending 

u two p* 868 ' in one of which are two pair of large 

1 horns ' and m the other some Pf nted lass - 
should [_ ha]ve sent them i ong sincej but as 1 was 

n daily expectation of getting some excellent 
painted glass from a Monastry here I postpon'd 

and travelled untill three in themprninge, and then from Day to Day. I have not been successful yet 
wee rested in the plaine fields untill three the next do not as yet despair of getting them. I shewed 


daie, neere unto a cohoo howse in the desert. 

them to Mr. Rohan who admired them, and think* 

consequently shall use every endeavour to procure 

them for you." 

__. A ,. ,. . 

Thomas Astle an antiquary of some import- 

ance in his day seems to have been m- 
terested in stained glass, for the first of 
these letters, though dealing with much else, 
endorsed "Painted glass." He had a 

On 5 June the party, travelling from Hippa tne Y are worthy of more Care and your acceptance, 
/TKK\ ^ 

M *k 11 i 

" laye in the mountaynes, our camells being weane 

and our selves little better. This mountain is 
called Nasmarde [Nakll Sumara], where all the 
cohoo grows." 

Further on was 

"a little village, where there is sold cohoo and 

fruite. The seeds of this cohoo isagreate marchan- great friend in George Cressener, who was 

dize, for it is carried to grand Cairo and all other for some years at Bonn as " British Minister 

places of Turkey, and to the Indias." Plenipotentiary to the Electors of Ments, 

It may, however, be mentioned that another Triers, Cologne, and the Circle of Westphalia,"" 

sailor, William Revett, in his Journal (1609) and it is possible that he, through Cressener,, 

says, referring to Mocha, that " Shaomer obtained possession of the glass in question. 

Shadli [Shaikh 'AH bin ' Omar esh-Shadili] I have about seventy of Cressener's letters 

was the fyrst inventour for drynking of ' to Astle (1771-80), but have not noticed in 

10 s. xii. AUG. 21, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


them any references such as those in the 
letters of Baron de Harold. 


A notable instance of foreign windows in 
English churches is in the chancel of Ashtead 
Church, Surrey. JOHN A. RANDOLPH. 

S. xi. 487). My copy of * Magna Britannia,' 
*' vol. ii. part ii.," i.e. Lysons's 'Cheshire,' 
1810, formerly belonged to Matthew Gregson, 
who added to it much printed matter, many 
illustrations, many coats of arms, drawn 
and coloured presumably by himself, and a 
good deal of manuscript. 

At the beginning of the volume is a list 
of Mayors and Sheriffs of Chester, 1719-1821, 
not, I think, in Gregson's handwriting. The 
Mayor in 1767 is here called Thomas (not 
John) Kelsall. I give this for what it is 

In Lysons's ' Cheshire ' is the following : 

" The Earl of Bridgwater, Lord Brackley's son, 
sold his estate at Dodleston, to Richard Kelsall, Esq., 
of Trafford ; it is now the property of John Glegg, 
Esq., of Withington, who married Bridget, daughter 
and heiress of the late John Kelsall, Esq." P. 651. 
Following p. 356 Gregson has inserted a leaf 
of coats of arms drawn, &c., no doubt by 
himself. Among them is that of Kelsall 
of Kelsall. For the references to Kelsall 
in Lysons see the indexes. 

A Roger Kelsal (Cheshire) was admitted 
a pensioner of Jesus College, Cambridge, 
1 July, 1659 (see The Palatine Note-book for 
1883, i.e., vol. iii. p. 267) The list in which 
he appears is taken from Cole's MSS., 
vol. xix., in the British Museum (Add. MS. 
5, 820). 

One Reginald Kelsall was a .seat-holder 
at Ashton - upon - Mersey Parish Church, 
March, 1742 (Palatine Note-book, ibid., 

Kerry's ' St. Lawrence's Municipal Church 
at Reading, Berks,' p. 168, has copy of the 
will of Henry Kelsall (Somerset House, 
Reg. Vox, fo/5), dated 12 Nov., 1493. In 
addition to property in Reading, the testator 
mentions two tenements in the town of 
Southampton, pasture in the Isle of Wight, 
&c. He had brothers Thomas and Roger, 
and sisters Margaret Bosden, Jonett Swyn- 
toii, and Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Madok 
of Knottesford. After enumerating be- 
quests of 6,9. 8d. each to twenty-two churches, 
he bequeaths 20s. to the parish church of 
Knottesford. Also : 

" I will and charge that a Tenour bell, to be made 
according to the iiij bells that now hange in the 

Stepyll of Saynte Lawrence church of Reding, to 
the some of," &c., 

to be called " Henry, the bell of lesu." 
In 1498-9 the following record occurs : 

" Itm. payed for halowyng of the grete bell namyd 
Harry, vi 9 . viii d ." 

Another member of the familv occurs in 
1503/4 : 

"Rec. of Randall Kelsall for wast of torchis at 
ye yer rnynd of Harry Kelsall, x d . " 

1517. "In the grave of Rand. Kelsalls moder, vii". 
ij d ." (No charge for the bell.) 

1528. " For the knell of Randall Kelsall, nil." 

Mr. Kerry remarks that the remission of 
the ringing fee would seem to indicate that 
Randall was a very near relative, if not the 
son, of Henry, although he is not once named 
in the will of the latter. 

According to Coates ( ' History of Reading, ' 
Appendix), Henry Kelsall and William 
Erne were elected to Parliament in 1483. 


Sandgate, Kent. 

CASTOR OIL (10 S. xi. 406). If C. C. B. 
is correct in thinking that, with the exception 
of Eraser's account in the unidentified 
" Medical Essays of London," Can vane's 
' Dissertation on the Oleum Palmae Christi ' 
is the earliest treatise on castor oil, it is 
important to ascertain its date of publica- 
tion. The second edition, London, 1769, 
is dated ; but the first edition, Bath, is 
not dated. Following the British Museum 
Catalogue, C. C. B. states that " the date of 
his treatise is 1766." On the other hand, in 
the ' N.E.D.' the treatise is assigned to 
1746. The statement on p. 81, "In the 
Influenza, that was epidemical in the year 
1762, this medicine, taken twice a week, with 
sufficient diluting, was of excellent service," 
proves that the treatise could not have 
been printed before 1762. No doubt 
the true date is 1764, for its publica- 
tion is noted in The London Magazine 
for Sept., 1764 (xxxiii. 488) ; while there 
is a long notice, with extracts, in The 
Gentleman's Magazine for Feb., 1765 (xxxv. 
61-5). In the latter is also reproduced the 
illustration of ' The Palma Christi, or 
Ricinus Americanus, commonly call'd the 

astor Plant.' In TJie Gentleman's Magazine 
for April, 1770, will also be found ' Obser- 
vations on the Use of Castor Oil,' signed 

Humanus," a physician who had re- 
sided in the West Indies. 


Boston, U.S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 21, im 

BUBSTAIX (10 S. xi. 305, 374, 431, 498 ; xii. 
31, 96). Timothy Burstall was associated 
with John Hill of Greenwich in letters patent 
of 1825 and 1826, and in the production 
of a steam carriage at Leith. In the first 
patent Burstall is stated to have been 
formerly of Bankside, Southwark, but to be 
now of Leith. In a patent of 1838 his 
address is given as " late of Leith, now of 

The steam carriage of Burstall and Hill 
is dealt with in ' The History and Develop- 
ment of Steam Locomotion on Common 
Roads,' by W. Fletcher, 1891 ; in ' Motor- 
Cars and the Application of Mechanical 
Power to Road Vehicles,' by the present 
writer ; and in other works. Contemporary 
accounts will be found in The Mechanic's 
Magazine, The Register of Arts, and Edin- 
burgh Philosophical Journal (vol. xiii. p. 349). 
See also E. Galloway's ' History and Pro- 
gress of the Steam Engine,' 1829, and L. 
Hebert's * The Engineer and Mechanic's 
Encyclopaedia,' 1836. RHYS JENKINS. 

xii. 106). The third line of the fourth verse 
of ' The Balloon,' 

And fed with pure Achor, Camelon's light fare, 
should surely be 

And fed with pure Ichor, chameleon's light fare. 
The chameleon was popularly supposed to 
live upon air. NOBTH MIDLAND. 

POURAIN (10 S. viii. 48 ; xii. 76). It may 
be worth noting that there are, or were, 
one canton, one town, and two villages or 
hamlets bearing the name " Saint-Pourcain " 
in the department of Allier : see * Dic- 
tionnaire Gen6ral dos Villes, Bourgs, Villages 
et Hameaux de la France,' par Duclos, 
Paris, 1836. 

At that time Saint-Pour gain, arrondisse- 
ment Gannat, canton of Saint-Pourgain, 
had 4,376 inhabitants. It had a general 
post office (poste aux lettres), and was a 
station for post-horses. 

Saint - Pourcain - Malchere, commune of 
Gennetines, had 100 inhabitants, its post town 
(bureau de poste) being Moulins-sur-Allier. 

Saint - Pourgain - sur -Besbre, arrondisse- 
ment Moulins-sur-Allier, canton of Dom 
pierre, had 636 inhabitants, its post town 
(bureau de poste) being Dompierre. None of 
these is given as " sur Allier." 

The principal Saint-Pourgain is on the 
Sioule, a tributary of the Allier. Perhaps the 
canton or part of it touches the latter river. 


508). Virgil has given us an account of 
thorns being substituted for pins or buckles 
in his description of Achemenides left on the 
shores of Sicily by Ulysses (' ^Eneid,' iii. 590). 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I well remember my mother, who died in 
1885 in her eighty-fifth year, saying that 
when she was a young woman it was a 
common thing for country women to use 
thorns for pins to fasten their shawls, which 
were generally worn in those days, and for 
many years after, by ladies both of high 
degree and low. J. BROWN. 

CONSTANCE (10 S. xii. 28, 94). It may be 
worth while to add to the replies to MB. 
PICKFOBD'S query that the engraving of 
the fine painting of Hus before the Council 
to which he refers as done " some forty years 
ago " can hardly be a reproduction of W. 
Brozik's famous picture, considering that 
the latter work was not finished before 
1883, or twenty-six years ago. K. F. 
Lessing's painting of 1842, representing the 
same subject, was reproduced by the dis- 
tinguished steel engraver Felsing in 1845, 
and published at 137, Regent Street, London, 
by Herington & Remington. 


xii. 109). 

Nor think the doom of man reversed for thee 
is from Dr. Johnson's ' Vanity of Human 
Wishes' (1749), 1. 156. 

61, Ladbroke Road, W. 

The following lines (141-6) from Pope's 
' Windsor Forest ' may prove illustrative 
of those mentioned by DIEGO : 

Our plenteous streams a various race supply : 
The bright-eyed perch with fins of Tyrian dye, 
The silver eel in shining volumes roll'd, 
The yellow carp in scales bedropp'd with gold, 
Swift trouts, diversified with crimson stains, 
And pikes, the tyrants of the watery plains. 

The lines quoted by C. at p. 128 were 
written by Robert Browning in ' Prospice,' 
but they should read 

O thou soul of my soul ! I shall clasp thee again, 
And with God be the rest ! 


[Several other correspondents thanked for the 

10 s. xii. AUG. 21, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Folk-lore and Folk-stories of Wales. 
Trevelyan . (Elliot Stock. ) 

By Marie 

GENUINE folk-lore is every day becoming more 
difficult of attainment in civilized countries ; 
it is supposed to be " unfit," and therefore un- 
worthy of survival. We are the more indebted, 
consequently to first-hand collectors like Mrs. 
Trevelyan, who go among the people and gather 

Baal or any other Oriental deity. Discredit has- 
often been thrown upon gossip Aubrey's ' sin- 
eater," but contemporary evidence is here 
adduced for this strange funeral custom (p. 270) 
which places it beyond dispute. As a bit of folk- 
medicine we are told that the cure of convulsions 
in children can be wrought by placing a horseshoe 
under their pillow (p. 225). Grimm long ago- 
noted this identical custom as existing in Germany, 
The spirit Margan, who conducts the disembodied 
soul to its place in the other world (p. 274), stands 

up the dwindling fragments before they have 
quite perished. In folk-lore, as in other branches 
of knowledge, there is no lack of study-chair 
compilers who are content to serve up a crambe 
rcpeiita culled from printed books. But Mrs. 
Trevelyan, besides being well qualified DV in- 
herited stories of information, brings freshness 
to her task in a keen personal interest in the folk 
and their ways of thinking, and has something 
to tell which has not been told before. Her 
comely volume is a veritable storehouse of the 
quaint lore about Nature and the invisible world 
which lingers amidst the hills and valleys of Wales ; 
if it is disjointed and scrappy, probably it could 
hardly have been otherwise when the items are 
so multifarious. She has had the invaluable 
advice and direction of Mr. Sidney Hartland, a 
folk-lorist of wide experience, who has contributed 
an appreciative introduction and otherwise 
enriched her work. 

Renan observed how deeply tinged with 
melancholy were the folk-beliefs of his native 
Brittany, for they always seemed to centre round 
the churchyard. In a measure this is equally 
true of their Welsh cousins, and it is characteristic 
of the Keltic temperament wherever it is found. 
" Sombre mysticism," says Mr. Hartland, " is 
the dominant note of the Welsh beliefs." Driven 
to his last resort on the extreme shores of Western 
Europe by the ever -pressing tide of Aryan 
migration, the Kelt, it may be supposed, naturally 
adopted that sad minor note which is characteristic 
of defeated nationalities. 

One of the most striking of the gloomy super 
stitions recorded here is that of the Cwn Annwn, 
Dogs of the Underworld, which may be heard 
hunting the souls of the lost at the dead of night 
with unearthly howlings, foreboding disaster 
or death to the hearer (p. 50). These, as well as 
the Cwn Wybyr, or Sky Dogs, may be correlated 
with the Dandy Dogs of Cornwall and the Gabble 
"Ratchets of the Northern counties, as a mytho- 
logizing of the same phenomenon, which has 
often been explained. But comparative mytho- 
logy does not enter into the author's plan, nor 
does she make any attempt to rationalize her 
CUTIOUB stories. She might fairly have noted, 
however, that Prof. Rhys has plausibly explained 
the word Annwn, the Welsh name of Hades, as a 
personification of the Latin animce, souls ; and 
as every one does not know Cymric, we should 
have been glad if she had always translated the 
incidental Welsh phrases that occur. Andras, 
e.g., is given as a curious popular name for the 
Devil. Is this susceptible of any explanation in 
the vernacular ? Much more might surely have 
been told us about the sun hero Hu Gadarn and his 
fortunes on English soil. 

We turned to Beltane or Baltan as a test word 
of the author's standpoint, and were grateful to 
find that it could be lighted without the aid of 

isolated and unexplained. As Morgan was a 
name given to the sun, i.e. " the sea-born," with 
reference to his daily rising out of the water r 
and as it was a custom to bury the dead at the 
lour of sunset (p. 277), that the parting luminary 
might show them the way to the underworld 
as in the Egyptian mythology), may it not be 
that the psychopomp Margan is only another 
phase of Morgan, the sun in his descent to Hades ? 
We merely throw out the suggestion for further 
consideration . 

Mrs. Trevelyan's book is suggestive, and whets 
our appetite for further information, which she 
promises in another volume treating of fairy-lore. 

The Pronunciation of English : Phonetics and 
Phonetic Transcriptions. By Daniel Jones, 
(Cambridge, University Press.) 
WE are always glad to see scientific work on 
phonetics such aa Mr. Jones's, since English 
pronunciation is getting into a haphazard style 
which confuses everybody, and seems likely 
to end only in a slack form of English with no 
rules. Mr. Jones mentions that " the Board of 
Education has now introduced the subject into 
the regular course of training of teachers for 
service hi public elementary schools." That 
body ought to have seen to the matter long ago, 
for any time these ten years we have heard 
ludicrous pronunciations from village school- 
masters and teachers. Unfortunately, the ex- 
planation of sounds is difficult to a beginner, 
if not alarming ; but Mr. Jones's methods seem 
as simple as they can be in his First Part, con- 
cerning phonetics. The Second Part, giving 
phonetic transcriptions of passages as pronounced 
by various people, is decidedly interesting. 
Special stress is laid on London, but we have also* 
specimens of Yorkshire, Devonshire, Lancashire, 
Scotland and South of England, Hampshire, 
Edinburgh, and Glasgow, in some cases modified 
by residence in London. Why the Midlands 
should be neglected we do not know, for we 
always understood that the standard of English 
in earlier times was derived from that district. 
Even the most cultivated of Londoners is apt, 
according to our experience, to fall into uncon- 
scious Cockney, and that is a dialect already,, 
perhaps, over-advertised by writers of verse and: 
prose, as well as the man who comes from London* 
to astonish the country village. 

MR. ALEYV LYELL READE, of Park Corner,. 
Blundellsands, near Liverpool, whose name i 
familiar to readers of ' N. & Q.,' is about to Issue 
Part I. of his Johnsonian gleanings, under the 
title ' Notes on Dr. Johnson's Ancestors and Con- 
nexions and illustrative of his Early Life.' Only 
350 copies will be printed. The volume, which 
has an elaborate index, will also include seven 
unpublished portraits of members of Dr. Johnson's 
circle at Lichfield, reproduced by the hand-press 
collotype process. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 21, 1909. 


MR. JAMES G. COMMIN'S Exeter Catalogue 253 con- 
tains works under America, Devon, and Somerset. 
A complete set of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society s Communications, 1850-1903, and of Pub- 
lications, except No. 25,1851-1904, 20 vols., half- 
morocco, is 11. 10s. Other items are Bewick's 
* Fables,' first edition, a fine clean copy, 11. 10*. ; 
Buchanan's 'Fleshly School of Poetry,' first edition, 
1872, 18s. ; Fielding's Works, edited by Gosse, 
12 vols., 31. 5s. ; Froude's 'Carlyle,' 4 vols., 11. 15s., 
.and ' Nemesis of Faith,' first edition, 1849, 15s. (the 
last book publicly burnt in England) ; Andrew 
Lang's ' Aucassin and Nicolete,' 12mo, original 
wrapper, first edition, 1887, 21. 10s.; Henry Morley's 
' English Writers,' 11 vols., 11. 10s.; Sommer's edition 
of 'Le Morte d' Arthur,' 3 vols., royal 8vo, half- 
morocco, 21. 12s. Qd. ; Pope's Works, with life by 
Ruffhead, 11 vols., 4to, calf gilt, 1715-69, 21. 10s. ; 
'Roxburghe Library,' edited by W. C. Hazlitt, 
.8 vols., small 4to, 1868-70, 21. 18s. 6d. ; ' Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge,' 14 vols., royal 4to, 
Washington, 1858-65, 61. ; and Swift's Works, 
26 vols., 8vo, calf, 1768, 31. 10s. 

Messrs. Henry R. Hill & Son's Catalogue 98 
contains a handsome copy of Audsley's ' Arts of 
-Japan,' full polished levant by Zaehnsdorf, 
12t. 10s. ; Beaumont and Fletcher, 10 vols., 
1778, contemporary calf, 21. 15s. ; Mrs. Aphra 
Behn's plays, large paper, 6 vols., 1873, 4Z. 15s. ; 
Gilchrist's ' Blake,' 2 vols., 1880, 21. 15s. ; Bran- 
t6me, ' CEuvres,' 15 vols., 32mo, whole morocco, 
1740, 61. 6s. ; ' Dramatists of the Restoration,' 
notes by Maidment and Logan, 14 vols., half -calf, 
1872, 11. Is. ; Dugdale's ' St. Paul's,' large pape, 
in contemporary russia, 1818, 31. 3s. ; and 
Froissart's f Chronicle,' 6 vols., Nutt, 1901, 51. 5s. 
There are fine copies of Ackermann's ' Oxford ' 
and 'Cambridge ; and a good example of 
Hardouyn's Roman Hours, on vellum, 351. 
Under Romney are Ward and Roberts's ' Essay,' 
2 vols., 4to, as new, in half blue morocco, 61. 6s. ; 
.and Hayley's ' Life,' bound in contemporary calf, 
61. 6s. Shakespeare items include ' Poems ' and 
' Pericles,' collotype facsimiles, with introduction 
by Sidney Lee, 5 vols., 4to, as new in vellum, 
4i. 4s. ; and ' Seven Ages,' Stothard's plates, 
folio, half -morocco, 101. The Catalogue also 
contains a number of beautifully bound books. 

Mr. Frank Hollings's Catalogue 79 contains 
under Occult Books Fergusson's ' Tree and Serpent 
Worship,' royal 4to, original edition, 1868, 
7J. 7s. ; and a number of works on Freemasonry. 
Under Rowlandson is the rare ' Excursion to 
Brighthelmstone,' oblong atlas folio, half -morocco, 
1790, 15J. 15s. ; also ' Loyal Volunteers,' 211., 
and ' English Dance of Death,' Ql. 9s. Under 
Ruskin is Lewis Carroll's copy of ' The Stones 
-of Venice,' 3 vols., royal 8vo, first edition, 1851-3, 
61. 15s. ; under Shelley, Buxton Forman's edition, 
.8 vols., 1876-80, 11Z. 10s., and the first edition 
of the ' Posthumous Poems,' 1824, 61. 6s. ; and 
under Sheridan the first edition of ' Pizarro,' 
1799, 4Z. 15s. In a list under Surtees we note 
' Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds,' first edition, 

1865, 4Z. 15s. Under Swinburne is the excessively 
rare ' Laus Veneris,' Moxon, 1866, 151. 15s. 
(Mr. Slater calls it " the scarcest of all Mr. Swin- 
burne's separate writings "). There is also the 
genuine first edition of ' Poems and Ballads,' 

1866, 131. 13s. There are rarities under Tennyson. 

We note the first edition of ' Poems, chiefly 
Lyrical,' published by Effingham Wilson, 1830, 
original boards, enclosed in morocco case, 221. ; 
and Moxon's first edition of ' Poems,' 1833, 251. 
(three sonnets and two other poems in this 
volume were siippressed). Under Thackeray are 
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ID s. xii. AUG. 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 296. 

NOTES : Tiffar : Tiffador : Tyfferen, 161' Horse Sub- 
secivse,' 1620, 162 St. Neots Booksellers and Printers, 164 
Joseph Knight and the Rabelais Club " Fabius 
Pictor,* 165 Richard II. at Chester Temple Bar- 
Thomas Lake Harris Scarlet Pimpernel, 166 " Topsy- 
turvy " " Shortfall " Weltje's Club -To " Whip in," 167. 

jQUKRIES : 'N. & Q.' Commemoration " Four regular 
orders of monks," 167 Combined Monastic and 
Parochial Churches Ownership of Scottish Churches 
St. Barbara's Emblems Cowhouse Manor, Middlesex 
Charles Lamb and his Pepe " Castle Inn," Birmingham 
" Noli altum sapere " Tildens of Tenterden Collinson 
Family Lincolnshire Names, 168 Devil's Saffron- 
Daniel FosquS ' Bishop King of Elphin Nelson's 

Death Ragozine, a Pirate Ceylon Bibliography 
Oregon Gray Family Southey's Collections regarding 
Portugal, 169 "A nafedave" Exeter Cathedral 

Custom Freeman on Gladstone's 'Studies on Homer' 
Diss " King of Hungary's peace," 170. 

BEPLIES : Flying Machine in 1751, 170 Macaulay on 
Literature -Neil and Natt Gow, 171 The Parker Conse- 
cration The Pryor's Bank, Fulham John Abbot, 172 
Constitution Hill" The " prefixed to Place-Names 
' British Controversialist ' Rentier's Circus, 173 
Pigott's ' Jockey Club ' " Culprit " " Bec-en-hent," 
House-NameLynch Law Fiennes of Broughton, 174 
William the Conqueror and Barking T. L. Peacock 
George Selwyn's Fondness for Executions The Bonassus, 
175 Sacred Place-Names in Foreign Lands" Sweet 
Lavender" 'The Oera Linda Book, 176 "Everywhere 
heard will be the judgment-call" "All the world and 
his wife" "And he was a Samaritan" 'The Complete 
Peerage 'Hews Family Paul Braddon " Moon-Dog" 
Parodies of the Poet Laureate ' The Yahoo, 1 177 
" Horse-godmother" "Skyle ""No Flowers "Authors 
Wanted Sneezing Superstition Flint Pebbles Nimbus 
Aviation, 178. 

JfOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Oxford Dictionary ' ' Intro- 
duction to Early Welsh ' ' Random Recollections of a 
Commercial Traveller.' 


YULE, in his article on the word " tiffin " 
in ' Hobson-Jobson,' remarked : 

" Rumphius has a curious passage which we have 
tried in vain to connect with the present word ; 
nor can we find the words he mentions in either 
Portuguese or Dutch dictionaries. Speaking of 
Toddy and the like, he says : * Homines autem qui 
eas (potiones) colligunt ac praeparant, dicuntur 
Pqrtugallico nomine Tiffadorea, atque opus ipsum 
Tiffar; nostratibus Belgis tyfferen ('Herb. Am- 
boinense,' i. 5)." 

In works on the East Indies by Dutch 
and German writers of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries toddy-drawers are in- 
variably termed tyffadoors or tyfferaars, and 
the act of drawing toddy is denominated 
tyffereri. Thus Valentyn, in the list of 
officials, castes, &c., prefixed to his descrip- 
tion of Ceylon (1726), has (I translate) : 
" Casta Chiandes, or Tifidoors. These .... 
consist of ten kinds, ... .all of whom support 
themselves by the tyfferen of trees." And in 
describing the ten kinds he uses the words 
tiffidoor and tyfferen several times. Then, 
further on, he has : " Hangerema, or the 

tyferaara of the jager Raggery] trees, 

from the sap of which they make sugar." 

The latest example I have found of the 
alternative form tyfferaar is in Haafner's 
4 Reize te voet door het Eiland Ceilon,' 
published in 1810, after the author's 
death. In the description of Ceylon pre- 
fixed to the work the word tijferaars occurs, 
and a foot-note explains : " Tijferaar ; so 
the man is called who climbs into the palm 
or coconut trees, and brings away the pots 
with palm- wine." (This is an inadequate 
description of a toddy-drawer's duties.) 
I will only add to the above that Christoph 
Schweitzer, in his ' Journal und Tage- 
Buch,' published at Tubingen in 1688, has 
tivitors ; &nd that the English translator 
of this book, who, while omitting much, has 
perpetrated many gross errors, renders the 
passage : " After them are the Trivitors, who 
gather the Drink from the Trees and boyl 
the sugar." 

Now as regards the origin of these words 
which puzzled Yule, and for which I have 
long sought in vain for a solution, attempt- 
ing, but unsuccessfully, to connect them with 
tap, or with some word imitative of the sound 
made by the toddy-drawer when beating 
the wounded spathe with his wooden mallet 
to make the sap exude more freely. How 
ever, I think I have at length solved the 
enigma ; and, strangely enough, Yule had 
the solution to his hand only a few pages 
on in his book ! I refer to the word "tiyan," 
which is thus explained in ' Hobson- 
Jobson * : 

" Malay al. Tlyan, or Tivan, pi. Tlyar or Tlvar. 
The name of what may be called the third caste (in 
rank) in Malabar. The word signifies 'islander' 
[from Mai. tivii, Skt. dvlpa, ' an island '] ; and the 
people are supposed to have come from Ceylon." 

So far the connexion with tiffador and 
tyfferen is not very evident ; but if we read 
the quotations given by Yule and by the 
editor of the second edition under this 
word and on a previous page under " tier- 
cutty," we see that, as Buchanan (1800) 
says, " the proper duty of the cast is to 
extract the juice from palm trees, to boil 
it down to jagory, and to distil it into 
spirituous liquors." Finally, if we look 
at Gundert's Malay alam-English dictionary 
we find : " tiyan, a. M. [ancient Mai.] tivan 
(Port., Fr. tives). An islander, the caste of 
the palm-cultivators, toddy-drawers, sugar- 
makers, &c." By the " Portuguese " and 
" French," who, according to Gundert, use 
the word tives (a plural form apparently), 
are meant, no doubt, the Indo-Portuguese 
of the Malabar coast and the French- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 28, woo. 

speaking mixties of Mahe. Now, I think, 
we can see how tiffar, &c., originated. The 
plural form of the name of the caste, viz. 
tivar, was evidently mistaken by Portu- 
guese from Europe, ignorant of the ver 1 
nacular, for a verb, and they would there- 
fore naturally call the man who was accus- 
tomed to tivar a tivador (on the analogy of 
comprar, comprador). True, I can give no 
proof of this, having never met with such 
a word in any Portuguese writer on India ; 
but I think there can be no doubt in the 
matter. When the Dutch ousted the 
Portuguese from India and Ceylon, they 
evidently found the words tivar and tivador 
well established, and they adopted them, 
giving them, however, a Dutch form, 
tyfferen, and a semi-Dutch one, tiffidoor or 
tyffadoor. But the latter word reminding 
them too much of the hated Portuguese, 
they dropped it, and substituted a purely 
Dutch form, viz., tyfferaar. 

A quite exceptional (and erroneous) use 
of tyfferen is found in a letter printed by 
Valentyn (op. cit., p. 378), the writer of which 
speaks of an " altoos-tyfferende wortel " 
(an ever-distilling root), the verb here being 
intransitive, and the (alleged) distillation 
(a delusion) being from the root of a bo 
tree or peepul (Ficus religiosa). 

If I am right in my conjectures, we have 
here an instance (not unprecedented, doubt- 
less) of a most extraordinary change of 
sense in a word, a proper noun originally 
meaning " islanders " becoming ultimately 
an active verb meaning " to draw toddy." 

'HOR^E SUBSECIV^E,' 1620. 

(Concluded from p. 103.) 

SCARCELY equalled by the essay ' Of 
Ambition,' the anonymous author's thoughts 
on death form the noblest essay in the 
volume. Listen to the opening majestic 
paragraph : 

" Nothing is more certain than Death, and 
nothing more uncertain than the time. Every 
man is to pay this debt, though few be ready at 
the day ; life is but lent us and the condition 
of the obligation is Death, yet not without a 
penalty, if in this wandering and uncertain state 
we make no preparation." 

The following paragraph has a Baconian 
echo : 

" A man's peregrination in this life should be 
employed, but as a harbinger for Death, nay, 
rather, life ; whilst we live, we die ; but live 
not till death. * Yet, good men may in a sort, 
religiously fear death, in respect of the cause of 
it. For the wages of sinne is death. In respect 
of not knowing the place of our being after 

death (we, ourselves, being altogether unmeriting) r 
these, and the like considerations, may justly 
make death seem terrible." 

Does not this remind us of the opening of 
Bacon's essay ' Of Death ' ? 

" Certainly, the contemplation of death, as 
the wages of sin and passage to another world, 
is holy and religious." 

But, of course, this resemblance must not be 
pushed too far. 

The extraordinary likeness of the close 
of this essay ' Of Death ' to Bacon's style 
warrants a quotation otherwise a trifle 
long . - 

" Many men without the knowledge of Religion, 
have excellently expressed their contempt of 
Death, but that may be reduced to some of these 
causes ; peradventure they had a kind of uncer- 
tain opinion that some greater happiness followed, 
than accompanied this life ; or in respect of the 
daily examples of their mortalitie, custome 
extinguished fear ; or lastly, to perpetuate their 
memories, or publish their fame to succeeding 
ages, have for the liberation of their Country, or 
Friends, or Honour, voluntarily exposed them- 
selves to a certaine and present death." 

One passage in the essay ' Of a Country 
Life ' reproduces the spirit of Bacon's 
essay ' Of Factions' : 

" He is chiefly to take heed, that when factions 
be sided, his Greatness uphold not one faction, 
to the decay and ruin of the other ; but con- 
trarily to even and compound them in mutual 
amity and agreement." 

So Bacon writes : 

" Great men, that have strength in themselves* 
were better to maintain themselves indifferent 
and neutral." 

I have not space here to go into a detailed 
analysis of this essay, but such an analysis 
would show many similarities in thought 
and expression between the two (?) authors. 

Such a passage as the following from the 
essay ' Of Religion ' shows a use of anecdote 
very like Bacon's : 

" And let no man persuade himself, that there 
is any action, or virtue, comparatively, in this 
world of equal estimation and power with Religion. 
It was the commendation St. Ambrose gave the 
Emperor Theodosius, that upon his deathbed, 
and in extremity of weakness, he took more care 
for the state of the Church and preservation of 
Religion, than of his own extreme dangers and 
infirmities. And Justinian, in the preface of his 
laws, disclaimed all confidence in the greatness 
of his Empire, numbers of Soldiers, advice of his 
Chief Commanders and Council, but relied only 
upon that providence and mercy of God, which 
Religion had taught him ; knowing the neglect 
of this duty would otherwise awake God's Justice 
and wrath : according to Horace : Dii multa 
neglecti dederunt Hesperice mala luctuosce. Inno- 
vations in Religion commonly precedes [sic] altera- 
tion in Government." 

So says our anonymous author, and Bacon 
agrees with him. The essay ' Of Religion * 

10 s. XIL AUG. 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


closes with a small piece of casuistry emi- 
nently Baconian : 

" It is better for a time to force men to outward 
conformity, though mixt with hypocrisy, than 
suffer them to continue refractory." 

The following curious division of History 
is found likewise in ' The Advancement of 
Learning ' : 

" Of Histories some are Natural, some Civil ; 
of Civil, some concern the state of the Church, 
and some the affairs of the Commonwealth. To 
them both appertaineth the history of places, 
which is Geography ; of times, which is Chrono- 
logy ; of descents, which is Genealogy ; and of 
actions, which is that I now am to speak of, and 
is principally, singly, and by a kind of prerogative 
called History." 

Bacon makes at first a fourfold division of 
History natural, civil, ecclesiastical, and 
literary and later adds to this division, 
history of cosmography. His main division 
of history, however, into natural and civil 
coincides with that of the ' Horse Subsecivse.' 
This paragraph could have been penned 
by no other than Bacon: 

" The benefit that the understanding receiveth 
thence [i.e., from reading history] ariseth two 
wayes. First, it becomes informed, as it were, 
with matter of fact, by the direct narration of 
things past, in manner as they fell out. And in 
this respect, History is said to be, Testis temporum, 
lux veritatis, nuntia vetustatis. Secondly, it is 
enabled by particular examples, and by the 
events of humane counsell (as by so many rules 
and patterns), to take the wisest course in con- 
ducting our affaires to their right ends. And 
for this effect, it is called Magistra vitce." 

Of the four discourses which form the 

second half of the volume I shall have 

little to say. * The Discourse upon the 

Beginning of Tacitus ' has Baconian echoes, 

but does not reach the same standard as 

the rest of the book. Of * The Discourse of 

Rome ' one or two words are necessary. 

The discourse shows clearly that the writer 

has been in Rome, and this fact forms the 

chief objection to my plea for the book's 

Baconian authorship. The life of Bacon, 

as we know it, gives no indication that he 

was ever in Italy. But we do know 

that he was abroad, and that while abroad 

he met M. de Montaigne. Now the reader 

of Montaigne's * Journal of his Travels in 

Italy ' will recall that Montaigne was 

accompanied by a mysterious M. d'Estissac 

whose identity has never been ascertained 

Yet he must have been a young man o: 

consequence, for when the two were ad 

mitted to a private audience with the Pope 

M. d'Estissac entered the presence first 

and would seem to have been the man whon 

the Pope wished most to see. May not thi 

have been our young friend Francis Bacon 

'erhaps the following passages from ' The- 
Discourse of Rome ' may prove illuminating : 

" I do not think it unnecessary to say something 
f the safety and danger for an Englishman to- 
ravel thither .... For some persons there can 
>e no place in the world so dangerous for them 

o come in, as this Therefore, the safest course 

or such a one, is .... neither to make himself f 
ior intention known to anybody living, for 
hen there may be a possibility of discovery. 
A.nd besides, it is necessary that he have some other 
language besides his own, that he may pass for 

hat Country-man Those times of public 

lostility, as in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,, 
vhen the Pope thundered excommunications, 
ind professed himself an open enemy to the 
Hate, as he did then, it is dangerous." 

I do not wish to push this suggestion too- 
ar, but the conditions seem to answer to 
he case satisfactorily.* It would be an 
nteresting task to compare this discourse 
vith Bacon's essay * Of Travel,' and to see 
low closely the former is modelled upon 
he latter, but I must content myself with 
i, bare indication of the fact. As for the 

Discourse against Flatterie,' a remarkable 
parallel might be instituted with the essays 
of Bacon, and so also in the case of the 

Discourse of Laws.' I shall feel contented, 
lowever, if I have suggested the likeness, 
and shall rest my case on the evidence 
which I have adduced. 

To sum up, the anonymous author of 

Horse Subsecivae ' and Francis Bacon have 
many points in common. The style of both 
is extremely concise, and is notable for 

lear analysis and arrangement. Both 
writers employ rich imagery and striking 
illustrations. Both show great sagacity 
and knowledge of human nature. Biblical 
and classical quotations are frequent in 
both, and generally inaccurate. Both use 
obscure Latin derivatives, are fond of 
balance, antithesis, and what, for want of 
a better name, may be called the rule of 
three. Both are eloquent, and of lofty, 
intellectual elevation. Both look upon life 
from the same standpoint, and treat of its- 
same aspects. Both are men of rank, and 
both excuse ambition if its object be the 
reform of politics and the advancement of 
learning. Finally, both have written great 
books, books that deserve to live. What 
more shall I say ? Simply that this article 
is a proof and a plea a proof of the book's 
authorship and a plea for the book's recog- 
nition. EDWARD J. H. O'BRIEN. 
116, Charles Street, Boston, Mass. 

* Since penning these words I have been 
kindly informed by Mr. R. M. Theobald that the 
late Rev. Walter Begley discovered a brief old 
biography of Bacon in which the statement was 
authoritatively made that Bacon visited Italy. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 28, im 

MB. O'BRIEN seems unaware that more 
than a century ago two leading litterateurs 
made it their business to identify the writer 
of this book. The authorship then waa 
claimed, apparently on good authority, 
for Sir Grey Brydges, 6th Lord Chandos by 
Thomas Park in his enlarged edition of 
Walpole's 'Catalogue of Royal and Noble 
Authors' (5 vols., 1806, ii. 184), and by 
'Sir S. Egerton Brydges in his ' Censura 
Literaria' (10 vols., 1805, vi. 192). This 
attribution has V/een accepted by the writer 
of the article on Sir Grey Brydges in the 
* D.N.B.' Lowndes and Watt (who mis- 
print the date as 1626 and 1720 respectively) 
enter it under Blount the publisher. Ed- 
ward Blount, or Blunt, was rathei fond 
of writing addresses " To the Reader " in 
books put forth anonymously, as witness 
Bishop Earle's 'Micro-cosmographie: Essay ee 
and Characters,' 1286. 

The seventeenth century saw two volumes 
bearing the title ' Horee Subsecivai,' the 
second being by D. W. (William Denton, 
M.D.), London, *1 664. 

It is well known that the earlier work 
suggested to Dr. John Brown, the author 
of ' Rab and his Friends,' the title for his 
collected writings. I once owned his copy, 
and have a note that on the title-page was 
written in an old hand " By y e Lord Candish 
\%.e. Cavendish], after Earlo of Devonshire." 
This was William Gilbert, eldest eon of the 
"flrst Earl. Anthony a Wood also says, " This 
Book was written by Gilbert Lord Cavendish, 
-who died before his Father, William Earl of 
Devonshire." Whether Thomas Park and Sir 
S. Egerton Brydges considered the Cavendish 
claim I do not know, but it seems reasonable 
to assume that one or other of those noble- 
men wrote the book. 

MR. O'BRIEN also ignores the fact that 
"Sir William Cornwallis the younger adopted 
for his notable volume of 1600 the title 
' Essays ' only threo years after the editio 
princeps of Bacon's Essays, and twenty 
years before the * Horse Subsecivae ' of 1620 
appeared ; and in the Second Part, pub- 
lished tho year following (1601), he says in his 
forty-sixth essay, entitled ' Of Esaayes and 
Bookes ' : 

" 1 hould neither Plutarches, nor none of these 
; atfncient short manner of writings, nor Montaignes, 
?nor such of this latter time to be rightly termed 
Essayes, for though they be short, yet they are 
strong, and able to endure the sharpest triall : but 
mine are Essayes who am but newly bound 
Prentice to the inquisition of knowledge, and use 
these papers as^ a Painters boy a board, that is 
trying to bring tiis hand and his fancie acquainted." 

Before the middle of the seventeenth 
century the word " Essays " to designate 

those books of short dissertations in which 
a writer gives the cream of a variety of 
subjects, without exacting any very severe 
attention from the reader, had become 
popular, and in order to give some slight 
evidence of this I will merely select two 
titles from my own books in this depart- 
ment : ' Horae Vacivse, or Essayes,' by 
John Hall, London, 1646; and ''Essayes 
and Observations, Theological and Moral, 
by a Student in Theologie," London, 165X 
Vigo Street, W. 

[We insert MB. O'BRIEN'S article, though we 
must not be taken as endorsing its conclusions. 
There are many instances in which well-known 
styles have been copied by admirers.] 


IN continuation of my notes on the book- 
sellers and printers of Huntingdonshire I 
now give those for the parish of St. Neots. 
The names and dates are gathered from the 
same sources as in my previous article 
(10 S. viii. 201). 

Tans'ur (William), bookseller, 1743-83. The 
4 D.N.B.,' Iv. 363, says: "The last forty years of 
his life were spent chiefly at St. Neots, where he 
was a stationer, bookseller, and teacher of music. 
He died there on 2 (or 7) Oct. 1783." The inscrip- 
tion on his tombstone (almost illegible, and 
probably now printed for the first time) is as 
follows : 

In Memory of 
Will m Le Tansur Sen' 

Musico Theorico 
who Departed this Life Oct. 7 


aged 83 

Born at Dunchurch, Warwickshire. 

The entry in the parish register of St. Neots is : 
' ' Buried 1783. 9th October. William Le Tansur. 
Bookbinder and singing master." 

Claridge (T.), bookseller and printer, 1768-80. 
Whether Claridge actually printed the books 
bearing his imprints, or had them printed else- 
where, is not known, but he is certainly the first 
St. Neots man who styled himself a printer. 

Sharp (James Carter), 1792.' The Apostles' Creed 
Paraphrased,' a single folio sheet, has the imprint : 
"Printed and Sold by J. C. Sharp, of whom may 
be had all kinds of stationery goods, genuine ad- 
vertised medicines," &c. He also "printed and 
sold " " A Selection of Hymns for the Use of the 
Parish Church of St. Neots," 1792. Claridge and 
Sharp are the only two persons who professed to 
do printing at St. Neots in the eighteenth 

Emery (Richard), bookseller and stationer, 1791- 
1801. D. 1801, aged 59. 

Emery (Richard) & Son. Sept., 1801. 

Emery (William), publisher, 1801-42. Son of 
Richard. Born 1778, d. 1851. 

Emery (W.) & Son, publishers, 1842-51. 

10 s. xii. AUO 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Emery (Frederick), 1851-70. Succeeded his father 
as publisher. In 1870 he took his son William 
into partnership, and sold the business to Keeling 
in 1872. Frederick Emery was born in 1811, and 
died in 1875. 

Smith & Lovell, Circulating Library, 1802-7. 
"Printing business from the Letter or Rolling- 
Press done correctly with the utmost dispatch." 
Fox (W.), Market Place, printer, January, 1807 

June, 1810. 

Fairy (S.), " sold by," 1810-33. 
Geard (John), printer, 1811-16. 
Geard (S. & E.), 1813-17. Printed the Rev. T. 
Morell's ' Studies in History,' 1813-15. Ebenezer 
Geard d. 23 March, 1849, aged 61. 
Stanford (J.), High Street, printer and bookseller, 

July, 1821 May, 1826. 

Hatfield (James), 1826-35. Successor to Stanford. 
Hatfield left St. Neots in 1835, and established 
the business at Huntingdon now carried on by 
Messrs. Goggs & Son. A paper dated St. Neots, 
9 Nov. 1838, however, bears the imprint : " James 
Hatfield, printer, bookseller, <fec., Huntingdon and 
St. Neots." 

Stott (D. & J.), September, 1832-48. D. Stott was 
a nonentity in this business. John Stott was 
apprenticea to Hatfield, but had a quarrel with 
him and ran away to France, coming back in a 
few months and starting for himself. In 1835 
Stott succeeded to Hatn'eld's shop. In 1848 he 
and his family emigrated to South Australia. He 
died 20 March, 1881, aged 68. 

Tomson (David Richard), 19 June, 1848^7 Suc- 
cessor and nephew to J. Stott ; retired in 1887 in 
favour of his son Percy Calder Tomson. Mr. 
Tomson, I am glad to say, still enjoys good health, 
and his career as a practical printer extends over 
76 years, which is noteworthy. 
Topham (James), 1842-52. Commenced business in 

the High Street. 

Topham (Frederick), 1852-72. Succeeded his cousin 
James, to whom he had been apprenticed. Estab- 
lished the first St. Neots newspaper 24 Nov., 1853. 
Sir J. R. Somers Vine worked in his office for a 
few months. Mr. D. R. Tomson bought Topham's 
business in 1872, but kept it only a few days, 
selling it to Messrs. Evans & Wells, who had 
managed it for Topham. Topham died in 1902 in 
his 73rd year. 

Evans & Wells, 1872-87. Bought Topham's busi- 
ness, as just recorded. They dissolved partnership 
17 May, 1887, Evans taking part of the premises 
for printing, and Wells part for stationery. 
Evans (Harry Joseph), 1887-91. Evans d. in 1891. 
Keeling (Richard Ratcliff), September, 1872 
August, 1902. Purchased Mr. Frederick Emery's 
business in 1872. Died August, 1902, aged 66 years 


In the affectionate tribute which Mr. John 
Collins Francis, in his admirable ' Notes 
the Way,' has paid to the memory of th( 
last Editor of ' N. & Q.,' he has not, I think 
made any reference to Knight's connexion 
with two institutions in which he took con 
siderable interest the Ex-Libris Society 
and the Rabelais Club. Both of them hav 
now crossed the Stygian ferry the forme 

within the last few months, though I believe 
here are some hopes of its resuscitation ; 
he latter more than twenty years ago, 
knight was a member of the Council of the 

Ex-Libris Society, and was a pretty regular 

ittendant at its meetings, and I think it is 
o be regretted that none of his colleagues 
ihould have given some reminiscences of 
his genial collector in the Journal of the 


Of the Rabelais Club Knight was an original 
nember, and his extensive knowledge of 

early French literature gave him fitting 
ank by the side of such connoisseurs a 
ir Walter Besant and the brothers 

Pollock. When the Club was established in. 
880, Knight was the London correspondent 
f that highly interesting journal Le Livre, 

and was in his literary prime. I can find 

only one contribution with the familiar 
nitials J. K. in the ' Recreations ' of the 
1ub. It occurs in the first volume, p. 68, 
,nd has the following lengthy title : 

" Translation of the Ballad and Rondeau of 
Ghiillaume Cretin (Raminagrobis), addressed to 
Christofle de Refuge, Maitre d'Hdtel to Mon- 
seigneur d'Alencon ; who had asked his advice 
upon the subject of marriage : poems which are 
supposed to have suggested to Rabelais the idea 
of the consultations of Panurge as to his projected 

The motif of the poem is summarized in the 
concluding rondeau, of which I subjoin a 
opy as a specimen of Knight's neat versifica- 
tion : 

Take her, friend, or take her not : 
If you take her, you are wise ; 
If to take her you despise, 
Nowise worse will be your lot. 
Gallop apace ; proceed jog-trot ; 
Stand doubtingly ; commence red-hot, 

Take her, friend. 
Starve, or empty twice the pot 
To do what is undone arise, 
Or undo all that done you prize ; 
Preserve her life, or have her shot, 
Take her, friend. 

The wit and wisdom compressed into the 
three volumes of the ' Recreations ' of the 
Rabelais Club render the work a rare and 
valuable possession. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

" FABIUS PICTOR." I find that a second- 
hand bookseller lately sold as by John 
Ruskin a copy of the " Hand-book of Taste ; 
or, How to observe Works of Art, especially 
Cartoons, Pictures, and Statues. By Fabius 
Pictor. Second Edition. London, 1844." 
It may as well be put on record that this 
book was written by Anthony Rich, the 
author of ' A Dictionary of Roman and 
Greek Antiquities,' 1860, and not by Ruskin. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL AUG. 28, 1909. 

Recognizance (or Chancery) Rolls of Chester 
in August, 1398, is enrolled a memorandum 
of the delivery to the Chamberlain of Chester, 
by John Cranmere, Yeoman of the King's 
Wardrobe, of the following articles, used by 
the King whilst visiting Chester, probably 
on the installation of John Brughill, Bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry, in the Cathedral 
Church of St. John, when, Cowper's MS. 
states, the King entertained many of the 
prime nobility : 

Eleven blankets embroidered with tapestry. 

Six gold cushions or pillows (quissyns) for the 
bed " de serpentz." 

A bedhead (testrc) with " le syler " (? silarium 

A counterpane (countrepoint) to match. 

Three curtains. 

Two " fustians," each of the breadth of six. 

A covering " de Medlee," furred with miniver. 

A green " canevas " with seven embroideries 

A " trace " of blue silk. 

A " sp'ver " (?) of red silk embroidered with 
three gold crowns. 

Nine red " worstede " blankets. 

A blue " canevas " of seven embroideries. 

Three " cloth sakkes." 

Two red tapestry blankets like the eleven 
already mentioned. 

A green " matras." 

R. S. B. 

TEMPLE BAR. In The Daily Telegraph of 
27 July Mr. Ernest S. Atkinson rightly 
questions' the accuracy of the inscription 
on an inkstand added to the Mansion House 
plate in commemoration of Sir William 
Treloar's Mayoralty. Referring to Temple 
Bar, it says " First mentioned in. 1301." 
This is derived from the grant, 29 Edward I., 
to Walter le Barbour, quoted by Herbert 
('London before the Fire,' iii. 23), Noble 
('Memorials of Temple Bar,' 20), and 
others ; but it is of no value for the purpose 
for which it ha.s been used. Mr. Atkinson 
provides an earlier date (1293), the reference 
occurring in a licence for alienation in 
mortmain by Henry le Waleys of a messuage 
in the parish of St. Clement Danes, " extra 
Barram Novi Templi London." 

For the purpose of identifying the western 
Fleet Street extremity of Sir William Tre- 
loar's Ward, Farringdon Without, some 
earlier and more exact reference might have 
been sought. It is also open to question 
whether " Barra Novi Templi " was at 
these dates a boundary mark of the City's 
jurisdiction named after the adjoining 
New Temple, or the bar or gate marking the 
northern limit and principal entrance to the 
-extra-mural domain of the Knights Templars. 

months ago inquiry was made in ' N. & Q.' 
respecting a biography of T. L. Harris, the 
founder of the Community of the Brother- 
hood of the New Life, whose name is familiar 
to many exclusively on account of the fact 
that for a time Laurence Oliphant came 
under the spell of, and lived with, Harris 
at Brocton, New York State. As the 
inquiry evoked no response at the time, 
now that an official life of T. L. Harris, 
preacher, poet, and mystic, has been printed, 
the inquirer and other readers of ' N. & Q.' 
may be interested in the fact. The bio- 
graphy is written from personal knowledge 
by Mr. Arthur A. Cuthbert of Birmingham, 
a disciple of Harris. An acute and capable, 
but unfriendly critic, in noticing the book, 
which has not been sent to the press, declares 
that " Dr. Dowie was a very simple cha- 
racter in comparison with Thomas Lake 
Harris." It may be remarked that Harris's 
' Lyra Triumphalis,' a slim volume of 
dithyrambic verse issued in 1891, was dedi- 
cated to Swinburne ; and that the Poet 
Laureate some forty years ago, in his almost 
forgotten volume ' The Poetry of the Period,' 
alluded to the "exceptional excellence" of 
Harris's verse, avowing that Swinburne 
was able to produce " nothing so perfect 
and gemlike." Mr. Alfred Austin in this 
book in which, by the way, he speaks of 
Tennyson's muse as a " Pegasus without 
wings " deals with Harris's life fairly sym- 
pathetically, makes it apparent that his mind 
was exercised on the subject of the Brother- 
hood, and dwells at considerable length on 
Harris's achievements as a poet, whose habit, 
he states, was " to write or dictate while in 
trance." J. GRIGOR. 

14, Crofton Road, Camberwell. 

SCARLET PIMPERNEL. I remember hear- 
ing many years ago (nearly fifty, probably) 
from an old lady of the yeoman class she 
being the wife and daughter of farmers 
farming their own land, which I take to be 
the true meaning of the word " yeoman " 
this rime with respect to the scarlet 
pimpernel : 

No heart can think, 

No tongue can tell, 

The virtue there is 

In pimpernel. 

The lady in question informed me that she 
had heard the rime first in her childhood, 
and she was then well advanced in years. 
The locality was within ten miles of Tiverton, 
but I have never heard the rime in this part 
of the county. FRED. C. FROST, F.S.I. 

10 s. xii. AUG. 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" TOPSY-TURVY." It may be of interest 
in connexion with the above to give a phrase 
used in the description of the battle of Agin- 
oourt in two MSS. The earlier (c. 1450) runs : 
" and our stakez (cudgels) made hem top 
ouyr terve, eche on o>er." The later, of the 
end of the century : " And oure stakys 
made hem ouer-terve eche on othyr." 
See ' The Brut ; or, The Chronicles of 
England,' E.E.T.S.. Part II. pp. 378 and 

The writer is acquainted with what Prof. 
Skeat has written on the subject, but has 
not previously seen " top " in this close 
connexion with the verb " over terve." 

H. P. L. 

" SHORTFALL." The English Mechanic of 
23 July contained the following : 

" Mr. Churchill added a new word to the English 
language in one of his speeches at Edinburgh 
on Saturday. ' We had a period of bad trade 
last year, and the shortfall in our revenue was 
only a million and a half. In Germany there 
was a shortfall of eight millions, and in the United 
States the shortfall was not less than nineteen 
millions.' ' Shortfall ' is not recognized by any 
existing dictionary, but the ' New English 
Dictionary ' has only got as far as ' sauce,' so, 
.as The Manchester Guardian remarks, there may 
yet be time to find room for it there. It is a much 
more expressive word than ' deficit,' because 
the elements of the compound are native ; the 
make-up of the word is understood and felt by 
everybody, as well as its secondary meaning." 


PRTDEAUX, s.v. ' Tuesday Night's Club ' 
(10 S. xi. 517), mentions a club founded by 
Weltje, who had been cook in the service 
of George, Prince of Wales. The following 
is perhaps worth noting : 

Sallads, that shame ragouts, shall woo thy taste ; 

Deep shalt thou delve in Weltjie's motley paste. 

' Epistle from the Honourable Charles Fox, 

partridge-shooting, to the Honourable 

John Townshend, cruizing. A new 

edition,' 1779, 1. 106. 

The author of this ' Epistle ' was Richard 

To " WHIP IN." In saying, " A moment, 
while I whip in to this tobacconist's," one 
has an idea of using a loose modern locution 
unknown to one's grandfather. It is, how- 
ever, a respectable M.E. word. On p. 363 
(E.E.T.S.) of 'An Alphabet of Tales,' 
c. 1450, is found : " Sho had hid hur be J>e 
wall & saw \>Q dure was oppyn, & whippid 
in & lokkid \>e dure fasteV' The work 
is, of course, in the Northern dialect. 

H. P. L. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


THE EDITOR kindly affords me an oppor- 
tunity of laying before the contributors 
a proposal to celebrate the forthcoming 
sixtieth anniversary of ' N. & Q.' This 
journal holds too "high a place in every 
reader's affections to need any commenda- 
tion, but I may point out especially that the 
occasion would offer a suitable chance for 
honouring in some way those officially 
connected with ' N. & Q.' 

As I have not the pleasure of knowing 
all the writers whose names figure in these 
pages, 1 am unable to communicate privately, 
and therefore desire to print the following 
questions. Please reply direct- 
To avoid the heavy labour of correspond- 
ence, I venture to ask contributors to excuse 
for the present individual acknowledgments. 

1. If in favour of the idea, what is the most 
desirable form, in your opinion, for the 
commemoration to take ? 

2. Should a general assembly be decided 
upon, which is the best centre for the widely 
scattered guests to meet at ? 

3. As some will be unable to attend such 
a gathering can you suggest a way in which 
all might participate ? 

4. If an autograph portrait album is 
adopted as one feature, would you be willing 
to contribute ? WILLIAM JAGGARD. 

92, Dale Street, Liverpool. 

[4. We are not in favour of a portrait album, but 
we think some special publication to commemorate 
the occasion is an idea worth suggesting.] 


This phrase is used by Scott in chap. ii. of 
' Ivanhoe ' ("Border Edition," p. 17). 
There were at the date of ' Ivanhoe ' (1194) 
four principal orders of monks, " the Bene- 
dictines, Cluniacs, Cistercians, Carthusians," 
besides the Canons Regular, who were, I 
believe, monks to all intents and purposes. 
But the phrase " the four regular orders " 
was sometimes used more loosely, I believe, 
by antiquaries of the Scott period. 

If any of your readers could help me to 
discover the origin and use of the phrase, 
I should be grateful. 


Ramsey House, Barton Road, Cambridge. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. DO s. xn. A. 28, ma. 

CHURCHES. In Freeman's ' English Towns 
and Districts ' an account is given of some 
English parish and monastic churches which 
formed one continuous whole under the 
same roof. I should be glad to know if such 
arrangements existed in the pre-Reforma- 
tion churches of Scotland and Ireland, and 
also on the Continent. One can hardly 
suppose that the practice was confined to 
England. S. Q. ADDY. 

The heritors of a Scottish parish are said 
to have vested in them, collectively, the fee 
of the church and churchyard. Did this 
legal ownership exist before the Reforma- 
tion ? and if not, how did it arise ? I 
should be glad to be referred to authorities 
on the point. In whom is the glebe, if any 
Ve g ted? S. O. ADDY. 

3, Westbourne Road, Sheffield. 

explain why St. Barbara is said to bear the 
emblem of " chalice and wafer," and also 
of the feather ? In Alban Butler and 
Baring-Gould she is given the tower and 
the palm, in allusion to her martyrdom; 
but there is no incident in her legend which 
explains the two chalice and feather 
ascribed to her by E. A. Greene in her 
* Saints and their Symbols.' In a painting 
by Luini in the Brera, Milan, she is repre- 
sented with the chalice, but, so far as I am 
aware, there is no painting of her with a 
feather. HELGA. 

[Pictures of St. Barbara and her feather are 
referred to at 10 S. x. 308 ; and an explanation 
of the feather is offered at p. 373 of the same 

kind reader identify the manor of "Hoddes- 
ford et Cowhouse " in Middlesex ? It 
occurs in a list of the possessions of the 
Abbey of Westminster ( ' Monasticon Angli- 
canum,' i. 326), and the name is notable 
in having like significance to Neyte or Neat 
House, the residence of the Abbots near 
Westminster. W. L. RUTTON. 

" There was much talk and laud of Charlea 
Lamb and his Pepe, &c., but he never appeared." 
Carlyle's 'Reminiscences' (Froude's edition), 
vol. i. p. 232. 

What was Lamb's " Pepe " ? Is it pos- 
sibly a misprint for " pipe " ? 
^ The extract given is from the section on 
Edward Irving,* and refers to the circle that 
gathered at Basil Montagu's house. 


Castle Inn " still exist in Birmingham ? I 
find it mentioned in a letter dated 18 May r 
1735. J. S. 


" NOLI ALTUM SAPERE." Can any one 
supply me with information about this Latin 
phrase ? I have met with it only twice 
once in the Epistle to the Reader contained 
in ' The Cobler of Canterbury,' assigned to 
the dramatist Greene, and again as the 
motto of Bishop Leng of Norwich in the 
eighteenth century. D. C. LENG. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 

TILDENS or TENTERDEN. At 5 S. vi. 95 r 
over the initials J. L. C., is this statement : 
" I have the pedigree of the family tho- 
roughly worked out for several generations." 

As a member of this family, may I ask 
if the pedigree has been printed, and, if so, 
where it may be consulted ? Does it give 
the English 'ancestry of Nathaniel Tilden ? 
and does it show how the Tyldens of Mil- 
stead branch off ? WM. IRVING TILDEN. 

c/o Messrs. Cook & Son, Ludgate Circus. 

COLLINSON FAMILY. I should be glad to 
know something of the family of the Rev.. 
John Collinson, of Long Ashton, Somerset, 
at the time when he published his ' History 
and Antiquities of Somerset.' Was the 
Rev. Richard Collinson, then living in the 
same county, his brother ? The ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.' gives John as belonging to a 
North of England family having a small 
estate at Great Musgrave. John and Peter 
were two of the sons, six in all. Can any 
information be given of the names of the 
others and of their descendants ? 

Direct replies will greatly oblige. 

(Mrs.) E. ABBOTT. 

Norton Fitzwarren, Somerset. 

MS. Vesp. E. xviii., which is a chartulary 
of Kirkstead Abbey, occur some curious 
names which I do not remember to have 
seen elsewhere. They are to be found 
among the charters relating to Branston, 
ff. 58b-61b, and are as follows (the names 
in question are italicized) : Haime fil. 
Wdefat, also Haimon fil. W depath ; Swue, 
prepositus, also Suawe ; Rumpharus fil. Lam- 
berti, also Rumparus ; Boydes, clericus. 

The first is probably a surname, as on 
f. 58b occurs a certain " Bartholomeus 
Capellanus fil. Haymon Wdepat de Branze- 
ton " ; but the others are given as if they 
were Christian names. Are they known 
elsewhere ? H. I. B. 

10 s. XIL AUG. 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


DEVIL'S SAFFRON. Recently, while walk- 
ing over the wilds in the Ding Dong district 
of Cornwall (Pen with), I came across great 
quantities of the curious, leafless, parasite 
dodder (Cuscuta), growing over the furze- 
bushes and heather. I asked an old farmer 
the name of this pinky silken-thread-like 
vegetable growth. He said : " We always 
call it about here ' the Devil's saffron,' but 
why I don't know." Do any of your readers 
know why ? J. HARRIS STONE. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club. 

' DANIEL FOSQUE.' Is the authorship 
known of the following drama ? 

" Daniel Fosque. We are so made that the crime 
of one man is but the malady of another. Not 
published. December, 1882. London, J. F. Howell 
& Co." 4to, pp. 23. 

It is based on the story of a Parisian 
goldsmith who murders his customers in 
order to regain possession of his artistic 
triumphs. In effect it is a study of the 
psychology of madness. 



inform me as to the parentage and ancestry 
of Edward King, Bishop of Elphin (b. 1573, 
d. 1638) ? He was a native of Huntingdon- 
shire, and was uncle to Edward King, the 
" Lycidas " of Milton's famous poem. 
Strafford, when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
in a letter to Archbishop Laud, wrote of 
King as being " a truly royal bishop," 
punning upon his name. 


Castle Ward, Downpatrick. 

the island of Tristan da Cunha are three 
daughters of a Thomas Hill Swain, who died 
there at the age of one hundred and eight. 
They agree in saying that their father fre- 
quently told them that he was the man 
who caught Nelson as he fell mortally 
wounded. I should feel greatly obliged if 
any of your readers could kindly inform 
me (1) whether Nelson, when he fell, was 
caught by a sailor ; and if so, (2) the name 
of the sailor who caught him. 

(Rev.) J. G. BARROW. 

RAGOZINE, A PIRATE. " One Ragozine, 
a most notorious pirate," is mentioned in 
' Measure for Measure,' IV. iii. Did he 
ever exist ? It is the name of a well-known 
Russian family. L. L. K. 

oblige me with a list of books on Ceylon ? 
Please reply direct. W. ROBERTS CROW. 

Camelot, Wallington. 

OREGON. Caleb Gushing of Massachusetts 
is reported as saying in the U.S. House 
of Representatives, 17 May, 1838, that 
"Hernando Cortez had made a discovery 
which was anterior to that of the English, 
and he gave the river the name of Oregon, 
which it still bears " ; also, that 

"Hernan Cortes explored, in 1526, the north- 
western coast of America to the northern limits of 
California. The Spaniards also point to various 
other expeditions fitted out from Acapulco and 
San Bias in the 16th and 17th centuries ; and that 
of Gali in 1582 to latitude 57 north ; Juan de Fuca 
in 1592, who is said to have discovered, and 
certainly gave his name to, the bay and strait still 
bearing it ; Vizcaino, who is believed by some of 
the Spanish writers to have discovered the Oregon ; 
De Fonte, who is said to have reached the latitude 
54 in 1640." Congressional Globe, p. 380, col. 3 ; 
id., Appendix, p. 566. 

It would be interesting to know whether 
there is any foundation for these statements. 
Apart from them, the earliest mention of 
the Oregon river, now named the Columbia, 
appears to be in the travels of Jonathan 
Carver, 1766-8 ; and he heard of it from 
the Indians, in or near Minnesota. If any 
trace of early Spanish explorations to the 
north of California can be found, then 
Oregon may be a corruption of Aragon. 


GRAY FAMILY. Information is wanted 
as to the children and descendants of Charles 
Gray, Crosscrook, Lift, Dundee, who died 
in 1822, and Jean Archibald (Tullibody), 
his wife. They had a large family. Of 
their six sons, Andrew, who married a Miss- 
Nightingale, and James both died in Wales - 
Charles and Robert died in London. Robert, 
said to have been employed by a firm of 
brewers, married Sophia Sendon. Com- 
munications direct will be gratefully acknow- 
ledged. P. GRAY. 

5, Blackness Avenue, Dundee. 

TUGAL. In a note in Southey's ' Common- 
place Book,' vol. ii. p. 368, the Rev. J. W. 
Warter tells the reader that Southey left 
behind him a MS. collection for a history of 
Portugal, which the editor had not then had 
time to examine accurately. Have these 
papers ever been published ? If it be so, 
we have failed to find any record thereof. 
We trust that, if they have not as yet 
assumed a printed form, they still exist 
either in public or private hands. It would 
be a great loss if the historical gatherings 
of one so studious and learned should have 
been destroyed either deliberately or by 
accident. N. M. & A. 


NOTES AND QUERIES, rio s. xn. AUG. 28, im 

"A NAFEDAVE." Can any readers of- 
N. & Q.' explain the term " nafedave " ? 
It is entered in the records of this parish 
for 27 Sept., 1733, thus : 

" Paid for a Nafedave for Goodman Latter, 6d" 
Now Goodman Latter was buried in the 
churchyard here on 23 Sept., 1733, in woollen, 
an affidavit being made the same day. 

The latter entry is in different handwriting 
from the former, and probably helped the 
conjecture that " Nafedave " and " affidavit" 
meant the same. This, however, appears 
to be negatived by the following extract 
from the records, on the same page and in the 
same writing as the extract already quoted : 

" Paid for affidavit and Berin 3 pore people." 
As I should judge that both of the quotations 
given above were recorded on the same date, 
the writer must have had small respect for 
spelling if both words had the same meaning. 


Qttord, Ken t. 

Gould in ' Devonshire Characters,' p. 583, 
commenting upon a remark on Exeter 
Cathedral in 1820, says : " What he here 
refers to may be the performance of the 
' Gloria in Excelsis ' by the choir in the 
Minstrel Gallery at midnight on Christmas 
Eve." When was this custom suspended ? 
It is no doubt a relic of the time when the 
Midnight Mass was said in Catholic days. 


HOMER.' A bookseller, in offering the three 
volumes of this work as " very scarce, this 
being the only edition, 1858," quotes the 
following from E. A. Freeman : 

" These noble volumes, worthy alike of the 
Author and their subject, are the freshest anc 
most genial tribute to ancient literature whicl: 
has been paid even by an age rich in such offer 

Where does Freeman say this ? 

J. B. McGovERN. 

Diss. I have heard that the town o: 
Diss, in Norfolk, was formerly included in 
the Hundred of Hartismere, Suffolk. I 
shall be glad to know if this was so, and alsc 
if any other Norfolk border-towns were 
affected. R. FREEMAN BULLEN. 

Bow Library, E. 

speare in ' Measure for Measure,' I. ii., make 
one of the characters exclaim : " Heaven 

gant us its *peace, but not the King o 
ungary's ! " Is this an allusion to an} 
special event in history ? L. L. K. 

(10 S. xi. 145.) 

THE well-known Italian newspaper the 
orriere della Sera of Milan published in its 
ssue of the 4th inst. the text of a curious 
etter which has just been unearthed in the 
rchives of the city of Bergamo. This 
manuscript, which bears the title " Letters 
critta da uno di Loiidra ad un suo Amico 
i Venezia sopra la Macchina Volante, che 
on universale applauso vedesi cola guidata 
>er aria da famoso e singolare Meccanico : 
n Venezia, 1751 " (literally, " Letter written 
>y one of London to a Friend of his of Venice 
ipon the Flying Machine which with uni- 
rersal applause has been driven through 
he air by a famous and unique engineer "), 
describes" as its title implies, an early and 
.uccessful attempt at aviation, made in the 
tear 1751. The curious document is appa- 
ently unsigned, though dated "18 October, 
1751?' and states that the inventor of the 
machine was " an Italian religious, a native 
of Civitavecchia, by name Andrea Grimaldi, 
aged about 50 years, and of middling stature." 
tt goes on to say that this worthy priest, 
during a twenty years' sojourn in the East, 
:\ad devoted fourteen years to perfecting 
lis machine, the mechanism of which is 
sketched in the following terms : 

' This is a box (cassa) which, with the aid of 
some clockwork (ordigni da oriuolo), rises in the 
air and goes with such lightness and strong 
pidity that it succeeds in flying a journey of 
seven leagues in an hour. It is made in the 
fashion of a bird ; the wings from end to end are 
twenty -five feet (piedi) in extent. The body is 
composed of pieces of cork, artistically joined 
together and well connected with metal wire, 
covered with parchment and feathers (piume). 
The wings are made of catgut and whale(bone), 
and covered also with the said paper (parchment) 
and feathers, and each wing is folded in three 
seams (or joints gitmture). In the body of the 
machine are contained thirty wheels of unique 
work, with two brass globes and little chains, 
which alternately wind up a counterpoise ; and 
with the aid of six brass vases, full of a certain 
quantity of quicksilver, which run in some pulleys, 
the machine is kept by the care of the artist 
(inventor) in the due equilibrium and balance. 
By means then of the friction between a steel 
wheel adequately tempered and a very heavy 
and sxirp rising [sic] piece of loadstone, the whole 
is kept in a regulated forward movement, given, 
however, a right state of the winds, since the 
machine cannot fly so much in totally calm \veather 
as in stormy. This prodigious machine is directed 
and guided by a tall seven palms (palmi) long, 
which is attached to the knees and the ankles 
(nodi de* piedi) of the inventor with strips of 
leather ; and by stretching out his legs, either 

ID s. xii. AUG. 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to the right or to the left, he moves the machine 
in whichever direction he pleases." 

Then, after a description of the appearance 
of the extraordinary monoplane, which 
was like a bird, with " glass eyes as natural 
as life," the wTiter goes on to say that 
4t the machine's flight lasts only three hours, after 
which the wings gradually close themselves. 
Then the inventor, perceiving this, goes down 
gently so as to get on his own feet, and then winds 
up the clockwork and gets himself ready again 
upon the wings (assettarsi sopra le ali) for the 
continuation of a new flight. He himself told 
us that if by chance one of the wheels came off 
or one of the wings broke, it is certain he would 
inevitably fall rapidly to the ground, and there- 
fore he does not rise more than the height of a 
tree or two, as also he only once put himself in the 
risk of crossing the sea, and that was from Calais 
to Dover, and the same morning he arrived then 

in London He has lately made a trip from 

the London Park (Parco di Londra) as far as 
Windsor Lodge and back, the whole in less than 
two hours. He proposes to fly on His Majesty's 
birthday, starting from the top of the Monument 
at 16 o'clock Italian time (i.e. four P.M.), and 
make the tour of the whole city of London and 
its suburbs, and settle down in the Park about 
18 o'clock (six P.M.)." 

This remarkable letter was printed at the 
time in a book entitled ' La Storia dell' 
Anno MDCCLI.,' published at Amsterdam for 
a Venetian librarian ; and Grimaldi and his 
invention ("riding which he flew in 1751 
from Calais to London, making seven 
leagues an hour ") are mentioned in another 
Italian book, printed at Parma in 1781, 
and entitled ' Memorie degli Architetti 
Antichi e Moderni,' the author of which, 
however, regards the whole affair somewhat 
sceptically. The ' Biografia Universale 
Antica e Morlerna,' published at Venice in 
1816, not only recounts the fact, but adds 
that Grimaldi was a Jesuit, noting at the 
same time that a certain Pingeron, who 
translated the above-mentioned ' Memorie ' 
into Fiench, commented on, and even con- 
firmed, the story of Grimaldi' s exploits, 
which are also noted and vouched for by 
the ' Bibliotheque des Ecrivains de la 
Compagnie de Jesus.' published at Liege in 

It would be interesting to know whether 
any contemporary English work or journal, 
such as The Gentleman s Magazine, makes 
mention of an event which, if the letter is 
really genuine, must have created con- 
siderable excitement at the time. Has 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' found traces of the 
story ? JOHN H. DURHAM. 


The account I sent from Ersch anc 
Gruber's ' Encyclopaedia of Arts and Sciences 
is corroborated in The Daily Chronicle for the 

*rcl inst., p. 3, col. 2. The Milan corre- 
pondent says that a discussion has arisen 
n that city as to M. Bleriot being the first 
;o fly the Channel. It is maintained that 
;he honour is due to the Italian Grimaldi, to 
whose feat I drew attention. D. J. 

The poem from which I. X. B. furnishes 
an extract was written by Macaulay on the 
night of his defeat at Edinburgh 30 July, 
1. 847 and will be found at the end of the 
:enth chapter of Sir George Trevelyan's 
Life and Letters.' His conduct on this 
occasion, when he illustrated in his own 
person the noble sentiments contained in 
lis letter of 3 Aug., 1832, to the electors of 
Leeds, has never been surpassed in my 
opinion by any statesman of the nineteenth 
century. In elevation of mind, as well as 
in strength of principle, it is hard to find 
Macaulay's peer. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

The whole poem is printed in ' The Mis- 
cellaneous Writings of Lord Macaulay' 
(Longmans, 1870) ; and the greater part 
of it in Sir George Trevelyan's ' Life and 
Letters ' (Longmans, 1878), vol. ii. p. 192. 
Sir George characterizes the verses as 
" exquisite " a verdict with which, I 
think, most readers will agree. Mr. J. 
Cotter Morison, however, in his unsym- 
pathetic criticism of Macaulay in the " Men 
of Letters " series, calls them (p. 124) 
" ambitious and wordy," and follows up 
these epithets by a couple of pages of 
sneering comment. 

In I. X. B.'s extract "soothed" should 
read smoothed. T. M. W. 

The lines will be found in Macaulay's 
miscellaneous poems. The title is ' Lines 
written on the Night of the 30th of July, 
1847, at the Close of an Unsuccessful Con- 
test for Edinburgh.' WM. H. PEET. 

The stanzas quoted by your correspondent 
are from Macaulay's 'Lines written in 
August, 1847.' The poem is included in 
Sir M. E. Grant Duff's ' Victorian Anthology.' 

C. C. B. 

MUSICIANS (10 S. xii. 108). Neil Gow (1727- 
1807), the most famous Scottish violinist 
of his day, was a native of Inver, near 
Dunkeld, where he lived and died. Mainly 
self-educated, he became famous for his 
unrivalled manipulation of his favourite 
instrument, his notable "bow-hand" from 
the first prompting experts to a confident 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 28, im 

forecast of eminence that was fully realized. 
For a great many years he was the leading 
musician at the aristocratic balls throughout 
the country. He composed many melodies, 
afterwards edited and published by his son. 
To Neil's fine air ' Locherroch Side ' Burns 
wrote his, touching lyric " Oh ! stay, sweet 
warbling woodlark, stay " ; and Neil's 
' Farewell to Whisky ' and other lively tunes 
are familiar to all experts in Scottish music. 
Raeburn painted Neil for the County Hall 
of Perth and for several Scottish noblemen, 
and David Allan introduced him into his 
' View of a Highland Wedding.' 

The son, Nathaniel Gow (1766-1831), had 
the advantage of a good musical training 
in Edinburgh, and worthily succeeded his 
father as Scotland's leading violinist, besides 
proving himself a diligent and capable 
editor and composer. He was appointed 
one of the royal trumpeters in Edinburgh, 
and was long the leader of a band that was 
indispensable at metropolitan dances as well 
as at the fashionable balls throughout the 
provinces. For a time he was very success- 
ful as a music publisher in Edinburgh, 
many tunes by himself, his father, and others 
appearing under his hand ; and it has been 
well said of him that he " did much, if not 
more than any of his predecessors, to present 
in an attractive way the spirit and beauty 
of our national music." Those who take 
an interest in strathspeys and reels will be 
familiar with his work, while a wider circle 
will recognize his skill and dexterity in his 
felicitous setting of Lady Nairne's ' Caller 
HerrinV The poet wrote this song for the 
musician's benefit, giving him this appro- 
priate position in her penultimate stanza : 

Caller herrin's no to lightlie, 
Ye can trip the spring fu' tightlie. 
Spite o' tauntin', flauntin', mngin , 
Gow has set you a' a-singin', 
Wha '11 buy caller herrin', &o. 

Neil Gow is commemorated in Little Dun- 
keld Church by a marble tablet, placed by 
his sons John and Nathaniel. When 
Chambers published his memoir of Nathaniel 
in the ' Biographical Dictionary of Eminent 
Scotsmen,' he stated that he was buried in 
the Greyfriars' Churchyard, Edinburgh, and 
added : " No stone points out to the 
stranger where the Scottish minstrel sleeps." 
If this neglect has been continued, it ought 
to be remedied without delay. 


The two Gows occupy nearly three columns 
in^' Diet. Nat; Biog.,' xxii. 293-5. Scott 
introduces Neil Gow in * St. Ronan's Well,' 
chap. xx. W. C. B. 

Sir W. Scott mentions both the Gows in 
' St. Ronan's^Well,' chap. xx. S. B. 

[MR. W. E. WILSON also thanked for reply.] 

LAMBETH REGISTER (10 S. xii. 62, 112). 
T. C. appears to be right in his solution of 
this difficulty, which had remained unsolved 
for half a century. Browne Willis in his 
' Survey of Cathedrals,' iii. 103 (1730), 
states- that " Owen Hodgson, S.T.B., was 
installed as Archdeacon of Lincoln Jan. 14, 
1558, on the death of Thomas Marshall ; 
but he was forced to give place to Nicholas 
Bullingham, who became restored on the 
Deprivation of Hodgson Anno 1559." The 
restoration is not noted in Le Neve's ' Fasti '; 
but Willis had access to the muniments at 
Lincoln, and his account is fortified by what 
T. C. says. Will T. C. furnish a reference 
with regard to Ayscough's petition ? 

I may add that the first two volumes of 
Willis's * Survey ' are continuously paged 
from 1 to 894, anno 1727 ; but vol. ii. has 
not a regular title-page, that which serves for 
one being destitute of date, place, and origin. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

128). The sale catalogue will be found at 
the British Museum under " 7807, d. 3 (12). 
Baylis, T. Sale calatogue of Pryor's bank, 
1841." An account will also be found in 
The Gentleman's Magazine for January, 1842. 
I have just written on the subject of Pryor's 
Bank and some of the objects in the col- 
lection, and the article will probably appear 
in the October number of The Antiquary. 

5, Burlington Gardens, Chiswick. 

In The Art Journal for 1862 there is an 
interesting account of Fulham pottery and 
the manufactures carried on there. This 
article is from the pen of Mr. Baylis, the 
owner of Pryor's Bank, and the collector of 
the antiquities and curiosities there brought 
together. In this article he describes one 
of the more important pieces. 

The first sale at Pryor's Bank took place 
on the 3rd of May, 1841, and five following 
days, there being a second sale on the 25th 
of May, 1854, and four following days. 


JOHN ABBOT (10 S. xi. 469). One John 
Abbott, son of Thomas of Christ Church, 
London, pleb., matriculated from New Coll., 
Oxon, on 15 Feb., 1725/6, aged twenty. 

io s. XIL AU. 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


FIELDS (10 S. xii. 110). Immediately west 
of a chain of ponds four in Lord Mansfield's 
park, three outside, the latter known as 
Highgate Ponds is Parliament Hill, or as 
it is sometimes called Traitors' Hill, the 
latter name, as is asserted, being due to a 
tradition that the conspirators in the Gun- 
powder Plot were to meet on the hill to 
witness the effect of the explosion (Hewitt's 
' Northern Heights '). The more common 
belief, however, is, says Mr. James Thorne, 
that it was called Parliament Hill from 
the Parliamentary generals having planted 
cannon on it for the defence of London 
(' Handbook to the Environs of London,' 
1876, vol. i. p. 356). 


In The Cornhill for June, 1886, is an article 
by Sir Walter Besant, ' Traitors' Hill,' in 
which he says (p. 636) : 

" Perhaps it was called Parliament Hill because 
the members for Middlesex were elected here. 
It ia certain that at the beginning of the last 
century, before the hustings were removed to 
Brentford, the members for the county were 
elected at the open space which lies in front of 
' Jack Straw's Castle ' at Hampstead. But 
there may have been a time when the elections 
were held on this actxml hill. If this theory cannot 
be maintained for want of evidence, the name 
may be derived from the memory of some older 
Parliament, whether Hundred-moot or Folk- 
moot. The latter of these was held twice a year, 
in May and October." 

He has before dismissed as untenable the 
theory that the hill is so called from having 
been fortified by the Parliamentary generals. 
There was, he says, " another * Jack Straw's 
Castle ' further east than the present one." 
If that be the place where the hustings were 
held, it would bring it nearer the present hill. 

38, North Eoad, Highgate. 

xii. 68, 116). "The'' is to be found pre- 
fixed to several place-names in this district, 
and in each case some qualifying word, now 
omitted, was once understood. Examples 
like "The Teams,*' "The Mushroom,' 
"The Linnels," "The Side," "The Fell,' 
" The Spital," and many others, are all of 
them abbreviations of phrasal forma. These 
in full were once, in all probability, " Th< 
Teams [haughs] " ; " The Mushroom [quay] " 
" The Linnels [plains] " site of the battl 
of Hexham ; "The Side [street] "= the 
long street ; " The [High or Low] Fell " 
" The Spital [field]." As far as local usage 
is concerned, the definite article in a place- 

ame invariably marks a compound form,, 
is in the above instances. A well-known 
lame on the Tyne is " The Friars Goose " ; 
mce " The Friars Goose-Croft," belonging 
;o the Monastery of St. Edmund, Gateshead, 
Equally well known is " The Felling," which 

esolves itself into "The Fell Ing" ("Ing,, 
i meadow, a pasture," &c., ' E.D.LV), as- 
distinguished from " The High Fell " imme- 
diately above. R. OLIVER HESLOP. 

,10 S. xii. 109). I have very little doubt 
that S. N. stands for Samuel Neil, the 
author of ' The Home of Shakespeare 
Described,' 1871 ; ' Culture and Self-Culture,* 
1863 ; and numerous other books. I think 
I remember Mr. Neil's death as occurring 
during the last two or three years. 


The editor of The British Controversialist, 
which had a very beneficial influence upon 
many young men by interesting them in the 
discussion of public questions, was Mr. 
Samuel Neil, whose initials are found at the 
end of leading articles. 



ARGYLL STREET, W. (10 S. xii. 47, 116). 
Had I been going to attempt anything like 
a history of the above building, the para- 
graph from The Daily Chronicle might 
have needed looking into more closely ; 
but as I merely wished to place on record 
its latest change in name and character 
of entertainment, I let the other portion pass. 
I do not regret doing so, as my inadequate 
text has led to so illuminating and excellent 
a sermon by MR. ABRAHAMS. I must admit 
that I prefer the spelling of the name of 
the street as I give it ; and if I err in doing 
so, I find I am in the company of Mr. 
Wheatley, who in * London Past and Present ' 
uses the same spelling, as does Waif or d in 
his over-maligned * Old and New London.' 
I would also remark that in the advertise- 
ment in 'The Era Almanack' for 1875 
(the fiist I can trace in that work) Mr. 
Charles Hengler, " director and proprietor " 
of Hengler's Grand Cirque, gives the address 
as " Argyll Street, Oxford Circus, London," 
and probably he knew what he was about. .\ 
Thomas Frost in ' Circus Life and Circus 
Celebrities,' p. 304, says, "I now come to 
Mr. Hengler's second appearance in London," 
and then goes on to speak of the gutta- 
percha merchant who had a predilection 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. XIL AUG. 28, im 

for dabbling in the equestrian business. 
Later it is stated that 

"after some difficulty Mr. Hengler succeeded in 
obtaining possession of the Palais Royal, as it was 
then called, and speedily converted it into the 
elegant theatre so admirably adapted for its present 
purposes, which was opened in the autumn of 

Frost's book was published in 1875. 

It is most likely that the paragraphist 
of The Daily Chronicle thought, as I do, 
that the first appearance of the Henglers 
in London as unsuccessful as the other 
was the reverse had nothing to do with 
the Argyll Street building, and considered 
that the opening of the Grand Cirque was 
virtually the date of the London foundation 
of their circus business. 



xii. 90, 135). ' The Jockey Club and its 
founders. In Three Periods,' by Robert 
Black, M.A. (London, 1891), is probably 
the history MB. BLEACKLEY requires. This 
places the identity of Sir F k E n, Bt., 
beyond doubt as Sir Frederick Evelyn. The 
manuscript note cited by MB. W. H. DAVID 
is incorrect : there was not a Sir Frederick 
Eden only Sir Robert and his third son 
the Hon. W. Eden, afterwards Lord Auck- 

On the title-page of his posthumous work 
* APolitical Dictionary' (1795) Charles Pigott 
is identified as " Author of * The Jockey 
Clubs,' " but this is only a printer's error. He 
Also wrote ' Strictures on Burke,' ' The Case 
of Charles Pigott,' and ' Treachery no 
Crime ; or, The System of Courts.' These 
were published by D. S. Eaton " at the 
Cock and Swine," 74, Newgate Street. 


" CULPBIT " (10 S. xi. 486). There is a 
certain " economy " in MB. HILL'S note. 
It is true that the ' N.E.D.' cites the 1717 
edition of Blount in the terms MB. HILL 
quotes. It is true, secondly, that the legal 
antiquary of the seventeenth century was 
apt to write down his private guess as an 
established fact. But it is true, thirdly, 
that this explanation does not stand un- 
supported ; for the 'N.E.D.' (though no one 
would have supposed it from MB. HILL'S 
note) gives an actual instance of " non cul 
prist " from "La Graunde Abridgement, 
Collecte & escrie, per le Judge tresreuerend 

Sir Robert Brooke, Chiualer In JEdibus 

Richardi Tottelli 1586." 

Brooke cites (tit. Action sur le case, pi. 78) 
from the ' Liber Assisarum,' 22 Edw. III., 

pi. 41, a report of a case of plaint by bill. 
A ferryman at B[arton ?] on Humber had 
surcharged with other, horses a boat in which 
he had undertaken to carry plaintiff's mare 
" oustre 1'eau de Humbre safe et sain," by 
which surcharge the mare perished. Rich- 
mond, counter for the defendant, argued 
that the claim " sounded in covenant." The 
judge, Roger de Bankwell, replied : 

" Vous luy fist tort quant surcharge le batew par 
quoy son Jument perist. par quoy respondez. 

"Richmond. Non cul prist, &c." 

It strikes me that it is " up to " MB. HILL 
to produce some instances of " qil paroist " ; 
and that till he has done so Sir James Murray's 
single example outweighs the conjectures 
of the most eminent. I am somewhat 
interested in the point, since the phrase 
in Brooke was discovered after a tedious 
search, and sent by me to the Dictionary 
in response to the editor's request. 

But perhaps MR. HILL will suggest that 
"non cul prist " is a misprint for " non qil 
paroist." His explanation of what that 
phrase would mean in this context will be 
decidedly interesting. 



" BEC-EN-HENT," HOUSE-NAME (10 S. xii. 
50).' This is the native name of my old 
house in Brittany, Commune de Tremeven, 
Finistere, where I lived many years. In 
Brythonic it means " The Point (or Corner) 
of the Road." Any Welshman would 
translate it thus. 

I named my present English home after 
it, building the latter in 1906. Some of my 
children have also used the word elsewhere. 

LYNCH LAW (10 S. xi. 445, 515; xii. 52, 
133). I can assure MB. ALBEBT MATTHEWS 
that, before writing my previous reply, 
I had consulted the article and book to 
which he referred, as well as Wirt's ' Life 
of Henry,' all of which are in the British 
Museum Library. MB. MATTHEWS says 
that the original term " Lynch' s law " 
could hardly have been derived from the 
name " Lynchy." May I ask him what 
would have been the difference in pro- 
nunciation between " Lynch's law " and 
" Lynchy 's law " ? M. 

FIENNES or BBOUGHTON (10 S. xii. 123). 
H. C. is fully justified in saying that I had 
fallen into a bad error in calling the con- 
nexion between the family of Fiennes and 
William of Wykeham " mythical." Mine 
was yet another case, I confess, of the danger 
of not verifying one's references ; and I am 

10 s. XIL AUG. 28, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


extremely sorry that the guilty epithet 
should have crept into ' N. & Q.' through 
my carelessness. I offer my sincere apologies 
to the ancient and noble family of Fiennes, 
to H. C., and to the readers of ' N. & Q.' 


<10 S. xi. 447 ; xii. 31, 77). Freeman in his 
4 History of the Norman Conquest ' dis- 
cusses this very point, and comes to the 
conclusion that only Eadgar ./Etheling, the 
Archbishop of York, and some other prelates 
offered their submission at Berkhampstead ; 
but that the tender of the crown was made 
there by a deputation of the chief men of 
the metropolis, while the coronation took 
place at Westminster on Christmas Day. 

Shortly afterwards, says Freeman, " Wil- 
liam found it convenient to leave London, 
a,nd to withdraw to Barking in Essex," on 
-account of the excesses committed by his 
soldiers ; and here he established himself 
until the fortress which he set about build- 
ing the nucleus of the future Tower 
had been made sufficiently strong for his 
protection, that is to say, from December, 
1066, to March, 1067. According to Wil- 
liam of Poitiers, whose account Freeman 
adopts in preference to that of Florence of 
Worcester on this occasion, it was at Bark- 
ing that Eadwine and Morkere and many of 
the Northern and Mercian Thegns swore 
their allegiance. See note PP to vol. iii. 
on ' The Submission at Berkhampstead.' 

1ST. W. HILL. 
New York. 

In the ' History of England ' written 
originally in French by Rapin, and after- 
wards translated into English, we find the 
following : 

"Whatever regard William showed the English, 
he had, however, a distrust of them, as he attributed 
their submission rather to an excess of fear than 
goodwill. A few days after his coronation he with- 
drew to Barking, not venturing to trust himself in 
so great a town as London, being doubtful of the 
fidelity of its inhabitants." 

Freeman in his ' History of the Norman 
Conquest,' vol. iv. p. 19 note, says : 

" How much of the various acts and designs which 
William of Poitiers seems vaguely to put between 
the coronation arid the homage of Barking really 
belongs to William's first stay in London, how much 
to the stay in Barking, how much to the progress 
which followed, must be largely a matter for 

Barking was easily accessible to William 
while he superintended the building of the 
Tower of London, being distant only 1\ 
miles. Again, the Abbess of Barking was 
a, noblewoman with immense domains, and 

a peeress of the realm ; the abbey was a 
sanctuary, and the King would be safer there 
than camping in the field. Hunting could 
be had close by in Waltham Forest, then 
strictly preserved ; while abundant fishing 
in the Roding and the Thames would delight 
some of his retinue. W. W. GLENNY. 

Barking, Essex. 

T. L. PEACOCK (10 S. xii. 88, 132). If 
J. J. F. will consult Prof. Saintsbury'a 
introduction to Macmillan's 1895 edition 
of ' Maid Marian and Crotchet Castle,' he 
will find the details of Peacock's life there 
set forth. Chertsey was his maternal grand- 
father's home, and there he lived with his 
widowed mother till they came to London 
when he was sixteen years of age. After a 
lapse of six years he again retired to Chertsey, 
where he remained for nearly ten years, 
then migrating to Marlow, and not settling 
at Halliford till 1822 or 1823. L. R. O. 

CUTIONS (10 S. xii. 107). MB. ^HORACE 
BLEACKLEY says (inter alia] : ' Except 
in the case of Lord Lovat and of Damiens, 
those who tell us of his morbid tastes do not 
give any particular instances." Amongst 
several in ' George Selwyn and his Con- 
temporaries,' by John Heneage Jesse, I 
some time back came across the following : 

" When the first Lord Holland was on hia 
death-bed, he was told that Selwyn, who had 
long lived on terms of the closest intimacy with 
him, had called to enquire after his health. The 
next time Mr. Selwyn calls,' he said, show him 
up -if I am alive I shall be delighted to see him, 
and if I am dead he will be glad to see me. 

VoL L P ' 5< A. T. SEVAN. 

Bessells Green. 

THE BONASSUS (10 S. ix. 365, 451 ; x. 90, 
138, 318, 392; xi. 356).~The ' N.E.D. 
quotes Bossewell, 1572: ' Bonasiiw is a 
Beaste in fourme like a Bull." Samuel 
Otes, in his 'Lectures on Jude,' delivered 
about thirty years later, says that some 
his opponents 

"are like the beast Bonosus, mentioned by 
Aristotle, who, having his homes ' reflexed, , not 
being able to defend himself with them, three or 
four! furlongs off poysoneth the dogges with hi 
dung : which is so hot, as it burneth off all their 
haire." Ed. 1633, p. 353. 

This curious animal may be considered a 
precursor of the great American sea-serpent. 
I do not know what Aristotle realty saya 
about him ; but Otes is usually correct m 
his citations. RICHARD H. THORNTON. 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. AUG. 28, 1999. 

(10 S. xi. 467). The terrible Hussite wars, 
to which the work of Count Liitzow has 
lately directed attention, gave rise to whole- 
gale adoption of Scriptural names. The 
peasant warriors were " the chosen people," 
and their opponents " Moabites," " Ammon- 
ites," and " Philistines." The brother- 
hoods Tabor and Horeb were founded by the 
grim blind general Zizka, whose statue 
stands in the square of the former town. 
I know Tabor well, and have examined 
its strategic streets, and gazed from the 
fortified terrace on the baptismal pond 
" Jordan," and the meadow where some 
fanatics tried to construct a literal "garden 
of Eden," incurring Zizka's fierce wrath. 
Their German antagonists flung captive 
Hussites at Kutna Hora down a mining 
shaft, mockingly styled " Tabor." 

Oxford men know the pleasant walk to 
"Mesopotamia." FRANCIS P. MARCHANT. 

I have sent the following list direct to 
MR. McGovERN, but it may be of sufficient 
interest to appeal to some readers of 
' N. & Q.' I may add that my extensive 
collection of place-names has been derived 
from examination of Ordnance maps, though 
these were examined for other purposes. 
Names marked with an * are from other 

Mount Zion, Alton parish, Staff. 

Mount Zion Bottom, Shilton, Oxon. 

Mount Sion, Peper Harrow, Surrey. 

Sion Hill, Wolverton, Wore. 

Paradise, Bradfield, Berks. 

Paradise, Ravendale, Westmorland. 

Paradise, a suburb of Dudley. 

Paradise, near Glastonbury,' might have justified 
its name once, but now is close to the gas 
works and not far from the police station 

Paradise Farm, Wigginton, Oxon. 

Mount Paradise, a suburb of Dartmouth. 

Eden Coppice, Ebbesbourne Wake, Dorset. 

Capernaum, Wolston, Lanark. 

Jericho, Sancreed, Cornwall. 

Jericho, St. Eorth, Cornwall. 

Jericho, Uplyme, Dorset. 

Jericho, Earl Sterndale, Derby. 

Mericho, " in Lancashire." 

* Jericho, "between Fishguard and Pembroke." 

Jericho Farm, Cassington, Oxon. 

Jericho, Clyffe Pypard, Wilts. 

*Hebron, "in Wales." 

*Bethlehem, Newport, Monmouth. 

Joppa, Sancreed, Cornwall. 

*Joppa, " in Scotland." 

Ararat Hill, Douglas, Lanark. 

Mount Ararat, on Boverridge Common, Dorset. 

Mount Ararat, Toyil, Kent. 

Mount Ararat, Wimbledon, Surrey. 

Noah's Ark, Hildersham, Camb. 

Noah's Ark, Shapwick, Somerset. 

Noah's Ark, St. Paul Malmesbury, Wilts. 

Calvery Wood, Luton Hoo, Beds'. 

Heavens Wood, Luton Hoo, Beds. 

* Jerusalem, " Oxon." 

* Alexandria, " Scotland." 

Antioch Farm, Stalbridge Common, Dorset. 

Nineveh, Cleobury Mortimer, Wore. 

Nineveh, Epworth, Line. 
*Nineveh, "Lanark." 

Nineveh Farm, Radley, Oxon. 

Herod, Glossop, Derby. 

Jordan Hill, Cranbourne, Dorset. 

Holy City, Chardstock, Dorset. 

Holy Land, Auchtermurchy, Fife. 
*Moses Gate, " near Manchester." 
*Gideon, "between Fishguard and Pembroke." 

Mount Ephraim, Cranbrook, Kent. 

Mount Ephraim, Ash-near- Sandwich, Kent. 

Mount Ephraim, Tonbridge, Kent. 

The Land of Nod, Headley, Hants. 

Moab's Wash-Pot, Clent, Wore. 
There is also a Calvary